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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Paul Preenen, Sarike Verbiest, Annelies Van Vianen and Ellen Van Wijk

The purpose of this paper is to develop and investigate the idea that self-profiling and career control by temporary agency workers (TAWs) in low-skill jobs are positively…

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1330

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and investigate the idea that self-profiling and career control by temporary agency workers (TAWs) in low-skill jobs are positively related to informal learning and that this relationship is mediated by job challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey study was conducted among 722 TAWs in low-skill jobs in the Netherlands. Bootstrap mediation analyses were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Self-profiling and career control are positively related to informal learning of TAWs and these relationships are mediated by job challenge.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first study to develop and empirically test the proposition that self-profiling and career control are important factors for enhancing employees’ learning experiences in low-skill jobs.

Practical implications

Hiring companies and temporary work agencies could stimulate and train TAWs’ self-profiling and career control competencies to enhance their job challenge and informal learning. Organizations should consider assigning challenging tasks to TAWs, which may be a good alternative for expensive formal training programs.

Social implications

Many TAWs in low-skill jobs do not possess the skills and capacities to obtain a better or more secure job. In general, temporary workers face a higher risk of unemployment and greater income volatility (Segal and Sullivan, 1997). Gaining knowledge about how to develop this group is important for society as a whole.

Originality/value

Research on the determinants of informal learning mainly concerned higher-educated employees and managers with long-term contracts (e.g. Dong et al., 2014), whereas very little is known about factors that stimulate informal learning among TAWs in general, and among TAWs in low-skill jobs in particular.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2022

Gideon L. Storm, Sebastien Desvaux De Marigny and Andani Thakhathi

The world needs to pave a path towards sustainable development to solve global poverty and inequality, thereby ensuring that no one is left behind. The transformative…

Abstract

The world needs to pave a path towards sustainable development to solve global poverty and inequality, thereby ensuring that no one is left behind. The transformative changes brought about by the fourth industrial revolution (4IR), encompassed by the new world of work (NWOW), pose a significant threat to the displacement of jobs, especially in developing contexts, where many jobs are susceptible to automation. This results in a tension between the stakeholder and shareholder perspectives, which results in the phenomenon referred to in this study as the People Versus Profit Paradox. The purpose of this study is to determine business leaders’ perceptions of this paradox by generating an in-depth understanding of its nature and potential consequences. This study generated insights through a generic qualitative research design based on 10 semi-structured interviews with business leaders from multiple industries in developing countries. This study’s major contribution is the development of an up-to-date understanding of business leaders’ perceptions of sustainable development with respect to the 4IR and the People Versus Profit Paradox in developing countries. The two main findings of the study reveal that organisational purpose has changed towards a more inclusive stakeholder perspective, and that business leaders’ perceptions reveal a relative state of bias regarding the current impact of the 4IR in developing contexts. This study aims to inspire business leaders in developing contexts to embrace sustainable development and the disruptive changes brought about by the 4IR, to usher in a sustainable future where no one is left behind.

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Transcendent Development: The Ethics of Universal Dignity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-260-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Miroslav Beblavý, Lucia Mýtna Kureková and Corina Haita

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about demand for competences is crucial for revealing the complex relationship between employee selection, different strands of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about demand for competences is crucial for revealing the complex relationship between employee selection, different strands of education and training and labor market regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis and statistics of job advertisements.

Findings

Employer skills requirements even for low- and medium-skilled jobs are highly specific. Formal education requirements are higher than they “should” be. No detectable “basic package” of general cognitive skills for low- and medium-skilled jobs was found. Employer demand focusses on non-cognitive skills and specific cognitive skills. Specificity of skill requirement across different sectors or occupation groups differs vastly between different types of low- and medium-skilled jobs and is linked to the interactive nature of the job, not to the qualifications or the experience required.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis can be considered an initial feasibility test for a larger comparative cross-country project that would aim to understand labor demand in different EU countries.

Practical implications

The analysis could be used as input in designing labor market policy and life-long learning programs to integrate low-skilled and unemployed.

Social implications

The research provides a tool to match disadvantaged workers to jobs for which they possess greater capabilities or to help them develop crucial skills for a given occupation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the HRM literature with a more demand-led approach to labor market policy. The authors reveal what role skills and upskilling can play in alleviating the problem of unemployment. The results can be useful for HR specialists and policy makers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Elif Erer and Deniz Erer

There is a close relationship between labour markets and technology. Technological development enhances labour productivity and creates new jobs in some industries…

Abstract

There is a close relationship between labour markets and technology. Technological development enhances labour productivity and creates new jobs in some industries requiring to be different skills while it destroys jobs in ones requiring to be low-skilled. Today, it is experiencing a deep digital transformation. It may be evaluated for Industry 4.0 to cause technological unemployment due to changes in the structure of employment and to bring about new structural problems in labour market. In addition, it is expected for technological progress such as automation and robotic in the production process to negatively influence employment of low-skilled workers. Industry 4.0 has generated a new production model, in which robotic technologies are effectively used in the production process. So-called new technology-based production process has started to change production, working relationship and daily life. Discussions about the effects of the developments in technology on the labour market and unemployment are separated two groups. While there exist optimist views indicating that such development in technology will result in more productivity, pessimists believe that the use of robots, artificial intelligence, smart systems and algorithms in business life will eventually bring problems such as mass unemployment, mass poverty and social disruption. In this study, the authors aim to analyse the potential effects of Industry 4.0 on labour market in Turkey and European countries. From the findings of the study, the authors concluded that Turkey have a higher risk at automation than European countries.

Details

Agile Business Leadership Methods for Industry 4.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-381-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Alexandre Flage

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the true level of discrimination against openly gay and lesbian applicants in hiring decisions in OECD countries as well as on its…

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1389

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the true level of discrimination against openly gay and lesbian applicants in hiring decisions in OECD countries as well as on its determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The author presents an overview of all studies conducted in order to test for discrimination against homosexual applicants in the labor market by the correspondence testing method. Moreover, the author performs a meta-analysis of correspondence tests from 18 separate studies conducted in OECD countries to test sexual orientation discrimination, containing more than 70 estimates of effects and representing a total of more than 50,000 resumes sent to employers. In addition to presenting overall results, the author focus on subgroups of specific correspondence tests in order to highlight the differences across gender, type of jobs, procedure, continent and type of information provided in applications.

Findings

The author provides evidence that sexual orientation discrimination occurs in the labor market in OECD countries, such that openly homosexual applicants face similar discrimination as ethnic minority applicants. Discrimination is significantly greater in the selection process for low-skilled than for high-skilled jobs. In the selection process for low-skilled jobs, lesbian candidates face significantly lower discrimination than gays (except in jobs that are considered “women’s” jobs). Discrimination is significantly higher in Europe than in North America. Moreover, the way sexual orientation is signaled may influence the level of discrimination found. Finally, discrimination against homosexual applicants is not only a matter of preferences: providing more positive information in applications significantly reduces the level of discrimination.

Originality/value

This paper offers the first quantitative analysis of sexual orientation discrimination in OECD countries through meta-analyses.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2011

Nan L. Maxwell

Institutional rules and economies of scale can create incentives for firms to make inframarginal decisions when offering fringe benefits. We examine how such incentives…

Abstract

Institutional rules and economies of scale can create incentives for firms to make inframarginal decisions when offering fringe benefits. We examine how such incentives might affect a firm's offer of health insurance.

We develop and estimate an empirical model of the firm's offer of health insurance that includes incentives created by rules and economies of scale. We quantify the behavioral manifestations from rules and costs as recruiting difficulty in areas outside those in which compensation is set and the percentage of high-skilled jobs in the firm and use the California Health and Employment Surveys (CHES) to estimate the model.

We show a 10–13 percentage point increase in the probability of a firm offering workers health insurance in jobs outside of those in which compensation is being set, if the recruiting difficulty lies in mid- or high-skilled positions. This increase is about twice the size of the increase associated with recruiting difficulty in the position in which compensation is negotiated.

A failure to control for the influence of inframarginal decision making when estimating the wage-insurance tradeoff helps produce wrong-signed estimates.

By bringing institutional rules and economies of scale into the framework of a firm's offer of fringe benefits, we help move the focus of the fringe benefit-wage tradeoff away from the individual level.

Details

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory and Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-760-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Stef Adriaenssens and Jef Hendrickx

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of precarious and low-quality jobs with the study of toilet attendants, an ideal typical case of low-wage…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of precarious and low-quality jobs with the study of toilet attendants, an ideal typical case of low-wage manual service workers who are excluded from secure wages, decent working conditions, and employment protection.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive survey with standardized questionnaires (n=107) and in-depth interviews (n=10) of toilet attendants in Belgian towns, mostly Brussels and Ghent. Results are compared to the work quality of low-skilled workers, and the within-group position of necessity workers is analysed.

Findings

Toilet attendants definitely occupy “bad jobs”, measured by the higher prevalence of informal and false self-employed statuses, more intense work-life conflicts and verbal aggression from clients, and a lower job satisfaction. In all these respects, they perform worse than other low-skilled workers. Concurrently, there is a strong within-group divide between necessity workers and those who see the job as an opportunity. Despite a similar job content, necessity workers less often earn a decent wage, suffer more from customer aggression, lack social support and pleasure from work. Mechanisms related to self-selection and the absence of intrinsic rewards explain these in-group differences.

Originality/value

This contribution indicates, first, that job insecurity spills over into poor working conditions, work-life conflicts, and customer aggression. Furthermore, it documents that jobs are not necessarily bad in themselves, but become problematic when taken up by people with too few choices and too pressing socio-economic needs. Problems of sub-standard jobs are not merely job problems but problems of workers in a certain position.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Peter D. Ørberg Jensen, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard and Nicolai Søndergaard Laugesen

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of offshoring and inshoring on the demand for different types of labor.

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1077

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of offshoring and inshoring on the demand for different types of labor.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a survey with 1,500 firms located in the Eastern part of Denmark to identify overall offshoring and inshoring trends. Estimates of the employment impact are founded on data from a sub‐sample of firms with offshoring and/or inshoring.

Findings

The paper shows that in the period 2002‐2005 more jobs were created as a result of inshoring of activities into Eastern Denmark from firms outside Denmark than were eliminated due to offshoring from firms in the Danish region. Overall, highly skilled workers reap the benefits of offshoring and inshoring, whereas the positions of low‐skilled workers are challenged.

Originality/value

In contrast to most academic research on offshoring, which predominantly focus on outward offshoring flows, the study analyzes both outward and inward offshoring (inshoring) and gives a more holistic and balanced view on the magnitude and employment impact.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Hazel Baxter-Reid

The purpose of this article is to examine the tactics and strategies utilised by Central Eastern European (CEE) migrant workers as they strive to develop their mobility…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the tactics and strategies utilised by Central Eastern European (CEE) migrant workers as they strive to develop their mobility power within the employment relationship and outside of the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is drawn from three qualitative organisational case studies. In total 70 interviews with migrant workers, managers and HR staff were undertaken. There were also nine focus groups with migrant workers across the case studies.

Findings

Developing mobility power is not straightforward, particularly in the context of hard HRM strategies. The majority of CEE workers across the case studies viewed the employment relationship as temporary; however, people found it difficult to develop the mobility power necessary to leave and move to a better job. This can be attributed to a combination of people's individual subjective factors and employment in occupations with limited structural and associational power.

Originality/value

This article engages with debates concerning the agency of migrant workers. Existing studies have focused upon the way in which migrant workers utilise mobility power to leave unfavourable employers. However, this article builds upon current debates by examining how migrant workers develop their mobility power. There is also consideration of the individual and collective dimensions of power.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2018

Szufang Chuang and Carroll Marion Graham

This paper aims to provide a sobering and unique view of technological unemployment and job changes by identifying endangered jobs and skills, as well as the essential…

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2157

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a sobering and unique view of technological unemployment and job changes by identifying endangered jobs and skills, as well as the essential up-skills critical to employees’ performance, which cannot be replaced by technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review, used because it is replicable, transparent, and scientific, was implemented to examine the current and future technological influences on employment, job outlook, work structure, and human resource development (HRD).

Findings

The study concludes that HRD professionals should promptly reexamine their social responsibility relative to the technological influence on workers by focusing developmental efforts on employees’ human skills while assisting workers’ transition to a skill-polarized workplace. HRD professionals should play a major role in facilitating employees’ coexistence with robots in the workplace.

Originality/value

While recognizing the valuable contributions of previous researchers with similar concerns, this comprehensive review provides an amalgamated and updated view, which reveals the escalating and combined challenges of a skill-polarized workplace, a tendency of technological unemployment for those positioned in middle-skill jobs, and an increased demand for employees with a higher level of human skills.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 42 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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