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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Aslesha Bodavula, Rajesh Yadav and Ugur Guven

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface protrusions on the flow unsteadiness of NACA 0012 at a Reynolds number of 100,000.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface protrusions on the flow unsteadiness of NACA 0012 at a Reynolds number of 100,000.

Design/methodology/approach

Effect of protrusions is investigated through numerical simulation of two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations using a finite volume solver. Turbulent stresses are resolved through the transition Shear stress transport (four-equation) turbulence model.

Findings

The small protrusion located at 0.05c and 0.1c significantly improve the lift coefficient by up to 36% in the post-stall regime. It also alleviates the leading edge stall. The larger protrusions increase the drag significantly along with significant degradation of lift characteristics in the pre-stall regime as well. The smaller protrusions also increase the frequency of the vortex shedding.

Originality/value

The effect of macroscopic protrusions or deposits in rarely investigated. The delay in stall shown by smaller protrusions can be beneficial to micro aerial vehicles. The smaller protrusions increase the frequency of the vortex shedding, and hence, can be used as a tool to enhance energy production for energy harvesters based on vortex-induced vibrations and oscillating wing philosophy.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2020

Somashekar V. and Immanuel Selwyn Raj A.

This paper aims to deal with the numerical investigation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) characteristics (length and height of the bubble) of SS007 airfoil at the chord…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the numerical investigation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) characteristics (length and height of the bubble) of SS007 airfoil at the chord Reynolds number of Rec = 0.68 × 105 to 10.28 × 105.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical simulations of the flow around SS007 airfoil were carried out by using the commercial fluid dynamics (CFD) software, ANalysis system (ANSYS) 15. To solve the governing equations of the flow, a cell-centred control volume space discretisation approach is used. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the chord-based Reynolds number of Rec = 1.6 × 105 to validate the aerodynamic characteristics over SS007 airfoil.

Findings

The numerical results revealed that the LSB characteristics of a SS007 airfoil, and the aerodynamic performances are validated with experimental results. The lift and drag coefficients for both numerical and experimental results show very good correlation at Reynolds number 1.6 × 105. The lift coefficient linearly increases with the increasing angle of attack (AOA) is relatively small. The corresponding drag coefficient was found to be very small. After the formation of LSB which leads to burst to cause airfoil stall, the lift coefficient decreases and increases the drag coefficient.

Practical implications

Low Reynolds number and LSB characteristics concept in aerodynamics is predominant for both civilian and military applications. These include high altitude devices, wind turbines, human powered vehicles, remotely piloted vehicles, sailplanes, unmanned aerial vehicle and micro aerial vehicle. In this paper, the micro aerial vehicle flight conditions considered and investigated the LSB characteristics for different Reynolds number. To have better aerodynamic performances, it is strongly recommended to micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design engineers that the MAV is to fly at 12 m/s (cruise speed).

Social implications

MAVs and unmanned aerial vehicles seem to give some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement a versatile, reliable and inexpensive solution.

Originality/value

The SS007 airfoil delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency by increasing the lift and decreasing the drag. The maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency is 12.5% at stall angle of attack compared to the reference airfoil at Re = 2 × 105. The results are encouraging and this airfoil could have better aerodynamic performance for the development of MAV.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Mustafa Serdar Genç, Hacımurat Demir, Mustafa Özden and Tuna Murat Bodur

The purpose of this exhaustive experimental study is to investigate the fluid-structure interaction in the flexible membrane wings over a range of angles of attack for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exhaustive experimental study is to investigate the fluid-structure interaction in the flexible membrane wings over a range of angles of attack for various Reynolds numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an experimental study on fluid-structure interaction of flexible membrane wings was presented at Reynolds numbers of 2.5 × 104, 5 × 104 and 7.5 × 104. In the experimental studies, flow visualization, velocity and deformation measurements for flexible membrane wings were performed by the smoke-wire technique, multichannel constant temperature anemometer and digital image correlation system, respectively. All experimental results were combined and fluid-structure interaction was discussed.

Findings

In the flexible wings with the higher aspect ratio, higher vibration modes were noticed because the leading-edge separation was dominant at lower angles of attack. As both Reynolds number and the aspect ratio increased, the maximum membrane deformations increased and the vibrations became visible, secondary vibration modes were observed with growing the leading-edge vortices at moderate angles of attack. Moreover, in the graphs of the spectral analysis of the membrane displacement and the velocity; the dominant frequencies coincided because of the interaction of the flow over the wings and the membrane deformations.

Originality/value

Unlike available literature, obtained results were presented comparatively using the sketches of the smoke-wire photographs with deformation measurement or turbulence statistics from the velocity measurements. In this study, fluid-structure interaction and leading-edge vortices of membrane wings were investigated in detail with increasing both Reynolds number and the aspect ratio.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2020

Nima Vaziri, Ming-Jyh Chern, Tzyy-Leng Horng and Syamsuri Syamsuri

The purpose of this study is to the modeling of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator on the Eppler 387 (E387) airfoil in low Reynolds number conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to the modeling of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator on the Eppler 387 (E387) airfoil in low Reynolds number conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

A validated direct-forcing immersed boundary method is used to solve the governing equations. A linear electric field model is used to simulate the DBD actuator. A ray-casting technique is used to define the geometry.

Findings

The purposed model is validated against the former studies. Next, the drag and lift coefficients in the static stall of the E387 airfoil are investigated. Results show that when the DBD actuator is on, both of the coefficients are increased. The effects of the location, applied voltage and applied frequency are also studied and find that the leading-edge actuator with higher voltage and frequency has better improvement in the forces. Finally, the dynamic stall of the E387 with the DBD actuator is considered. The simulation shows that generally when the DBD is on, the lift coefficient in the pitch-up section has lower values and in the pitch-down has higher values than the DBD off mode.

Practical implications

It is demonstrated that using the DBD actuator on E387 in the low Reynolds number condition can increase the lift and drag forces. Therefore, the application of the airfoil must be considered.

Originality/value

The results show that sometimes the DBD actuator has different effects on E387 airfoil in low Reynolds number mode than the general understanding of this tool.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Witold Artur Klimczyk

This paper aims to present a methodology of designing a custom propeller for specified needs. The example of propeller design for large unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is considered.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a methodology of designing a custom propeller for specified needs. The example of propeller design for large unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from low fidelity Blade Element (BE) methods, the design is obtained using evolutionary algorithm-driven process. Realistic constraints are used, including minimum thickness required for stiffness, as well as manufacturing ones – including leading and trailing edge limits. Hence, the interactions between propellers in hex-rotor configuration, and their influence on structural integrity of the UAV are investigated. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) are used to obtain loading on the propeller blades in hover. Optimization of the propeller by designing a problem-specific airfoil using surrogate modeling-driven optimization process is performed.

Findings

The methodology described in the current paper proved to deliver an efficient blade. The optimization approach allowed to further improve the blade efficiency, with power consumption at hover reduced by around 7%.

Practical implications

The methodology can be generalized to any blade design problem. Depending on the requirements and constraints the result will be different.

Originality/value

Current work deals with the relatively new class of design problems, where very specific requirements are put on the propellers. Depending on these requirements, the optimum blade geometry may vary significantly.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Nima Vaziri, Ming-Jyh Chern and Tzyy-Leng Horng

The purpose of this study is simulation of dynamic stall behavior around the Eppler 387 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow with a direct-forcing immersed boundary…

154

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is simulation of dynamic stall behavior around the Eppler 387 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow with a direct-forcing immersed boundary (DFIB) numerical model.

Design/methodology/approach

A ray-casting method is used to define the airfoil geometry. The governing continuity and Navier–Stokes momentum equations and boundary conditions are solved using the DFIB method.

Findings

The purposed method is validated against numerical results from alternative schemes and experimental data on static and oscillating airfoil. A base flow regime and different vortices patterns are observed, in accordance with other previously published investigations. Also, the effects of the reduced frequency, the pitch oscillation amplitude and the Reynolds number are studied. The results show that the reduced frequency has a major effect on the flow field and the force coefficients of the airfoil. On the other hand, the Reynolds number of the flow has a little effect on the dynamic stall characteristics of the airfoil at least in the laminar range.

Practical implications

It is demonstrated that the DFIB model provides an accurate representation of dynamic stall phenomenon.

Originality/value

The results show that the dynamic stall behavior around the Eppler 387 is different than the general dynamic stall behavior understanding in the shedding phase.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Ignazio Maria Viola, Vincent Chapin, Nicola Speranza and Marco Evangelos Biancolini

There is an increasing interest in airfoils that modify their shape to adapt at the flow conditions. As an example of application, the authors search the optimal 4-digit…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increasing interest in airfoils that modify their shape to adapt at the flow conditions. As an example of application, the authors search the optimal 4-digit NACA airfoil that maximizes the lift-over-drag ratio for a constant lift coefficient of 0.6, from Re = 104 to 3 × 106.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider a γ−Reθt transition model and a κω SST turbulence model with a covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary optimization algorithm. The shape is adapted by radial basis functions mesh morphing using four parameters (angle of attack, thickness, camber and maximum camber position). The objective of the optimization is to find the airfoil that enables a maximum lift-over-drag ratio for a target lift coefficient of 0.6.

Findings

The computation of the optimal airfoils confirmed the expected increase with Re of the lift-over-drag ratio. However, although the observation of efficient biological fliers suggests that the thickness increases monotonically with Re, the authors find that it is constant but for a 1.5 per cent step increase at Re = 3 × 105.

Practical implications

The authors propose and validate an efficient high-fidelity method for the shape optimization of airfoils that can be adopted to define robust and reliable industrial design procedures.

Originality/value

The authors show that the difference in the numerical error between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations is negligible, and that the numerical uncertainty of the two-dimensional simulations is sufficiently small to confidently predict the aerodynamic forces across the investigated range of Re.

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2020

Massimo Miozzi, Alessandro Capone, Christian Klein and Marco Costantini

The purpose of this study is the characterization of the dramatic variation in the flow scenario occurring at incipient stall conditions on a NACA0015 hydrofoil at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the characterization of the dramatic variation in the flow scenario occurring at incipient stall conditions on a NACA0015 hydrofoil at moderate Reynolds numbers via the experimental analysis of time- and space-resolved skin-friction maps. The examined flow conditions are relevant for a variety of applications, including renewable energy production and unmanned and micro-aerial vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounding on the global temperature data acquired via temperature-sensitive paint, the proposed methodology adopts two approaches: one to obtain time-resolved, relative skin-friction vector fields by means of an optical-flow-based algorithm and the other one to extract quantitative, time-averaged skin-friction maps after minimization of the dissimilarity between the observed passive transport of temperature fluctuations and that suggested by the Taylor hypothesis.

Findings

Through the synergistic application of the proposed methods, the time-dependent evolution of the incipient stall over the hydrofoil suction side is globally described by firstly identifying the trailing edge separation at an angle of attack (AoA) AoA = 11.5°, and then by capturing the onset of upstream oriented, mushroom-like structures at AoA = 13°. The concomitant occurrence of both scenarios is found at the intermediate incidence AoA = 12.2°.

Originality/value

The qualitative, time-resolved skin-friction topology, combined with the quantitative, time-averaged distribution of the streamwise friction velocity, enables to establish a portrait of the complex, three-dimensional, unsteady scenario occurring at the examined flow conditions, thus providing new, fundamental information for a deeper understanding of the incipient stall development and for its control.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Jih‐Lung Lin, Chin‐Yi Wei and Chi‐Yu Lin

This study aims to design and test some fixed‐wing micro aerial vehicles (MAV).

1959

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to design and test some fixed‐wing micro aerial vehicles (MAV).

Design/methodology/approach

The MAV wing planform in this study was designed based on previous results and the need to reduce the weight of the MAV. The MAV had a wing planform with a 6 percent Gottingen‐329 camber airfoil, a 20° swept‐back leading edge and a straight trailing edge. The fuselage was designed to contain a motor, an electronic control system and a video camera with a built‐in transmitter. The battery was located outside the fuselage to trim the center of gravity and enable the battery to be changed easily when it has run out. Two exaggerated vertical stabilizers were installed to prevent the MAV from rolling. The materials, the power plant and the electronics used to fabricate the MAV herein were either the lightest or the smallest from that could be obtained off‐the‐shelf. Since, MAVs should be expendable, the cost was kept under US$250 (including the cost of an onboard video camera system, which costs US$170).

Findings

Flight tests were performed following fabrication. The MAV was launched by hand, flew within a radius of 30 ∼ 50 m, and eventually glided to a grassy ground. The flight was stable and the quality of the downlink video was acceptable for surveillance purpose. The MAVs presented in this work were proven to have successful designs.

Originality/value

MAVs were successfully designed herein based on previous results. The materials and the fabrication processes were carefully selected and tested, to keep the mass of a flyable MAV under 65 g, while ensuring it has sufficient structural strength. The cost was reduced to US$250, making the MAV truly expendable.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Zbigniew Rarata

The purpose of this paper is to investigate airfoil’s tonal noise reduction mechanism when deploying surface irregularities, such as surface waviness by means of spatial…

88

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate airfoil’s tonal noise reduction mechanism when deploying surface irregularities, such as surface waviness by means of spatial stability analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Flow field calculations over smooth and wavy-surface NACA 0012 airfoils at 2° angle of attack and at Reynolds number of 200,000 are performed using the large eddy simulation (LES) approach. Three geometrical configurations are considered: a smooth NACA 0012 airfoil, wavy surface on the suction side (SS) and wavy surface on the pressure side (PS). The spatial stability analyses using the LES-generated flow fields are conducted and validated against the Orr-Sommerfeld stability analysis for the smooth airfoil configuration.

Findings

The spatial stability analyses show that inclusion of the wavy-type modification on the SS of the airfoil does not lead to altering of the acoustic feedback loop mechanism, with respect to the mechanism observed for the smooth airfoil configuration. In contrast, applying the surface modifications to the airfoil PS leads to a significant reduction of the amplification range of disturbances in the vicinity of the trailing edge for the frequency of the acoustic feedback loop mechanism.

Practical implications

The spatial analyses using, for example, LES-generated flow fields can be widely used to determine acoustic sources and associated distributions of amplifications for a wide range of applications in the aeroacoustics.

Originality/value

The spatial stability analysis approach based on flow fields computed a priori using the LES method has been introduced, validated and used to determine behaviour of the acoustic feedback loop when accurate reconstruction of geometry effects is required.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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