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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

K. Wang, Z.Q. Zhu, G. Ombach and W. Chlebosz

The purpose of this paper is to investigate torque ripple and magnetic force on the teeth in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines over a wide range of speed operation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate torque ripple and magnetic force on the teeth in interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines over a wide range of speed operation for electrical power steering (EPS) applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The flux-weakening capability of IPM machines has been analysed by finite element method considering the effect of cross-coupling between d- and q-axis current. The traditional method of analysing torque ripple is based on constant torque and flux-weakening region. However, the cross-coupling need to be considered when applying this technique to flux-weakening region. Meanwhile, the torque ripple with current amplitude and angle and with different speed in the flux-weakening region is also investigated. In addition, the magnetic force on the teeth due to the separated teeth with stator yoke is also investigated during the constant torque and flux-weakening region.

Findings

The torque ripple and magnetic force on teeth in IPM machine are dependent on current and current angle. Both the lowest torque ripple and magnetic force on teeth exist over the whole torque-speed region.

Research limitations/implications

The purely sinusoidal currents are applied in this analysis and the effects of harmonics in the current on torque ripple and magnetic force on teeth are not considered in this application. The 12-slot/10-pole IPM machine has been employed in this analysis, but this work can be continued to investigate different slot/pole number combinations.

Originality/value

This paper has analysed the torque ripple and magnetic force on the teeth in IPM machines for EPS application over a wide range of operation speed, which are the main cause of vibration and acoustic noise. The variation of torque ripple with current amplitude and angle as well as speed in the flux-weakening region is also investigated. In addition, the magnetic force on the teeth is also investigated over the whole torque-speed region.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Prathibanandhi Kanagaraj, Ramesh Ramadoss, Yaashuwanth Calpakkam and Adam Raja Basha

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation…

Abstract

Purpose

The brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) is widely accepted and adopted by many industries instead of direct current motors due to high reliability during operation. Brushless direct current (BLDC) has outstanding efficiency as losses that arise out of voltage drops at brushes and friction losses are eliminated. The main factor that affects the performance is temperature introduced in the internal copper core windings. The control of motor speed generates high temperature in BLDC operation. The high temperature is due to presence of ripples in the operational current. The purpose is to present an effective controlling mechanism for speed management and to improve the performance of BLDCM to activate effective management of speed.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose is to present an optimal algorithm based on modified moth-flame optimization algorithm over recurrent neural network (MMFO-RNN) for speed management to improve the performance. The core objective of the presented work is to achieve improvement in performance without affecting the design of the system with no additional circuitry. The management of speed in BLDCM has been achieved through reduction or minimization of ripples encircled with torque of the motor. The implementation ends in two stages, namely, controlling the loop of torque and controlling the loop of speed. The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol.

Findings

The parameters are enriched with Multi Resolution Proportional Integral and Derivative (MRPID) controller operation to achieve minimal ripples for the torque of BLDC and manage the speed of the motor. The performance is increased by adopting this technique approximately 12% in comparison with the existing methodology, which is the main contributions of the presented work. The outcomes are analyzed with the existing methodologies through MATLAB Simulink tool, and the comparative analyses suggest that better performance of the proposed system produces over existing techniques, and proto type model is developed and cross verifies the proposed system.

Originality/value

The MMFO-RNN starts with error optimization, which arises from both the loops, and most effective values have been achieved through MMFO-RNN protocol. The parameters are enriched with MRPID controller operation to achieve nil or minimal ripples and to encircle the torque of Brushless Direct Current and manage the speed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Xiaodong Sun, Jiangling Wu, Shaohua Wang, Kaikai Diao and Zebin Yang

The torque ripple and fault-tolerant capability are the two main problems for the switched reluctance motors (SRMs) in applications. The purpose of this paper, therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

The torque ripple and fault-tolerant capability are the two main problems for the switched reluctance motors (SRMs) in applications. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to propose a novel 16/10 segmented SRM (SSRM) to reduce the torque ripple and improve the fault-tolerant capability in this work.

Design/methodology/approach

The stator of the proposed SSRM is composed of exciting and auxiliary stator poles, while the rotor consists of a series of discrete segments. The fault-tolerant and torque ripple characteristics of the proposed SSRM are studied by the finite element analysis (FEA) method. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the SSRM are compared with those of a conventional SRM with 8/6 stator/rotor poles. Finally, FEA and experimental results are provided to validate the static and dynamic characteristics of the proposed SSRM.

Findings

It is found that the proposed novel 16/10 SSRM for the application in the belt-driven starter generator (BSG) possesses these functions: less mutual inductance and high fault-tolerant capability. It is also found that the proposed SSRM provides lower torque ripple and higher output torque. Finally, the experimental results validate that the proposed SSRM runs with lower torque ripple, better output torque and fault-tolerant characteristics, making it an ideal candidate for the BSG and similar systems.

Originality/value

This paper presents the analysis of torque ripple and fault-tolerant capability for a 16/10 segmented switched reluctance motor in hybrid electric vehicles. Using FEA simulation and building a test bench to verify the proposed SSRM’s superiority in both torque ripple and fault-tolerant capability.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Ali Ahmed Adam and Kayhan Gulez

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for sensorless hysteresis direct torque control (HDTC) algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous motor to minimize…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for sensorless hysteresis direct torque control (HDTC) algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous motor to minimize torque ripple and electromagnetic interference (EMI) noises.

Design/methodology/approach

The design methodology is based on space vector modulation of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study under C++ are used.

Findings

The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show adequate dynamic torque performance and considerable torque ripples reduction as well as lower current ripples, lower EMI noise level as compared to traditional HDTC.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to PMSM, however the research can be extended to include induction motor as well. In addition, the actual mathematical relation between the torque ripple and flux ripple can be studied to set the flux and torque bands width in reasonable value, and this relationship can be used to select switching time of the active selected vectors.

Practical implications

The implementation of the proposed algorithm in microcontroller embedded systems is described. It requires no PI controller in the torque control loop In addition, based on existence direct torque control equipment, it is only required to change the software switching algorithm, to provide smooth torque, given that the switching frequency of the inverter module is more than or equal to 15 kHz and the system is supplied with timers.

Originality/value

The algorithm used in this work utilizes the output of two hysteresis controllers used in the traditional HDTC to determine two adjacent switching vectors per one sample time. The algorithm also uses the magnitude of the torque error, magnitude of the flux error and stator flux position to select the switching time for the selected vectors to control the applied average voltage level in such a way that the torque ripple is minimized. The selection of the switching time of the selected active vectors utilizes novel table structure which reduces the complexity of calculation. This work is directed to designers of ac motor drive system who seek smooth torque performance as well as low EMI noise level.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Y. Guan, Z.Q. Zhu, I.A.A. Afinowi, J.C. Mipo and P. Farah

The purpose of this paper is to make a quantitative comparison between induction machine (IM) and interior permanent magnet machine (IPM) for electric vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a quantitative comparison between induction machine (IM) and interior permanent magnet machine (IPM) for electric vehicle applications, in terms of electromagnetic performance and material cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of IM is based on an analytical method, which has been validated by test. The analysis of IPM is based on finite element analysis. The popular Toyota Prius 2010 IPM is adopted directly, and the IM is designed with the same stator outer diameter and stack length as Prius 2010 IPM for a fair comparison.

Findings

The torque capability of IM is lower than IPM for low electric loading and competitive to IPM for high electric loading. The maximum torque/power-speed characteristic of IM is competitive to IPM; while the rated torque/power-speed characteristic of IM is poorer than IPM. The power factor of IM is competitive and even better than IPM for high electric loading in low-speed region. The torque ripple of IM is comparable to IPM for high electric loading and much lower than IPM for low electric loading. The overall efficiency of IM is lower than IPM, and the maximum efficiency of copper squirrel cage IM is approximately 2-3 percent lower than IPM. The material cost of IM is about half of IPM when IM and IPM are designed with the same stator outer diameter and stack length.

Originality/value

The electromagnetic performances and material costs of IM and IPM are quantitatively compared and discussed.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Y. Guan, Z.Q. Zhu, I.A.A. Afinowi, J.C. Mipo and P. Farah

The purpose of this paper is to minimize the optimization parameter number of synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM) and permanent magnet (PM) assisted SynRM, and compare…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to minimize the optimization parameter number of synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM) and permanent magnet (PM) assisted SynRM, and compare their relative merits with interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for electric vehicle applications, in terms of electromagnetic performance and material cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of electromagnetic performance is based on finite element analysis, by using software MAXWELL. The genetic algorithm is utilized for optimization.

Findings

The rotor design of SynRM can be significantly simplified by imposing some reasonable conditions. The number of rotor design parameters can be reduced to three. The electromagnetic performance of SynRM is much poorer than that of IPM, although the material cost is much cheaper, approximately one-third of IPM. The ferrite-SynRM is competitive and even better than IPM especially for high electric loading, in terms of torque capability, torque-speed characteristic, power factor, threshold speed and efficiency. In addition, ferrite-assisted SynRM has great advantage over IPM in material cost, 55 percent cheaper. The performance of NdFeB-assisted SynRM is close to IPM in terms of torque capability, torque-speed characteristic, power factor, torque ripple and efficiency. The material cost of NdFeB-assisted SynRM is ∼25 percent lower than IPM.

Originality/value

Some conditions, which can simplify the optimization of SynRM rotor, are discussed. The electromagnetic performances and material costs of SynRM, ferrite-assisted, NdFeB-assisted SynRMs and IPM are quantitatively compared and discussed.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Ayman EL‐Refaie and Manoj Shah

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the performance of induction machines with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the performance of induction machines with fractional‐slot concentrated‐windings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines induction machine performance with fractional‐slot concentrated windings using the standard distributed lap windings as reference. Four designs are compared and various performance tradeoffs highlighted. The first machine has integral‐slot distributed 2 slots/pole/phase lap winding and it serves as the reference winding. The second machine has a double‐layer 1/2 slot/pole/phase winding, a workhorse for brushless DC machines. The third machine has double‐layer 2/5 slot/pole/phase winding. Lastly, the fourth machine has single‐layer 2/5 slot/pole/phase windings. The comparison includes torquespeed curves (including the effects of major space harmonic components), rotor bar losses, and ripple torque levels.

Findings

Based on the analysis results presented here, the traditional distributed lap winding is proven to be superior to FSCW in terms of torque production and rotor bar losses for induction machine applications. The 1/2 spp shows some promising results in terms of torque production, in addition to significant reduction and simplification of end turns with lower number of coils albeit with more turns/coil (12 slots vs 48 slots). The penalty is the additional rotor bar losses due to the 2nd and 4th harmonic mmf components. The 2/5 spp is not promising for torque production and should be avoided. The transient simulation results that simultaneously take into account the effects of all space harmonics and magnetic saturation showed comparable trends compared to the harmonic analysis results. It has also been shown that FSCW tend to have higher torque ripple compared to distributed windings.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper for the first time attempts to quantitatively address the tradeoffs involved in using FSCW in induction machines.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 March 2016

Viswanathan V and Jeevananthan S

This paper presents a novel circuit topology based on a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter and a super-lift Luo-converter for minimizing torque ripple in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a novel circuit topology based on a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter and a super-lift Luo-converter for minimizing torque ripple in a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive system. In the BLDCM, the stator winding inductance generates current ripple, distort the rectangular current shape, which produces the torque ripples. In addition, the torque ripple generates vibration, speed ripple and prevents the use of BLDCM in high-precision servo drive systems

Design/methodology/approach

Torque ripple can be mitigated by using the three-level NPC inverter, which applies half of dc-link voltage across the BLDCM terminals and this reduces the torque ripple during non-commutation period. The commutation torque ripple is reduced by employing the super-lift Luo-converter at the input of the three-level NPC inverter, which lifts the dc-link voltage to the desired value depending upon the BLDCM speed. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed circuit topology is an attractive option to reduce the torque ripple significantly.

Findings

Experimental results show that the proposed topology can reduces the torque ripple significantly at higher speed, and operates with lower power losses than the two-level inverter-fed BLDCM drive system at higher switching frequency.

Originality/value

This paper has proposed a novel topology using a super-lift Luo-converter and a three-level NPC inverter to address the torque ripple issue in BLDCM drive system.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Kayhan Gulez

The paper aims to provide an adaptive neural network controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under direct torque control (DTC) algorithm to minimize the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide an adaptive neural network controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under direct torque control (DTC) algorithm to minimize the torque ripple and EMI noise.

Design/methodology/approach

The design methodology is based on vector control used for electrical machines. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study under C++ are used.

Findings

The simulated and experimental results show that considerable torque ripple as well as current ripple and EMI noise reduction can be achieved by utilizing adaptive neural switching algorithm to fire the inverter supplying the PMSM.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to PMSM, however the research can be extended to include other AC motors as well. In addition, the following points can be studied: the effects of harmonics in control signals on the torque ripple can be analyzed; the actual mathematical relation between the torque and flux ripple can be studied to set the flux and torque bands width in reasonable value; different neural network algorithms can be applied to the system to solve the similar problems.

Practical implications

Based on existing DTC control system, it is only required to change the software switching algorithm, to provide smooth torque, given that the switching frequency of the inverter module is more than or equal to 15 MHz and the system is supplied with timers. In addition a relatively higher DC voltage may be required to achieve higher speed compared with the traditional DTC.

Originality/value

In this paper, the stator flux position, and errors due to deviations from reference values of the torque and stator flux are used to select two active vectors while at the same time the absolute value of the torque error and the stator flux position are used neural network structure to adapt the switching of the inverter in order to control the applied average voltage level in such a way as to minimize the torque ripple, so instead of fixed time table structure, a neural network controller is used to calculate the switching time for the selected vectors and no PI controller is used as the case in the traditional space vector modulation. This work is directed to motor drive system designers who seek highly smooth torque performance with EMI noise reduction.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Fatma Ben Salem and Ahmed Masmoudi

This paper aims to discuss a comprehensive analysis of the effects of torque and flux hysteresis bands on the inverter average switching frequency considering an induction…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss a comprehensive analysis of the effects of torque and flux hysteresis bands on the inverter average switching frequency considering an induction machine drive under the control of the Takahashi DTC strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of the effects of torque and flux hysteresis bands on the inverter average switching frequency is carried out taking into account the speed range and the sampling period.

Findings

It has been found that the inverter average switching frequency could be more or less taken down according to the speed range and the sampling period by selecting suitable flux and torque hysteresis bands.

Research limitations/implications

This work should be extended by an experimental validation of the established results.

Practical implications

The reduction of the inverter switching frequency is of great importance in direct torque controlled induction motor drive as far as it leads to a decrease of the torque ripple and an increase of the efficiency.

Originality/value

For given torque and flux hysteresis bands, the inverter average switching frequency presents nonlinear shape. Given the fact that the flux switching frequency is a linear function of the speed, one can conclude that the nonlinearity of the inverter average switching frequency is due to the torque switching frequency. This statement has been proven by the introduction of the so‐called focal speeds for the torque switching frequency turns to be null.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of 342