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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

William J. Wales, Andrew C. Corbett, Louis D. Marino and Patrick M. Kreiser

This chapter synthesizes works contained within the volume and paints a picture of where entrepreneurial orientation (EO) research stands today and where it is likely heading in…

Abstract

This chapter synthesizes works contained within the volume and paints a picture of where entrepreneurial orientation (EO) research stands today and where it is likely heading in the future. From the necessity for better theorizing and measurement to new directions and context, today’s research into EO is setting the foundation for future research that brings greater understanding to what it means for firms and organizations of all types to be entrepreneurial.

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Joshua V. White, Sanjay Chaudhary and Vishal K. Gupta

The concept of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) attracts considerable attention in the organizational literature. Focusing on issues related to measurement of EO and using a…

Abstract

The concept of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) attracts considerable attention in the organizational literature. Focusing on issues related to measurement of EO and using a three-pronged framework to organize the growing diversity of EO measures, the authors conduct a systematic literature review on how EO is captured and assessed in the empirical literature. Specifically, the authors classify 551 empirical works according to the approach to measurement (i.e., managerial perceptions, content analysis, and resource allocations) which allows the authors to document and critically analyze prevalent measurement practices within the literature. Based on the synthesis, the authors identify key measurement-related tensions that may inhibit cumulative knowledge development in the area of EO, such as ad hoc modification of seminal scales and lack of theoretical clarity with respect to measurement. Additionally, the authors find that research into the antecedents of EO as well as causality and temporality of the phenomenon is underdeveloped, which the authors attribute to scarce use of mixed methods. The authors conclude chapter by discussing the challenges involved in measuring EO and offering possible recommendations for future inquiry.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Daniel R. Clark and Jeffrey G. Covin

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them international or (b…

Abstract

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them international or (b) the founder pushes the firm international. While these two internationalization drivers are not independent, they do represent unique causal mechanisms. Previously, the tools available to understand the entrepreneur’s disposition toward internationalization were limited. The present study uses the theoretical foundation of the international entrepreneurial orientation construct and from it develops and tests an attitudinally-based individual-level measure of disposition toward internationalization. To ensure the validity and reliability of the new measure, termed International Entrepreneurial Orientation Disposition, studies were conducted to: develop new scale items, examine their psychometric properties and construct validity, and demonstrate criterion validity. A strong measurement model is developed using structural equation modeling (CFI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.07), and the measure is shown to be useful as a predictor of perceived international venture attractiveness.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 April 2023

Abstract

Details

The Age of Entrepreneurship Education Research: Evolution and Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-057-1

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Abstract

Details

The Age of Entrepreneurship Education Research: Evolution and Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-057-1

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Birton Cowden and Jintong Tang

This chapter provides a theoretical evaluation of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) to demonstrate some of its current shortcomings for being a construct to categorize…

Abstract

This chapter provides a theoretical evaluation of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) to demonstrate some of its current shortcomings for being a construct to categorize entrepreneurial firms. To do this, we explore all the facets of how a firm can be entrepreneurial and the nuances of how firms can differ in their entrepreneurial approach, which EO currently does not capture. We argue that while EO’s rise in popularity stems from its simplicity, this simplicity has provided it with longevity challenges to keep up with evolving entrepreneurial behaviors within firms. We note these issues in hopes to extend the life of EO, and we provide future recommendations on how to put EO on that path.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Rod B. McNaughton and Rakinder S. Sembhi

The literature advises managers that under certain conditions developing an entrepreneurial orientation (EO) may lead to superior financial performance. However, little guidance…

Abstract

The literature advises managers that under certain conditions developing an entrepreneurial orientation (EO) may lead to superior financial performance. However, little guidance has been forthcoming about how to develop an EO and the impediments that may be encountered. Data collected from senior managers in 120 Canadian firms in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector reveal four sets of capabilities that enhance EO (research, recruiting and retention, building customer relationships, and decision-making processes), and three primary impediments (risk-aversity, complacency, and scarcity of capital or other resources). This study provides practical insight into how firms can develop their EO.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2013

Jullet A. Davis, Louis D. Marino and Mariangela Vecchiarini

This paper explores the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) (i.e., their innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking) and financial performance in nursing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) (i.e., their innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking) and financial performance in nursing homes. We hypothesize that nursing homes that are more proactive will report better short-term financial performance, while when firms with higher propensities for innovativeness and risk-taking will experience poorer financial performance in the short period due to the high costs associated with the initial adoption of innovation and with pursuing high-risks ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2004, a survey was developed and mailed to a population of 670 nursing homes in the state of Florida who were listed in the Florida Nursing Home Guide of the Agency for Health Care Administration. The final sample for this study included 104 respondents. The data from these surveys were merged with additional variables gathered from the 2004 Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) system and the 2004/2005 Medicare Cost Reports (MCR). EO was operationalized using a nine-item scale adapted from Covin and Slevin (1989), and financial performance was assessed using total profit margin.

Findings

The overall findings suggest partial support for the hypotheses. Support was found for the negative relationship between innovativeness and short-term financial performance, but only partial support was found for the relationship between performance and risk-taking. Our results demonstrated that the various aspects of entrepreneurial behaviors have a differential effect on firm performance.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, nursing home administrators may continue to seek ways to be entrepreneurial while understanding that some activities may only lead to short-term profitability. These findings should not dissuade administrators from innovative behaviors. They do suggest, however, that innovative administrators should prepare for some initial decrease in profitability following new service implementation.

Social implications

Findings suggest that to varying degrees, nursing home administrators may view themselves as being entrepreneurial despite the intense pressures from governments, poor public perceptions, decreasing reimbursement, more impaired residents, and increasing competition from substitute providers. Further administrators may need to manage the expectations of key stakeholders when they undertake innovative programs that will support social outcomes but which may not enhance short term financial performance.

Value/originality

This paper demonstrates the complex relationship between entrepreneurial activities and firm performance in nursing homes and has implications for the broader health care setting.

Details

Leading in Health Care Organizations: Improving Safety, Satisfaction and Financial Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-633-0

Keywords

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