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This is the first part of a two‐part paper that considers the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and how these…
This is the first part of a two‐part paper that considers the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and how these benefits apply to claimants who are unable to work because they experience episodes of lost or altered consciousness.Part one considers how the IB/ESA appraisal system works in practice and looks specifically at the legal interpretation of lost and altered consciousness. Part two, which will be published in a future issue, will give practical guidance to advisers.
This is the second instalment of a two‐part paper that aims to consider the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and…
This is the second instalment of a two‐part paper that aims to consider the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and to analyse how this benefit applies to claimants who are unable to work because they experience episodes of lost or altered consciousness.
In the first part of the paper, which featured in Social Care and Neurodisability, Vol. 2 No. 1, the authors considered the legal meaning of lost or altered consciousness and explained how the IB/ESA appraisal and appeals system operates. This second instalment gives practical guidance to advisers who are assisting their clients in applying for ESA and appealing negative decisions to the tribunal (given its ever increasing importance, this paper focuses on ESA; however, the same considerations apply to IB cases).
The paper highlights the complexities and limitations of the benefit system for those suffering with lost and altered consciousness.
Advisers need to think laterally when assisting their clients.
The paper should provide a useful reference point for advisers.
This paper aims to update the recent two‐part review of UK Incapacity Benefit and Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as they affect claimants suffering from…
This paper aims to update the recent two‐part review of UK Incapacity Benefit and Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as they affect claimants suffering from impairments of consciousness.
The paper reviews the changes in legislation and recent opinions and rulings of Upper Tribunal judges.
Altered as well as totally lost consciousness must be considered in legislation. The yardstick is significant loss of awareness or concentration. If alcohol dependence has been diagnosed as an underlying cause then only the effects rather than the mechanism need be considered.
Claimants, advocates and decision makers should use these criteria when applying for, or granting, benefit on these grounds.
There has been little thought given in science to the impact of direct brain‐machine interfacing upon the future development of human consciousness. Even less thought has…
There has been little thought given in science to the impact of direct brain‐machine interfacing upon the future development of human consciousness. Even less thought has been given to the possibilities for both optimizing and thwarting development in the cyborg child. A neurocognitive model of the evolution of cyborg consciousness is summarized, and from this model grounded speculations are offered pertaining to the future development of the higher cognitive functions in the cyborg child. It will be shown that cybernetic implants are “multistable”; that is, the artificial intelligence (AI) component of the cyborg brain‐machine linkage may function to condition development along ideological lines (the brain conditioned by the “ideological chip”), or may operate to open up neurocognitive development to new and heretofore unrealized limits (the brain’s development optimized by the “guru programme”). Development of the cyborg child may be conditioned in the interests of ideological concerns, or may lead to a consciousness that easily transcends all forms of ideology. Application of the guru programme may foster the emergence of new levels of cognitive complexity and information processing (à la Piagetian and neo‐Piagetian theory) that in turn allows new strategies of adaptation previously beyond human comprehension. The ethical and regulatory problems raised by cyborg technologies are addressed.
A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…
A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.