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1 – 10 of 32
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2008

Xiaoyan Xing, Anthony G. Church, Norm O'Reilly, Ann Pegoraro, John Nadeau, Louise Heslop and Benoit Séguin

Based on the work of Parent (2008) on mega sports events, this paper explores the relationships among events stakeholders in Olympic Games host/bid city marketing. It…

599

Abstract

Based on the work of Parent (2008) on mega sports events, this paper explores the relationships among events stakeholders in Olympic Games host/bid city marketing. It outlines research questions, identifies a theoretical framework to better understand Olympic city marketing, presents four essays related to issues within this framework, and provides conclusions and suggestions for future research.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Louise A. Heslop, John Nadeau and Norm O'Reilly

The purpose of this paper is to examine the views of residents and foreigners of the Olympics and the host country before and after the mega‐event within the context of…

7384

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the views of residents and foreigners of the Olympics and the host country before and after the mega‐event within the context of marketing theory on country image effects and psychology theories attribution.

Design/methodology/approach

This is achieved by studying the views of American and Chinese respondents of China and the Olympics before and after the Beijing Olympics. Samples of Chinese and Americans were surveyed before and after the Beijing Summer Olympics concerning their images of the Olympics, China and its people, and China as a vacation destination. Cross‐national and pre‐post comparisons are made and interaction effects are noted using MANOVA.

Findings

Significant cross‐national and time differences and several interaction effects are found across all three focal objects of image measurements. Large country differences are found. Despite how technically successful the Games might have looked, post‐event assessments are overwhelmingly lower. Additional differences in views and interaction effects are discussed in terms of the intended and unintended impacts of the event on local and foreign respondents.

Research limitations/implications

Only one location in China and one foreign country are surveyed.

Practical implications

The paper has important implications for both the effects of mega‐events on country images and the effects of the host country on the event brand image. These issues have relevance for countries seeking to host mega‐events and those who manage these events and make decision about where they will be held.

Originality/value

This is the first cross‐national study of the Olympics and their effects using before‐and‐after event measures. It also combines analyses of both the event and the place images from the perspectives of both those who live in the country and residents of other countries. Attribution theory is a useful reference theory for mega‐event assessments.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Irene R.R. Lu, Louise A. Heslop, D. Roland Thomas and Ernest Kwan

Country image (CI) has been one of the most studied topics in international business, marketing, and consumer behaviour of the past five decades. Nevertheless, there has…

1388

Abstract

Purpose

Country image (CI) has been one of the most studied topics in international business, marketing, and consumer behaviour of the past five decades. Nevertheless, there has been no critical assessment of this field of research. The purpose of this paper is to understand the status and evolution of CI research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review 554 articles published in academic journals over 35 years. The authors examine publication, authorship, and research procedure trends in these articles as an empirical and quantitative assessment of the field. The authors identify weaknesses and strengths, and the authors address disconcerting and encouraging trends.

Findings

The authors find a number of laudatory trends: CI research is becoming less US-centric, more theory driven, more sophisticated in methodology, evaluating more diverse product categories, and making use of multiple cue studies. There are, however, two major methodological concerns: poor replication and questionable generalizability of findings. The authors also noted the influence of CI articles has been decreasing, as well as their rate of publication in top tier journals.

Originality/value

Since the authors present data that reflect actual practices in the field and how such practices have changed across time, the authors believe the study is of substantial value to CI researchers, journal editors, and instructors whose curriculum includes CI. The critical assessment and subsequent recommendations are accordingly empirically justified.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Louise A. Heslop and Jozsef Beracs

This article reports on a study of Hungarian consumer attitudestowards foreign and domestic products and their origin countries. Factoranalysis of the findings indicates…

Abstract

This article reports on a study of Hungarian consumer attitudes towards foreign and domestic products and their origin countries. Factor analysis of the findings indicates some consistency in the way consumers structure their assessment of foreign origins. The structure differs somewhat when respondents evaluate their own country and products. Implications for marketing and research are drawn.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Louise A. Heslop, Irene R.R. Lu and David Cray

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a longitudinal country‐people image effect model involving a significant negative international incident between…

3050

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a longitudinal country‐people image effect model involving a significant negative international incident between countries; study how such a model changes over time; and study the extent of image recovery in terms of how the offending country, people, and its products are perceived.

Design/methodology/approach

Australian consumers were surveyed before, during, and a decade after the French nuclear testing in the Pacific in 1995. Model testing was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques.

Findings

The model was strongly supported in all three‐time points. During the crisis, negative feelings toward France/French rose and consumers' response to French products dropped. Country‐people competency has risen over country‐people character in explaining product evaluations. In the final period, the Australian views on country‐people character and product response had more than recovered. The country‐people character beliefs now play a significant role in influencing product evaluations after the crisis than before, while the impacts of country‐people competency on product evaluation and response have diminished dramatically. Product evaluation is fairly stable over time.

Originality/value

Studies to date have focused on country image at a point in time in relatively stable environmental conditions. The proposed model is helpful in understanding the processes of country‐product image effects through the study of all attitude components and through differentiation of beliefs about country and people production‐related and non‐production related characteristics. The cross‐temporal validation of the model indicates its usefulness for general applicability in country image effects research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

John Nadeau, Norm O'Reilly and Louise A. Heslop

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country…

3028

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images through the evaluations formed of each entity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from 291 Canadian consumers two months after the Beijing Olympics, a SEM model examines the relationships among consumer evaluations of the host country, the country as a destination, the mega‐event itself and sponsors.

Findings

Results support the hypothesized model and present a paradoxical situation for the Olympics hosted by China. While the overall country evaluation was found to have a strong and positive effect on its evaluation as a tourist destination and the destination evaluation has a subsequent positive relationship with Olympic evaluations, a direct and negative relationship between the evaluation of the country and of the Olympic Games was also supported.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine the relationship among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images in other mega‐event and country contexts. In addition, the pattern of these relationships should be assessed longitudinally.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence to show that the Olympic Games image is resilient and can thrive in challenging contexts. Further, sponsors can be assured that they are receiving value from Olympic sponsorships.

Originality/value

These results extend previous literature on sponsorship evaluation into the large, global sponsor context. In addition, this study examines the role of the host country in understanding the influence of the mega‐event on sponsor images.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Judith J. Marshall and Louise A. Heslop

In this article the authors report the results of a study of use of automated teller machines (ATMs) in Canada. A total of 255 users and non‐users were interviewed…

Abstract

In this article the authors report the results of a study of use of automated teller machines (ATMs) in Canada. A total of 255 users and non‐users were interviewed regarding their use of ATMs, shopping motivations, attitudes towards and familiarity with technology, age, education and employment status. Discriminant analysis revealed that convenience shopping orientation, attitudes towards ATM technology, social shopping orientation, familiarity with other new technologies and education were very good predictors of ATM use and non‐use. Implications for developing ATM marketing strategy are given.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Louise A. Heslop, David Cray and Anahit Armenakyan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effects of brand name (BN) of wine and country‐of‐origin (COO) on perceptions of the personality image…

1319

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effects of brand name (BN) of wine and country‐of‐origin (COO) on perceptions of the personality image of the wine, expected price, and willingness to engage with the wine.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment in which label information for a fictitious wine was presented to wine consumers with a questionnaire on wine perceptions and response measures. The label information was manipulated across subjects using four BNs and three COOs.

Findings

The study confirms BN and COO effects on perceived wine personality and responses to the wine. Findings also indicate the effects of BN and COO as well as a BN‐COO interaction effect on price expectations.

Research limitations/implications

Findings link different personality dimensions to the two different cues, suggesting greater independence of the cues than originally expected. However, some BN‐COO incongruity effects are found particularly regarding price perceptions. A small set of wine BNs and COOs are tested and sample size/treatments are limited. With larger sample sizes, some weak effects might prove more significant. For more substantive support of these findings, the study could be repeated in different locations with different BN and COO examples.

Practical implications

The results suggest consumers are open to some fluidity in brand name use across wine‐producing countries with appropriate pricing strategies. They also highlight the importance of understanding consumer perceptions of wine personality in assessing consumer responses and price expectations.

Originality/value

The research addresses BN and COO direct and interaction effects on many aspects of wine evaluation and the central role of personality dimensions in wine assessments. The paper provides evidence of value in a rapidly evolving marketplace for wine and insights into the ongoing strategic changes in the wine market. It also contributes to theory and research on information cue use and cue incongruity effects.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

John Nadeau, Norman O'Reilly and Louise A. Heslop

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent that marketers are using place-based images to promote their brands within the host city of the Olympic Games. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent that marketers are using place-based images to promote their brands within the host city of the Olympic Games. It is thought that non-sponsors may use place imagery as an alternate way to affiliate with the event or sponsors may use place to enrich their sponsorship activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an observation-based approach to collect a sample of place-based promotional activity that is accessible to pedestrians during the 2012 Olympic Games.

Findings

Results reveal that official sponsors and non-official sponsors are both using place-based imagery in their promotions within the host city of the Olympic Games. However, non-sponsors use place images more frequently than sponsors of the event. Place images were invoked by promoters using country flags most frequently followed by icons and explicit mention of place. The leading dimensions of place images employed by marketers include country character, the built environment and people competence. Place-based promotional activity was frequently observed in shopping areas, transportation, sports venues and in free media.

Research limitations/implications

Results provide justification for future research in the area. Specifically, the need for empirical work based on surveys of consumers and interviews with practitioners are noted.

Practical implications

In an era of highly protected event marketing rights, the existence of promotions based on place images can be a useful application for official sponsors to leverage their investments and protect their exclusivity. Similarly, results are beneficial to non-official sponsors who may seek to market in the vicinity of these events without infringing on the rights of official sponsors.

Originality/value

While previous research on place, mega-events, the Olympic Games and sponsors has found the images of the three to be related, it is not known to what extent sponsors and non-sponsors utilize place images in their promotional activities throughout the Olympic host city.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Michel Laroche, Nicolas Papadopoulos, Louise A. Heslop and Mehdi Mourali

This study was designed to extend knowledge of cognitive processing of country of origin cues by refining the concept of country image and investigating its role in…

14489

Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed to extend knowledge of cognitive processing of country of origin cues by refining the concept of country image and investigating its role in product evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from residents of a large North American metropolitan. A total of 436 usable questionnaires were returned. Data analysis was conducted using the EQS structural equation modeling software

Findings

We found that country image is a three‐dimensional concept consisting of cognitive, affective, and conative components. We modeled the relationships among country image, product beliefs, and product evaluations, and found that country image and product beliefs affect product evaluations simultaneously regardless of consumers' level of familiarity with a country's products. Findings also indicated that the structure of country image influences product evaluations both directly and indirectly through product beliefs. Consistent with affect transfer theory, the results showed that when a country's image has a strong affective component, its direct influence on product evaluations is stronger than its influence on product beliefs. Alternatively, when a country's image has a strong cognitive component, its direct influence on product evaluations was smaller than its influence on product beliefs.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation pertains to the relatively poor psychometric properties of some items. Future research will benefit from further improvements in the measures of country image that tap into the various facets of the construct.

Originality/value

The major contributions of the study consist of the full operationalization of country image as a three‐dimensional concept, and the findings on the impact of country image structure on consumers' evaluation processes.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

1 – 10 of 32