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1 – 10 of 38
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Ann Lahiff, Junmin Li, Lorna Unwin, Lea Zenner-Höffkes and Matthias Pilz

The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in the comparative research literature on vocational education and training (VET) and skill formation systems. It examines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in the comparative research literature on vocational education and training (VET) and skill formation systems. It examines the impact of international technical standardisation and regulation on the design, organisation and delivery of apprenticeships in the aeronautical and aerospace sectors in England and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design was informed by insights from economics, workplace and work-based learning and comparative education. Academic experts in the fields of aerospace and aeronautical standardisation and regulation, VET, human resource development and business organisation were consulted. The generic occupation of “aircraft mechanic” was selected as being the closest match for comparison. Interviews and non-participant observation in workplaces and training centres were carried out involving three companies in England and four in Germany.

Findings

Findings show that there is considerable convergence across the pedagogical approaches to apprenticeships in England and Germany related to fostering the capacity to take responsibility for the quality of one’s work, to work in and lead teams, and to respond to and work with customers. Increasing international regulation and technical standardisation underpins a shared language about learning through practice in technologically advanced workplaces.

Originality/value

This paper is original because it turns the lens of inquiry to workplace processes to reveal the level of convergence in training philosophies and practices in an internationally highly regulated sector. It shows how international technical standardisation and regulation is leading to pedagogical innovation. The findings have implications for VET and apprenticeship policy at the national and international level.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Alison Fuller and Lorna Unwin

The purpose of this paper is to: first, outline the features of the contemporary apprenticeship system, and its performance in terms of the numbers starting and completing…

7661

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: first, outline the features of the contemporary apprenticeship system, and its performance in terms of the numbers starting and completing programmes; and second, to report the findings of empirical research which sought to identify the characteristics of effective apprenticeship.

Design/methodology/approach

Two contrasting sectors were selected to identify aspects of provision that generate “success”: “engineering”, which has a long tradition of apprenticeships and “business administration”, which has a shorter history of involvement. Four organizations, two from each sector, were selected from those, which had gained the highest grade in the formal inspection of apprenticeship provision undertaken by the Adult Learning Inspectorate. Interviews were carried out with training personnel and investigated issues such as the organisation's rationale(s) for employing apprentices; the costs and benefits associated with the approach; the structure of the training and the pedagogical processes employed; and the links between the programme and career progression.

Findings

The findings in the paper indicate that effective apprenticeships are strongly associated with a sustained organisational commitment to apprenticeship. This stems from an identifiable business case to recruit and train young people and a concern with their personal (long‐term) as well as job‐specific (short‐term) development. This approach is manifested through the development of programmes which ensure that apprentices participate in a wide range of co‐ordinated and progressive work and learning opportunities.

Originality/value

The paper identifies a range of good practice features emerging from the case studies and discusses the prospects for extending this approach to other industries and occupations.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Alison Fuller, Vanessa Beck and Lorna Unwin

Gender segregation has been a persistent feature of apprenticeship programmes in countries around the world. In the UK, the Modern Apprenticeship was launched ten years…

4639

Abstract

Purpose

Gender segregation has been a persistent feature of apprenticeship programmes in countries around the world. In the UK, the Modern Apprenticeship was launched ten years ago as the government's flagship initiative for training new entrants in a range of occupational sectors. One of its priorities was to increase male and female participation in “non‐traditional” occupations, that is, those normally practised by just one sex. However, recent figures show that the programme has failed to achieve its aim and this has prompted an investigation by the Equal Opportunities Commission. This paper aims to report the research as part of this investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents quantitative and qualitative evidence on the attitudes of young people (aged 14 and 15) and employers to non‐traditional occupational choices. It also explores the factors affecting the decisions of young people to train in a non‐traditional occupation and the recruitment decisions of employers from “traditional sectors”, such as engineering, the construction trades and child care.

Findings

The research provides evidence of the deeply entrenched nature of occupational stereotypes and the psychological and social barriers that have to be overcome if a more evenly balanced workforce is to be created. It also reveals that none of the institutions and organisations which act as gatekeepers between young people and employers is, as yet, taking responsibility for challenging their perceptions and decision‐making processes.

Originality/value

The paper concludes by highlighting the implications of the research findings to stakeholders and suggesting a holistic approach to tackling gender segregation.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 47 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Dan J Bye

This paper reviews the needs of distance learners, and looks at ways in which the Internet can assist or obstruct service provision to off‐campus students. A hybrid…

Abstract

This paper reviews the needs of distance learners, and looks at ways in which the Internet can assist or obstruct service provision to off‐campus students. A hybrid approach is recommended. The Internet's impact on the role of librarians involved in supporting distance learners is briefly discussed.

Details

VINE, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

166

Abstract

Details

Education + Training, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

235

Abstract

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Denise Baker

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on evidence relating to the development and delivery of apprenticeships and its potential implications for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on evidence relating to the development and delivery of apprenticeships and its potential implications for pre-registration healthcare education.

Design/methodology/approach

An iterative review of English language literature published after 1995 to date relating to apprentices and apprenticeships was undertaken. In total, 20 studies were identified for inclusion. Only three related to the most recent apprenticeship initiative in the UK, and the majority were UK based.

Findings

Three key themes were identified: entering an apprenticeship, the learning environment and perceptions of apprenticeships. Successful completion of an apprenticeship relies heavily on both understanding the role the apprentice is seeking to inhabit, as well as well-structured and comprehensive support whilst on the programme. These findings are then discussed with reference to professional body requirements and pre-registration education in healthcare.

Practical implications

Appropriate work experience and support for learning are critical to apprenticeship success and apprenticeships should be given equal status to traditional healthcare education routes.

Originality/value

The introduction of the Apprenticeship Levy in April 2017 (Finance Act, 2016), acknowledgement that all National Health Service Trusts will be levy payers and the introduction of targets relating to apprenticeships for public sector employers have all contributed to growing interest in the apprenticeship agenda in health and social care.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Denise Baker

The purpose of this paper is to investigate apprenticeship developments in two National Health Service (NHS) organisations since the introduction of the apprenticeship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate apprenticeship developments in two National Health Service (NHS) organisations since the introduction of the apprenticeship levy in April 2017 and considers potential impact on social mobility. This is a pilot for a broader exploration of implementation of government apprenticeship policy in the NHS.

Design/methodology/approach

Following ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with two key informants with responsibility for education and training in their respective organisations. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to identify major and sub-themes of the interviews.

Findings

Four major themes were identified – organisational readiness, the apprenticeship offer, opportunities for further development and potential problems with implementation. Both organisations were actively seeking opportunities to spend their levy and had developed local strategies to ensure this. The levy was being used to develop both new and existing staff, with leadership and management being particularly identified as an area of growth. Similarly, both organisations were using levy monies to develop the bands 1–4 roles, including the nursing associate. The affordability and bureaucracy of apprenticeships were seen as potential problems to the wider implementation of apprenticeships in the NHS.

Practical implications

Although the apprenticeship levy is being spent in the NHS, there are some challenges for employers in their delivery. The levy is offering new and existing staff the opportunity to undertake personal and professional development at a range of educational levels. This has the potential to increase and upskill the NHS workforce, improve social mobility and possibly lead to larger cultural and professional changes.

Originality/value

This paper offers an early insight into the implementation of apprenticeship policy in a large public sector employer such as the NHS.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2008

Lorna McLean

This article probes the dimensions of a newly constructed, modern citizenship within the context of post‐war tensions between a national history that recognised and…

Abstract

This article probes the dimensions of a newly constructed, modern citizenship within the context of post‐war tensions between a national history that recognised and asserted sexual, racial, and cultural differences and an assimilationist state drive that enshrined one law and one way of life. In particular, I address the question of what we can learn about gender and race relations and their relationship to national identities and citizenship by studying government and educational policies and publications. As recent scholarship on education and citizenship has observed, issues surrounding national identity/identities, citizenship, and education in Australia were critical to state formation from the late 1940s to the 1960s. This research has done much to expand our understanding of the pedagogical and curriculum components of citizenship education and the central role of teachers within the education enterprise. As well, other scholars have informed our understanding of the related processes of post‐war social adjustment of young people. This article draws on a range of theories and perspectives from post‐colonial literature, cultural and performance studies, and critical ‘race’ and feminist theories to analyse the texts and images. A discourse analysis of these documents highlight the complex and competing forms of identity/identities, colonialism, ‘race’, and gender. In particular, I address the following questions: First, what representations of modern young citizens were featured as part of the ‘Australian way of life’ in both state education policies and publications? Second, in what ways were gender and ‘race’ constitutive of Australian citizenship? Third, how do the images and texts in these publications manifest the multiple performances of education in the 1950s and 1960s? Although this study focuses on education reforms, the results of the research speak to wider issues of historical representation, gender, and culture and the complicated relationship between state policy, nationalism, and reform.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Philipp Grollmann and Felix Rauner

The purpose of this paper is to show that the quality of learning in German apprenticeships can be increased without raising costs under certain conditions. It starts with…

2088

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the quality of learning in German apprenticeships can be increased without raising costs under certain conditions. It starts with a contextual description of apprenticeship in the dual system, showing that this insight is of central importance, since employers in Germany are increasingly withdrawing from apprenticeship provision.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a case study‐methodology and shows one selected case out of 24 presented. The selected case is then related to the findings of the other cases explored.

Findings

The findings in the paper imply that quality of apprenticeships can be improved without an increase in costs, challenge the classical economics of apprenticeship. “Grounded” indicators of quality in apprenticeship are formulated: learning in productive work processes is a core characteristic of apprenticeships; the productive work apprentices engage in needs to follow a well thought through sequential logic; learning is based on a high degree of autonomy; learning is embedded into the business process; client satisfaction provides an important quality benchmark; commitment to occupation and the company can provide a source of responsibility and quality; and professional competence is the ultimate goal of learning.

Research limitations/implications

The results in the paper were further processed into a self‐evaluation tool assisting companies in their cost‐benefit calculation. The developed standardised instrument was not tested in an international context. Both instruments presented could be further validated by taking up the view of multiple stakeholders and comparing results with alternative methodologies of assessing the learning quality.

Practical implications

The paper suggests an intensified integration of apprenticeship training into productive work processes. In order to turn this into quality learning the complexity of tasks needs to be increased over the course of apprenticeship.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a new look at the costs of apprenticeships. Therefore, it is of interest to researchers and managers with an interest in apprenticeship training.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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