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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Prathiba Chitsabesan, Sue Bailey, Richard Williams, Leo Kroll, Cassandra Kenning and Louise Talbot

This article is based on a study that was commissioned by the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. We report on the learning profiles and education needs of a cohort…

Abstract

This article is based on a study that was commissioned by the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. We report on the learning profiles and education needs of a cohort of young offenders who were recruited for the study. The research was a national cross‐sectional survey of 301 young offenders who were resident in custodial settings or attending youth offending teams in the community. The young people were assessed using the WASI and the WORD measures to obtain psychometric information (IQ scores and reading/reading comprehension ages). One in five (20%) young people met the ICD‐10 criteria for mental retardation (IQ<70), while problems with reading (52%) and reading comprehension (61%) were common. Verbal IQ scores were found to be significantly lower than performance IQ scores, particularly in male offenders. It is clear from these results that a large proportion of juvenile offenders have a learning disability, as characterised by an IQ<70 and significantly low reading and reading comprehension ages. The underlying aetiology of this association is less clear and may be a consequence of both an increased prevalence of neurocognitive deficits and the impact of poor schooling. There is some evidence that developmental pathways may be different for boys compared with girls.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2008

Nick Axford, Emma Crewe, Celene Domitrovich and Alina Morawska

This article reviews the contents of the previous year's editions of the Journal of Children's Services (Volume 2, 2007), as requested by the Journal's editorial board. It…

Abstract

This article reviews the contents of the previous year's editions of the Journal of Children's Services (Volume 2, 2007), as requested by the Journal's editorial board. It draws out some of the main messages for how high‐quality scientific research can help build good childhoods in western developed countries, focusing on: the need for epidemiology to understand how to match services to needs; how research can build evidence of the impact of prevention and intervention services on child well‐being; what the evidence says about how to implement proven programmes successfully; the economic case for proven programmes; the urgency of improving children's material living standards; how to help the most vulnerable children in society; and, lastly, the task of measuring child well‐being.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2017

Debra Talbot

The influence of extralocally produced texts, such as professional standards and systems of accreditation, on the ruling relations that govern teachers’ work and their…

Abstract

The influence of extralocally produced texts, such as professional standards and systems of accreditation, on the ruling relations that govern teachers’ work and their learning about that work is a matter of concern in Australia, as it is in Canada, UK, and USA. This chapter explains how a dialogic analysis and the construction of individual maps of social relations were employed to reveal the influences that governed teachers’ learning about their work at the frontline. A dialogic analysis of research conversations about learning, based on the work of Mikhail Bakhtin, revealed the existence of both centralizing, hegemonic discourses associated with a managerial agenda and contextualized, heterogeneous discourses supportive of transformative learning. It also revealed the uneven influence of extralocally produced governing texts on both the locally produced texts and the “doings” of individuals. The production and use of “individual” maps represents a variation on the way “mapping” has generally been used by institutional ethnographers. From these informant specific maps, we can begin to observe some broad patterns in relation to the coordination of people’s “doings” both within a given context and from one context to another.

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Perspectives on and from Institutional Ethnography
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-653-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Holly Louise Crossen-White, Ann Hemingway and Adele Ladkin

Social innovation has received increasing attention in recent decades (Agostini et al., 2017). This study aims to consider how the concept has been applied to the issue of…

Abstract

Purpose

Social innovation has received increasing attention in recent decades (Agostini et al., 2017). This study aims to consider how the concept has been applied to the issue of ageing and what can be learnt about effective policy responses.

Design/methodology/approach

The acknowledged lack of understanding generally about the concept makes it timely to undertake a scoping review of the current evidence from social innovation projects associated with older people. A scoping review is considered appropriate where there is a need to “identify and analyse knowledge gaps” (Munn et al., 2018, p. 2).

Findings

Findings from the scoping review indicate that, as yet, the concept of social innovation is not fully defined. However, it has widespread appeal across a diverse range of disciplines and has the potential to generate innovative policy responses.

Originality/value

A key argument identified is the need to change the public’s perceptions of ageing and devise public policies that encourage and nurture age-friendly communities. In summation, although social innovation has the potential to act as a policy driver, but to be effective, it is necessary to devise robust strategies to ensure full user-engagement and active involvement of communities. Therefore, it is the process of delivery that needs urgent attention in any future research into social innovation.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Vanessa Louise Shaw

The purpose of this paper is to improve the health and criminal justice outcomes for people who come into contact with the criminal justice system. People with learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the health and criminal justice outcomes for people who come into contact with the criminal justice system. People with learning disabilities (LD) are particularly vulnerable to health and social inequalities within the criminal justice system.

Design/methodology/approach

Using examples from practice, this paper discusses some of the challenges and achievements experienced by a LD nurse employed within a liaison and diversion service within the North-West of England.

Findings

Whilst the specific functions of liaison and diversion practitioners are detailed by National Health Service (NHS) England (2014), complexities in communication, multi-disciplinary working and role recognition affect the embedment of the role in practice.

Research limitations/implications

The implications for practice are identified and recommendations for further research made. These seek to evaluate the impact of liaison and diversion services from the perspectives of LD nurses within liaison and diversion services, people with LD, their families and the wider multi-disciplinary team.

Originality/value

NHS England (2015) are in the process of evaluating of liaison and diversion services. This paper adds to the evaluation by discussing the experiences of a LD nurse within a liaison and diversion service through the inclusion of activity data and illustrative examples.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Jonathan H Deacon, Jacqueline A Harris and Louise Worth

The purpose of this paper is to engage with contemporary gender and entrepreneurship theories to gain insights into the division of labour, capitals and capacities and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to engage with contemporary gender and entrepreneurship theories to gain insights into the division of labour, capitals and capacities and gendered identities within husband and wife heterosexual copreneurial businesses. This paper acknowledges copreneurship as a constituent sub group of research within family business and in doing so, the wider small business domain.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple exploratory interview approach was used, with data generated through face-to-face in-depth interviews and ethnographic participant – observer multi-setting observation. This approach provided exceedingly rich and detailed data, and thus insights into the complex relationships found within copreneurial businesses.

Findings

The interviews generated a large amount of qualitative data, which were organised into themes through a process of recursive abstraction. Expelling the myth of the “male lead entrepreneur”, this study found that entrepreneurial identity and roles and responsibilities within a copreneurial business are shared and complementary, and are dependent upon the unique capacities and capitals of each partner. While there is evidence of duties that could be stereotypically described as either “men’s work or women’s work”, there was no apparent role tension between the partners. Thus, no partner’s contribution was deemed more valuable than the other.

Originality/value

By examining the division of labour and unique value/contribution of both men and women within the copreneurial/familial relationship the stereotyped perception of the husband being the lead (male) entrepreneur is challenged in favour of the more complementary capacities, roles, responsibilities and, thus, value of each actor/participant.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2016

Mary Jo Deegan

This chapter challenges and augments the received view of the history of symbolic interaction at the University of Chicago. The history of the discipline’s development at…

Abstract

This chapter challenges and augments the received view of the history of symbolic interaction at the University of Chicago. The history of the discipline’s development at the University of Chicago between 1889 and 1935 is well-known, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and John Dewey, sometimes called “the Chicago school of sociology” or symbolic interaction. But the Hull-House school of sociology, led by Jane Addams, is largely unknown. In this chapter I explore her founding role in feminist symbolic interaction. Her perspective analyzes micro, meso, and macro levels of theory and practice. Feminist symbolic interaction is structural, political, rational, and emotional, and employs abstract and specific models for action. Addams led a wide network of people, including sociologists, her neighbors, and other citizens, who implemented and institutionalized their shared visions. Addams led many controversial social movements, including the international peace movement, recognized in 1931 by the Nobel Peace Prize. “Feminist symbolic interaction” expands the scope of symbolic interaction by being more action-oriented, more political, and more focused on a successful social change model than the traditional approach to this theory. In addition, many new sociologists are added to the lists of important historical figures.

Details

The Astructural Bias Charge: Myth or Reality?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-036-7

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Jane Boyd Thomas and Cara Lee Okleshen Peters

One of the fastest growing segments of the American adult population is adults over 65‐years old. This group is refereed to as “silver seniors.” Understanding the silver…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the fastest growing segments of the American adult population is adults over 65‐years old. This group is refereed to as “silver seniors.” Understanding the silver citizen market requires an in‐depth knowledge of seniors' attitudes and lifestyles. The purpose of this paper is to present an in‐depth view of the senior woman's self‐concept, lifestyle, and apparel‐related preferences and shopping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using findings from an extensive review of literature and in‐depth interviews with 20 women over age 65, this exploratory research provides insight into the impact of self‐concept, lifestyles, and fashion behaviors on apparel purchase decisions. The qualitative approach used for data collection and analysis provides rich insight into the behaviors and apparel needs of “silver seniors.” The tripartite self‐concept is explored as it relates to fashion attitudes and behaviors.

Findings

Findings from this paper indicate that women over 65 are still interested in fashion and that looking fashionable for themselves and others is important. Insights into the specific unmet apparel and retail needs of senior adult women are explored. Findings indicate that senior adult women continue to remain physically and socially active and have need for a variety of garments. Recommendations for apparel manufacturers and retailers targeting this lucrative segment are presented.

Originality/value

This paper is original to the retailing and consumer behavior literature. One of the benefits of this exploratory study is that it provided the authors with an opportunity to examine, in theory and practice, an overlooked yet growing segment of apparel consumers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 37 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Karina Louise Hepworth and Helen Williams

The learning disability nursing role in the multi-professional Youth Offending Team (YOT) enables the recognition, acknowledgement and understanding of the needs of people…

Abstract

Purpose

The learning disability nursing role in the multi-professional Youth Offending Team (YOT) enables the recognition, acknowledgement and understanding of the needs of people entering the Criminal Justice System (CJS) and provides a platform to ensure appropriate identification, assessment, planning and delivery of care ensuring successful completion of the Order and subsequent recidivism and reduction in reoffending. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of working with young people who have committed a crime and are found to have unmet or undiagnosed additional needs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper seeks to consider how learning disability nursing skills compliment the range of expertise in the multi-professional YOT and discusses the case of a young woman and her experience of the CJS from pre-sentence to completion of the Order.

Findings

Working together enables effective care delivery to ensure the needs of the person are recognised, understood and acted upon and achieves a balance between welfare for the person and justice and understanding for the victim.

Originality/value

This paper’s value is to demonstrate that recognition of need enables the appropriate intervention and delivery of care. Through working together a reduction in young people returning into the CJS as well as building skills and understanding in staff working with young people with additional needs can be achieved.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Belinda Luke and Martie‐Louise Verreynne

The purpose of this research is to elaborate on a model of entrepreneurship within the public sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to elaborate on a model of entrepreneurship within the public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies involving state‐owned enterprises (SOEs) trace three examples of entrepreneurial ventures.

Findings

A theme of strategic use of entrepreneurial action within these organisations emerges. It is argued that these examples are representative of both a field of enquiry and a specific concept which has been termed “strategic entrepreneurship”.

Research limitations/implications

On the strength of the findings from this study we are able to draw two important conclusions. First, empirical support is found for the notion of “strategic entrepreneurship”, which is defined and explained in this paper. Second, incidences of strategic entrepreneurship are demonstrated in the SOEs, which extend the range of entrepreneurial types usually described in the public sector.

Practical implications

A number of core and supporting elements of strategic entrepreneurship are identified, providing a clear framework for businesses.

Originality/value

This paper progresses strategic entrepreneurship beyond the purely theoretical, by examining and analysing strategic entrepreneurship in an applied business setting, in this case public sector organisations.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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1 – 10 of 27