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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Francis K. Bondinuba, Devine Hedidor, Alex Opoku and Alfred L. Teye

The purpose of this paper is to explore the de/motivation variables in the delivery of housing microfinance (HMF) in the low-income housing market in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the de/motivation variables in the delivery of housing microfinance (HMF) in the low-income housing market in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relied on a survey of 125 respondents of microfinance institutions (MFIs) to understand the interactions and effects of these variables on HMF delivery in Ghana. Descriptive and bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings revealed that both internal and external variables motivate MFIs to engage in the low-income housing market. These variables are: MFIs desire for expansion, the potential size of the low-income housing market, the market potential for MFIs growth, the availability of local resources, unique features and products of the market, low-income housing offering an opportunity for leveraging resources and the preference for homeownership than rental among individuals in the low-income segment of the population. However, variables such as capital lock-up in HMF delivery, high-interest rates in the country, high cost and land prices, high cost and price of building materials, lack of sufficient collaterals and the different interest rates required on HMF loans also served as demotivation in the low-income housing market in Ghana.

Research limitations/implications

The paper findings are limited in context to Ghana.

Practical implications

The paper, although limited to Ghana, contributes to the much-needed body of knowledge on low-income housing finance in developing countries.

Originality/value

The paper is the first of its kind in using empirical data to explore the motivational and demotivational variables in the delivery of HMF in a developing country context such as Ghana.

Details

Property Management, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2017

Rebekah Russell-Bennett, Rory Mulcahy, Jo-Anne Little and Tim Swinton

Designing a social marketing intervention for low-income earners requires an understanding of the key motivations. As part of the Low-Income Earner Energy Efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

Designing a social marketing intervention for low-income earners requires an understanding of the key motivations. As part of the Low-Income Earner Energy Efficiency Programme, this study investigates the key factors that influence energy behaviours amongst Australian young low-income earners as part of the Reduce Your Juice social marketing programme. The authors also investigate the effect of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of 753 low-income renters was conducted using validated measures. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The two factors that had the highest influence on intentions for energy-saving behaviours was the “mind” factor of self-efficacy and “money” factor of price concern. There were gender differences in the effect of bill control and price concern on intentions for different energy efficiency behaviours.

Practical implications

This study provides guidance on the factors to emphasise when designing an energy efficiency programme for low-income earners.

Social implications

This study provides evidence for different motivations amongst low-income earners for energy efficiency programmes and that a “one size fits all” approach may not be effective.

Originality/value

While there is high interest in the public sector for motivating young-adult low-income earners to change their energy behaviours, little is known about the key factors that motivate intentions to engage in these behaviours.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Majd Al‐Homoud, Salem Al‐Oun and Al‐Mutasem Al‐Hindawi

The housing sector in Jordan suffers from a lack of balance between supply and demand, in general, and from the inability to meet the demands of lowincome households, in…

Abstract

Purpose

The housing sector in Jordan suffers from a lack of balance between supply and demand, in general, and from the inability to meet the demands of lowincome households, in specific. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potentials and obstacles facing lowincome housing supply. It is shown that there is undersupply in lowincome housing.

Design/methodology/approach

The attributes of the supply–demand model are explored using qualitative and quantitative research methods. The first research step was archival. Findings indicated a presence of major obstacles facing developers and hindering them from supplying lowincome housing. The second research step included face‐to‐face interviews with the local developers in three major cities: Amman, Irbid and Zarqa. They were interviewed using a semi‐structured and open‐ended questionnaire.

Findings

Results indicated that most plausible causality of undersupply of lowincome housing is due to macro‐environment attributes: controllable – management (lack of human resources and capacity building), real estate (lack of marketing skills and sales advertising), technology and construction industry (inaccessible appropriate building technology and affordable construction), land ownership and site selection (limited to the developers geographical area); and uncontrollable – financing (small capital operation and difficulties in bank loans and lending), government policies (lack of incentives, tax exemptions, and rigid laws and regulations), and social and cultural (social needs requires certain spatial arrangements and rejection of borrowing from financial institutions for religious reasons).

Practical implications

The study recommends increasing supply of lowincome housing can be achieved by various means and not by single attribute. Attributes affecting this price reduction and increase homeownership include implementing real estate principles and processes, co‐operation of all key‐players through various forms of public/private partnership, facilitating procedures in commercial banks, increasing the number of units that share services and infrastructure, constructing multi‐use housing projects, defining gradual revenue rates for services and limiting revenue rates for the housing units, developing local construction material, using simple shapes and configurations, and reducing non‐used space like the formal reception and dining areas despite their cultural value.

Research limitations/implications

Statistical inferences will be needed in a future study to complement the present study's investigation of lowincome housing production in Jordan.

Originality/value

As the first of its kind, the research help to identify policy implications for different partners (housing developers, local planning authorities, national housing and planning authorities and government policy makers) in order to increase homeownership for lowincome groups.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Sylvia Maxfield

The purpose of this paper is to describe and critique the swing in international policy from encouraging lower income countries to erect local stock exchanges in the 1990s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and critique the swing in international policy from encouraging lower income countries to erect local stock exchanges in the 1990s to discouraging them on efficiency grounds after the US securities markets collapsed in 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys existing literature and data about stock exchanges in emerging market countries for evidence justifying a supportive policy approach to local exchanges in lower income countries.

Findings

Basic indicators of stock exchange performance in lower income countries from the World Development Indicators database reveal positive trends alongside the less auspicious indicators emphasized by international organizations opposed to stock exchange development in lower income countries. A survey of finance and development literature generally, and work on capital markets specifically, provides evidence of and rationale for the public benefits of stock exchange development, particularly in emerging market countries. Review of governance structures of stock exchanges in low and middle income countries finds the public interest reflected in government participation in stock exchange boards and in their predominantly non‐profit status. Existing research on stock exchange trading systems provides a rationale for specific policy choices to encourage stock market performance and also highlights areas for further policy‐relevant research.

Originality/value

Provides evidence and rationale to bolster the case for public support of local stock exchange development in low and middle income countries in the face of opposition to such efforts from international development agencies like the World Bank.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Sofie Van den waeyenberg and Luc Hens

The purpose of this study is to examine which changes companies need to implement in their transactional marketing strategy to sell to the poor when launching a product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine which changes companies need to implement in their transactional marketing strategy to sell to the poor when launching a product innovation in lowincome countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper confronts the literature on the “bottom of the pyramid” with the diffusion of innovations theory in order to identify the country characteristics that call for marketing changes when entering lowincome markets. The authors investigate for one case (the Tata Nano) whether – and how – the company implements changes to respond to these conceptually identified challenges. The case study is systematically analysed and structured according to Kotler's four Ps.

Findings

The case shows that companies can create products with functionality and cost advantage for the poor without compromising on safety and comfort. Creating an innovative distribution system pushes costs and builds trust between the company and the customer.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines one case from the automobile industry. Marketers would benefit from multiple case studies.

Originality/value

The study's originality springs from the confrontation between the bottom of the pyramid and the diffusion of innovations theories. The study is valuable to marketers targeting the bottom of the pyramid. The case study is interesting because the industry (automobile) surprisingly targets a poorer non‐traditional customer base (the upper bottom of the pyramid).

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Pia Carreño and Andres Silva

The purpose of this paper is to explore fruit and vegetable (FV) procurement disparity across income groups.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore fruit and vegetable (FV) procurement disparity across income groups.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses mean comparison and quintile regression to explain FVs variations.

Findings

Households from the highest income quantile spend more than two times on FVs than households from the lowest quantile; however, this expenditure disparity is largely mitigated in terms of purchase quantity. This paper presents evidence that, rather than quantity discounts or income neighborhood, the type of store (traditional markets vs supermarkets) plays a relevant role in explaining the smaller gap in terms of purchase quantity.

Research limitations/implications

Traditional markets help low-income households access low-cost FVs.

Social implications

The authors generate evidence to show that traditional markets play a relevant role to supply affordable FV to low-income households.

Originality/value

The paper used a high-quality and uncommon data set. It is a topic of high social impact.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Mariano Rojas

Price becomes a main instrument for rationing pharmaceutical drugs in Central America as a consequence of pro‐market reforms implemented in the 1980s. Under market

Abstract

Purpose

Price becomes a main instrument for rationing pharmaceutical drugs in Central America as a consequence of pro‐market reforms implemented in the 1980s. Under market‐rationing conditions, people's access to branded drugs does depend on their purchasing power and on the vector of prices they face. The purpose of this paper is to study the regional pricing strategy followed by pharmaceutical firms across Central American countries. These countries differ in such economic factors as per capita income, income distribution, market size, and nature and extent of their social‐security system; thus, there are conditions that foster the implementation of price‐discrimination practices across the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation takes advantage of a large database with information about prices of identical drugs sold across Central American countries and produced by 17 large pharmaceutical companies. Regression analyses are used to study whether price discrimination exists in Central American drug markets and what pricing strategies are followed by different pharmaceutical companies.

Findings

Results show that there are significant differences in the prices of identical drugs across the Central American countries, as well as that pharmaceutical companies follow different pricing strategies.

Originality/value

Cross‐country price comparisons are usually based on constructed price indices, which imply losing detailed information about the products being compared. This investigation uses prices of identical drugs, rather than constructed price indices, to study cross‐country price differences by pharmaceutical companies across the Central American region. The study of price discrimination is crucial to understanding how markets end up rationing such an essential product as pharmaceutical drugs.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Peter Skilling and Helen Tregidga

The purpose of this paper is to analyse justifications for, and accounting’s role in, arguments for and against the living wage.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse justifications for, and accounting’s role in, arguments for and against the living wage.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic content analysis of arguments made for and against the living wage in a range of secondary data sources is conducted. Boltanski and Thévenot’s typology of “orders of worth” provides the framework for analysis.

Findings

Arguments for a living wage are found to draw on a range of orders of worth. These arguments hold that while market signals have a valid role in informing wage decisions, such decisions should also take into account the civic order’s emphasis on collective outcomes, the industrial order’s emphasis on long-term organisational performance, and an emphasis on the inherent dignity of the human worker drawn from the domestic and inspired orders. Business arguments against a living wage hold that the current weight given to the tests and objectives of the market order is optimal and that a living wage would undermine firm competitiveness and, ultimately, collective well-being. Justifications of existing low-wage practices are shown to be reflected in, and naturalised by, accounting discourses and practices.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the emergent literature on the relationship between accounting and inequality. It elucidates accounting’s role in supporting the market order of worth and thus the stabilisation and perpetuation of income inequalities. Its analysis of the orders of worth invoked by those calling for a living wage contribute to the task of imagining and constructing an alternative, more equitable, accounting discourse and practice.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Orsetta Causa and Mikkel Hermansen

This paper produces a comprehensive assessment of income redistribution to the working-age population, covering OECD countries over the last two decades. Redistribution is…

Abstract

This paper produces a comprehensive assessment of income redistribution to the working-age population, covering OECD countries over the last two decades. Redistribution is quantified as the relative reduction in market income inequality achieved by personal income taxes (PIT), employees’ social security contributions, and cash transfers, based on household-level micro-data. A detailed decomposition analysis uncovers the respective roles of size, tax progressivity, and transfer targeting for overall redistribution, the respective role of various categories of transfers for transfer redistribution; as well as redistribution for various income groups. The paper shows a widespread decline in redistribution across the OECD, both on average and in the majority of countries for which data going back to the mid-1990s are available. This was primarily associated with a decline in cash transfer redistribution while PIT played a less important and more heterogeneous role across countries. In turn, the decline in the redistributive effect of cash transfers reflected a decline in their size and in particular by less redistributive insurance transfers. In some countries, this was mitigated by more redistributive assistance transfers but the resulting increase in the targeting of total transfers was not sufficient to prevent transfer redistribution from declining.

Details

Inequality, Redistribution and Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-040-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Henry Louis Taylor, Linda McGlynn and D. Gavin Luter

This research note focuses on the quest to move beyond the poverty paradigm in researching, planning, and developing distressed urban neighborhoods. It is based on the…

Abstract

This research note focuses on the quest to move beyond the poverty paradigm in researching, planning, and developing distressed urban neighborhoods. It is based on the notion that the poverty paradigm hides more than it reveals about the positionality of people in neoliberal society. It argues that low incomes and joblessness are structural components of neoliberal economies. Therefore, they cannot be eliminated without making fundamental changes in the way that neoliberalism operates. Thus, in a neoliberal society, with a small, passive government, both low incomes and joblessness will grow over time, especially among blacks, Latinos, and immigrants of color. Within this context, the distress found in inner-city neighborhoods is a product of failed urban institutions and the lack of investments in such places. However, there are no laws of socioeconomic development that say low income and joblessness must equate with living in distressed neighborhoods, where dilapidation, crime, and violence are characteristic features of the landscape. This reality is a public policy decision. Therefore, it can be changed by altering the investment strategy in distressed community and by radically transforming the institutions operating in these communities. If this happens, it will be possible to produce communities where low-income workers live in energetic places where they enjoy a high quality of life and standard of living. In such regenerated neighborhoods, it will also be possible to develop innovative strategies that put the jobless to work.

Details

Voices of Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-546-3

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