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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Joseph Chow, Ada Tse and Christine Armatas

The purpose of this paper is to report undergraduate students’ learning gains in six areas of generic skills. The paper reports on students’ responses to the First Year…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report undergraduate students’ learning gains in six areas of generic skills. The paper reports on students’ responses to the First Year Experience (FYE) Survey completed at the end of their first year and Graduating Student Survey (GSS) in the final semester of their final year.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a longitudinal design was applied in data collection, analysis and reporting of assessment if student learning gains. The undergraduate students who were the first cohort of four-year curriculum students in a Hong Kong university were selected as the sample. Repeated measures of reported learning gains of a longitudinal sample based on stacking of both FYE and GSS data were analysed using the Rasch model.

Findings

The results showed that the scale for measuring the six areas of generic skills had high reliability and good person separation. Comparison of repeated measures from the same group of students at the two time points were examined to explore whether there is growth in the generic skills during their university studies.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study was the relatively small sample size of 359 students in one higher education institution.

Practical implications

The findings of the study provide insight into conceptual understanding and measurement of university student learning gains.

Originality/value

Whilst several studies have investigated university student learning gains, there is limited research which explores the use Rasch modelling in assessment of student learning gains in multiple areas towards completion of their undergraduate studies.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Malcolm Tight

This chapter provides a review of existing research on learning gain and related topics in higher education. The methodology adopted is a form of systematic review. The…

Abstract

This chapter provides a review of existing research on learning gain and related topics in higher education. The methodology adopted is a form of systematic review. The origins and meaning of learning gain, and its relation to similar terms, are discussed. The ways in which learning gain has been applied in practice and in research are considered. The issues raised by this practice and research are examined, and the various criticisms made are reviewed. Some conclusions are then drawn.

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Learning Gain in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-280-5

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Katrina Crotts Roohr, Margarita Olivera-Aguilar and Ou Lydia Liu

For more than a decade, there has been an increased focus on the need for accountability and transparency about the value that United States and international higher…

Abstract

For more than a decade, there has been an increased focus on the need for accountability and transparency about the value that United States and international higher education institutions add to students' knowledge and skills to help increase their economic productivity and career opportunities. This focus on accountability and transparency within the U.S. dates to 2005 when former US Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings established a Commission on the Future of Higher Education to develop a national strategy for higher education reform. This led to an increased focus on measuring value added within higher education institutions and using value-added scores to make institutional comparisons. This chapter presents a brief history of value added within the United States and presents high-level summaries of initiatives, assessments used to measure value added, and a review of how value added is measured. We also present challenges around methodology and interpretation of results. Lastly, we discuss some of the future directions in evaluating value added in higher education and areas for future research.

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Learning Gain in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-280-5

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Sezer Çoban

This paper aims to investigate the autonomous performance optimization of a research-based hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle (i.e. HUAV) manufactured at Iskenderun Technical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the autonomous performance optimization of a research-based hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle (i.e. HUAV) manufactured at Iskenderun Technical University.

Design/methodology/approach

To maximize the autonomous performance of this HUAV, longitudinal and lateral dynamics were initially obtained. Then, the optimum magnitudes of the autopilot system parameters were estimated by considering the vehicle’s dynamic model and autopilot parameters.

Findings

After determining the optimum values of the longitudinal and lateral autopilots, an improved design for the autonomously controlled (AC) HUAV was achieved in terms of real-time flight.

Practical implications

Simultaneous improvement of the longitudinal and lateral can be used for better HUAV operations.

Originality/value

In this paper, the autopilot systems (i.e. longitudinal and lateral) of an HUAV are for the first time simultaneously designed in the literature. This helps the simultaneous improvement of the longitudinal and lateral flight trajectory tracking performances.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Johnmarshall Reeve and Sung Hyeon Cheon

Our ongoing program of research works with teachers to help them become more autonomy supportive during instruction and hence more able to promote students’ classroom…

Abstract

Purpose

Our ongoing program of research works with teachers to help them become more autonomy supportive during instruction and hence more able to promote students’ classroom motivation and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

We have published five experimentally based, longitudinally designed, teacher-focused intervention studies that have tested the effectiveness and educational benefits of an autonomy-supportive intervention program (ASIP).

Findings

Findings show that (1) teachers can learn how to become more autonomy supportive and less controlling toward students, (2) students of the teachers who participate in ASIP report greater psychological need satisfaction and lesser need frustration, (3) these same students report and behaviorally display a wide range of important educational benefits, such as greater classroom engagement, (4) teachers benefit as much from giving autonomy support as their students do from receiving it as teachers show large postintervention gains in outcomes such as teaching efficacy and job satisfaction, and (5) these ASIP-induced benefits are long lasting as teachers use the ASIP experience as a professional developmental opportunity to upgrade the quality of their motivating style.

Originality/value

Our ASIP helps teachers learn how to better support their students’ autonomy during instruction. The value of this teaching skill can be seen in teachers’ and students’ enhanced classroom experience and functioning.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Seongpil Kim, Agus Budiyono, Jang‐Ho Lee, DooHyun Kim and Kwang Joon Yoon

The purpose of this paper is to conduct the design, development and testing of a controller for an autonomous small‐scale helicopter.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct the design, development and testing of a controller for an autonomous small‐scale helicopter.

Design/methodology/approach

The hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) platform is developed based on the nonlinear model of JR Voyager G‐260 small‐scale helicopter. Autonomous controllers are verified using the HILS environment prior to flight experiments.

Findings

The gains of the multi‐loop cascaded control architecture can be effectively optimized within the HILS environment. Various autonomous flight operations are achieved and it is demonstrated that the prediction from the simulations is in a good agreement with the result from the flight test.

Research limitations/implications

The synthesized controller is effective for the particular test‐bed. For other small‐scale helicopters (with different size and engine specifications), the controller gains must be tuned again.

Practical implications

This work represents a practical control design and testing procedures for an autonomous small‐scale helicopter flight control. The autonomous helicopter can be used for various missions ranging from film making, agriculture and volcanic surveillance to power line inspection.

Originality/value

The research addresses the need for systematic design, development and testing of controller for a small‐scale autonomous helicopter by utilizing HILS environment.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 82 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2020

Oguz Kose and Tugrul Oktay

The purpose of this paper is to design a quadrotor with collective morphing using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) optimization algorithm.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a quadrotor with collective morphing using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) optimization algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

Quadrotor design is made by using Solidworks drawing program and some mathematical performance relations. Modelling and simulation are performed in Matlab/Simulink program by using the state space model approaches with the parameters mostly taken from Solidworks. Proportional integral derivative (PID) approach is used as control technique. Morphing amount and the best PID coefficients are determined by using SPSA algorithm.

Findings

By using SPSA algorithm, the amount of morphing and the best PID coefficients are determined, and the quadrotor longitudinal and lateral flights are made most stable via morphing.

Research limitations/implications

It takes quite a long time to model the quadrotor in Solidworks and Matlab/Simulink with the state space model and using the SPSA algorithm. However, this situation is overcome with the proposed model.

Practical implications

Optimization with SPSA is very useful in determining the amount of morphing and PID coefficients for quadrotors.

Social implications

SPSA optimization method is useful in terms of cost, time and practicality.

Originality/value

It is released to improve performance with morphing, to determine morphing rate with SPSA algorithm and to determine PID coefficients accordingly.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Peter J.C. Sleegers, Eric E.J. Thoonen, Frans J. Oort and Thea T.D. Peetsma

Elementary schools have been confronted with large-scale educational reforms as strategies to improve the educational quality. While building school-wide capacity for…

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Abstract

Purpose

Elementary schools have been confronted with large-scale educational reforms as strategies to improve the educational quality. While building school-wide capacity for improvement is considered critical for changing teachers’ classroom practices, there is still little empirical evidence for link between enhanced school capacity for improvement and instructional change. In this study, the authors examined the impact of school improvement capacity on changes in teachers’ classroom practices over a period of time. Leadership practices, school organizational conditions, teacher motivation and teacher learning were used to measure school-wide capacity for improvement. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed-model analysis of longitudinal data over a four years (2005-2008) period of time from 862 teachers of 32 Dutch elementary schools were used to test the impact of school improvement capacity on changing teachers’ instructional practices.

Findings

The results showed that organizational-level conditions and teacher-level conditions play an important, but different role in changing teachers’ classroom practices. Whereas teacher factors mainly affect changes in teachers’ classroom practices, organizational factors are of significant importance to enhance teacher motivation and teacher learning.

Research limitations/implications

More longitudinal research is needed to gain better insight into the opportunities and limits of building school-wide capacity to stimulate instructional change.

Practical implications

By encouraging teachers to question their own beliefs, facilitating opportunities for teachers to work together to solve problems, and through the promotion of shared decision making, school leaders can reinforce the personal and social identification of teachers with the organization. As a consequence, teachers will feel increasingly committed and are more willing to change their classroom practices. Additionally, school leaders can use the findings from this study and the related instrument as a tool for school self-evaluation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the nature of changes in conditions for school improvement and its influence on changes in teachers’ instructional practices over a period of time.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 52 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2001

Kenneth K. Boyer

This study presents a longitudinal analysis of patterns of investment in advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT) and financial performance. Investments in AMT from fifty…

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209

Abstract

This study presents a longitudinal analysis of patterns of investment in advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT) and financial performance. Investments in AMT from fifty manufacturing plants in the metalworking industries are examined. Data was collected via mail surveys administered to fifty manufacturing plants at three separate data collection times: 1994, 1996, and 1998. This study seeks to fill a void in the area of technology management, which is comprised primarily of cross‐sectional studies that do not address the dynamic nature of investments in technology. The results suggest differences in the evolutionary profile of several technologies, including e‐mail, bar coding, robotics, and computer aided design. Further tests indicate that there is a positive relationship between many of these technologies and plant financial performance. Finally, the longitudinal data suggest that there is approximately a two‐year time lag between investment in technology and performance improvements.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Elizabeth S. White

Numerous studies have shown that community service during adolescence is associated with positive youth outcomes and future civic engagement (Reinders and Youniss, 2006;…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous studies have shown that community service during adolescence is associated with positive youth outcomes and future civic engagement (Reinders and Youniss, 2006; Yates and Youniss, 1996). However, less is known about the ways in which students participate in and perceive intermittent, noncurricular community service. The purpose of this study is to examine seventh and eighth grade students' (N = 22) experiences during a common school-wide community service event: the canned food drive.

Design/methodology/approach

Data include students' journal responses to questions about the food drive including their feelings about the event, learning that took place, positive parts of the drive and challenges. An inductive qualitative analysis was used.

Findings

Analysis of students' responses revealed that most students perceived themselves and their classmates as being very helpful to the community and described feeling happiness and pride from the event, even when participation was minimal or nonexistent. While some students reported awareness of poverty and inequality after the food drive, many of their comments about those receiving the donations included deficit-oriented terminology and cognitive distancing by positioning those experiencing food insecurity as “the other” and different from themselves.

Practical implications

Findings highlight the benefits and shortcomings of community service, as class biases and surface-level ideas about helping may be unintentionally reinforced. Recommendations to address these issues are discussed.

Originality/value

Given the prevalence of community service in schools, qualitative research is needed to understand firsthand how students experience these events.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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