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Sonia Pereira, Erik Snel and Margrietha ‘t Hart

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that…

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that predicts upward occupational mobility and labor market segmentation theories proposing immigrant confinement to secondary segments.

Methodology/approach

Data from survey and semi-structured interviews (2,859 and 357, respectively) with immigrants from Brazil, Ukraine, and Morocco in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Norway. Multinomial regression analysis to test the likelihood of moving downward, upward, or stability and identify explanatory factors, complemented with qualitative evidence.

Findings

We found support for the thesis of segmented labor market theories of limited upward occupational mobility following migration. However, immigrants with longer residence in the destination country have higher chances of upward mobility compared to stability and downward mobility, giving also support for the neoclassical human capital theory. Frail legal status impacts negatively on upward mobility chances and men more often experience upward mobility after migration than women.

Research limitations/implications

Findings reflect the specific situation of immigrants from three origin countries in four destination areas and cannot be taken as representative. In the multinomial regression we cannot distinguish between cohort effects and duration of stay.

Social implications

Education obtained in the destination country is very important for migrants’ upward occupational mobility, bearing important policy implications with regards to migrants’ integration.

Originality/value of paper

Its focus on trajectories of mobility through migration looking at two important transitions: (1) from last occupation in the origin country to first occupation at destination and (2) from first occupation to current occupation and offers a wide cross-country comparison both in terms of origin and destination countries in Europe.

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Article

Sophie HENNEKAM and Olivier Herrbach

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of HRM practices and the retirement decision of older workers with a low occupational status in the creative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of HRM practices and the retirement decision of older workers with a low occupational status in the creative industry in the Netherlands using social identity theory.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 30 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted by telephone. The sample consisted of workers with a low occupational status, aged 50 or above, in the creative industry in the Netherlands, all member of the trade union of this industry.

Findings

The relationship between HRM practices and retirement decisions is complex and contradictory. In line with social identity theory, it was found that HRM practices designed for older workers were perceived as a stamp that they belonged to a devalued social group. However, they do want organizations to accommodate their needs, but in a way that they do not feel to require special attention.

Originality/value

The findings show that older workers want organizations to adapt the workplace to their needs, but that the provision of age-specific practices could prevent them from constructing a positive social identity. HR practices can only make older workers extend their working lives if they are provided to all workers regardless occupational status or age.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Ayla Ogus Binatli and Sacit Hadi Akdede

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social status of migrants in a culturally liberal and historically cosmopolitan port city in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social status of migrants in a culturally liberal and historically cosmopolitan port city in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel data set from the Izmir Labor Market Household Survey is used. Social status is measured by occupational status, wages, and education. In addition, parents’ education, as well as, duration of unemployment for migrants is analyzed. Occupational status and education analyzes are based on ordered probit models. The probability that an individual with given characteristics will have an uneducated parent is estimated with a probit model. Weibull duration model is employed for the unemployment duration.

Findings

Migrants in Izmir are likely to have occupations that claim a lower status. Migrants have higher wages so migrants are taking jobs of lower status but higher pay. The probability of exiting unemployment for migrants is higher, that is the duration of unemployment for migrants is shorter. Male have higher education levels and receive higher wages. Parents’ education for migrants is lower in general. Female migrants have lower education levels than natives, male or female, and do not receive higher wages than female natives in the labor market. The paper concludes that the social status of migrant women is definitely lower than natives, male or female, and male migrants. Evidence on the social status of migrant men also points to a disadvantage as even though the male migrant is more educated on average, he is likely to hold an occupation of lower status.

Originality/value

This paper employs a novel data set to investigate the social status of migrants vs natives. In addition, it undertakes a multi-dimensional econometric analyses of social status. Unemployment has not been included in econometric analysis of social status before.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article

Jean Elizabeth Wallace and Tom Buchanan

This study aims to explore how status differences relate to strained working relationships with co-workers and clients. Two statuses, gender and occupation, are examined…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how status differences relate to strained working relationships with co-workers and clients. Two statuses, gender and occupation, are examined using data from veterinarians and animal health technologists (AHTs). Competing perspectives regarding exposure to stressful relationships and access and effectiveness of work-related resources are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design is used that combines quantitative survey data with open-ended qualitative data. The survey data are used to examine how interpersonal strain and access to work-related resources vary by status. The qualitative data are used to illustrate how strain is experienced by these workers and aids in interpreting the quantitative findings.

Findings

Status is linked to interpersonal client strain and access to resources. Challenging work is widely available to all three groups, but is more beneficial in reducing higher status veterinarians’ client strain. Autonomy is a scarce resource for the lowest status group (female AHTs), yet appears effective in reducing co-worker strain for everyone. Unexpectedly, work overload and market concerns appear to aggravate work-related strain and greater numbers of the lowest status group exacerbates interpersonal tensions with clients.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by examining stressful interactions experienced by two occupations who work side-by-side in the same employment settings, but who vary significantly by gender representation and occupational status. The authors argue that in addition to gender and occupational status, the organizational health of employing clinics and the feminization of veterinary practice may offer insights into how status differences are related to interpersonal conflict experienced in these work places.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Angela Fedi, Letizia Pucci, Stefano Tartaglia and Chiara Rollero

The concept of alienation boasts a long history in the academic literature. However, their empirical relations are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to test a model…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of alienation boasts a long history in the academic literature. However, their empirical relations are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of predictors and outcomes of alienation. Since occupational status plays a key role in alienation processes, such model was tested with high- and low-status workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 340 workers holding high-status (n=98) and low-status (n=242) positions. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The authors verified the hypothesized relationships by means of a structural equation modelling, simultaneously tested on high- and low-status workers.

Findings

Results showed that individual determinants of alienation, i.e. locus of control, appear to play a more relevant role for high-status professionals, whereas organizational dimensions, i.e. perception of decision making, have an impact only for low-status workers. Relational variables, i.e. work-family conflict, fostered alienation, regardless the status. Concerning outcomes, alienation decreased both job satisfaction and job involvement.

Research limitations/implications

The specificities of the cultural context have to be considered. Generalizing the results to other cultural contexts requires caution.

Practical implications

Work alienation has a negative influence on work attitudes that can be better managed by the knowledge of alienation’s correlates and peculiarities.

Originality/value

The study confirms the relevance of alienation for workers’ satisfaction and involvement highlighting the difference between high- and low-status workers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article

Camilla R. De Camargo and Lilith A. Whiley

Key workers are deemed “essential” for keeping the country going while the rest of us have been resigned to the safety of our homes. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, key…

Abstract

Purpose

Key workers are deemed “essential” for keeping the country going while the rest of us have been resigned to the safety of our homes. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, key workers have become the exalted symbol of the pandemic; although, during pre-pandemic many of these roles were considered “low skilled” and were (and still are) low paid.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses newspapers as data sources to discuss occupational prestige and situate it within previous theory.

Findings

This social commentary discusses how occupational prestige evolves and devolves during times of social change, and how elevated status, dependent on one's service to the country in the spirit of a “war-time” narrative, is just temporary and fleeting. Prestige is wrapped up in notions of class, income and education, and during the pandemic, “key workers” have become their own sub-group with an almost mythologised status and value, which the authors argue might take the focus away from genuine efforts to improve working conditions (e.g. access to PPE and pay rises etcetera).

Originality/value

The article considers the current value of key workers and how elevated levels of prestige are transitory. The enduring nature of this new status is yet to be seen. More qualitative nuanced research is required around how occupational prestige changes, evolves and devolves and more quantitative research on why and how widespread some of the critical issues might be.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Paul Boyle, Tom Cooke, Keith Halfacree and Darren Smith

Presents the findings of a study of long distance migrations for employment opportunities in both the US and the UK. Compares the cross‐national differences between the…

Abstract

Presents the findings of a study of long distance migrations for employment opportunities in both the US and the UK. Compares the cross‐national differences between the two countries and tries to investigate the effects of the relative resources of the partner in their subsequent search for employment. Attempts to discover any gender differences based upon occupational status. Evaluates the similarity and differences between the countries.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 19 no. 9/10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Girts Racko

The purpose of this paper is to examine how knowledge exchange between academics and clinicians in Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how knowledge exchange between academics and clinicians in Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) is influenced by their social position based on their symbolic and social capitals, that is, their personal professional status and connections to high-status professional peers, knowledge brokers, and unfamiliar professional peers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an online survey, the author triangulates the cross-sectional measurement of the effects of academic and clinicians’ social position in the initial and later phases of CLAHRCs with the longitudinal measurement of these effects over a two-year period.

Findings

First, academics and clinicians with a higher personal professional status are more likely to develop joint networks and decision making both in the early and later phases of a CLAHRC. Second, academics and clinicians who are more connected to higher status occupational peers are more likely to develop joint networks in the early phase of a knowledge exchange partnership but are less likely to become engaged in joint networks over time. Third, involvement of knowledge brokers in the networks of academics and clinicians is likely to facilitate their inter-professional networking only in the later partnership phase.

Practical implications

Academics and clinicians’ capitals have a distinctive influence on knowledge exchange in the early and later phases of CLAHRCs and on a change in knowledge exchange over a two-year period.

Originality/value

Prior research on CLAHRCs has examined how knowledge exchange between academics and clinicians can be encouraged by the creation of shared governance mechanisms. The author advances this research by highlighting the role of their social position in facilitating knowledge exchange.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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Article

Miri Lerner, Gila Menahem and Robert D. Hisrich

Aims to examine the effect of government intervention programs in improving the occupational opportunities of new immigrants as self‐employed entrepreneurs or salaried…

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to examine the effect of government intervention programs in improving the occupational opportunities of new immigrants as self‐employed entrepreneurs or salaried employees, and to determine the effect, if any, of gender and ethnicity.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the effects of two major types of government programs – retraining courses and support for business creation – a sample of 1,195 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel were interviewed in depth on two different occasions.

Findings

The findings indicate that the impact of both government programs was more pronounced for women immigrants and immigrants from the Asian republics.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses only on two government programs in one country – Israel.

Practical implications

In terms of immigrant incorporation into a society, government programs matter and matter more for disadvantaged groups. Participation in these programs helps diminish any gaps created by market forces.

Originality/value

This study adds to the immigration literature on state intervention by assessing the contribution of government programs and intervention to immigrants’ occupational incorporation.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Sophie Hennekam and Olivier Herrbach

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of perceived human resource management (HRM) practices on affective organizational commitment, job performance and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of perceived human resource management (HRM) practices on affective organizational commitment, job performance and preference for early retirement.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 414 older employees with a low occupational status, in the graphical, arts, information and media sectors in the Netherlands, filled out a survey measuring their perception of five human resource practices related to flexible work options, job design, training, evaluation of their performance and recognition and respect, their commitment, job performance and preference for early retirement.

Findings

The results show that employees’ perception of HRM practices related to job design and recognition and respect have a positive influence on their affective commitment to their organization. Second, their perception of the HRM practices related to recognition and respect are also shown to have a positive relationship with job performance. However, it was found that perceived HRM practices do not influence preference for early retirement.

Originality/value

These findings show that the provision of HRM practices enhances job performance and affective organizational commitment. However, in contrast with the common assumption that HRM practices will influence the retirement decision in the sense that it will delay their retirement, it might not be a useful tool to keep older employees longer in the workforce.

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