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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Tobias Feldhoff, Falk Radisch and Linda Marie Bischof

The purpose of this paper is to focus on challenges faced by longitudinal quantitative analyses of school improvement processes and offers a systematic literature review…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on challenges faced by longitudinal quantitative analyses of school improvement processes and offers a systematic literature review of current papers that use longitudinal analyses. In this context, the authors assessed designs and methods that are used to analyze the relation between school improvement processes and student outcomes. Based on this the authors point out to what extent the papers consider different aspects of the complex nature of school improvement (e.g. multilevel structure, indirect and nonlinear effects, reciprocity). The choice of study designs and methods of analysis substantially determines which aspects of this complexity are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors searched in four international high-impact journals and in ERIC for articles reporting longitudinal school improvement studies. The database of the review consisted of a total of 428 journal articles. In total, 13 of the 428 papers met the selection criteria and were analyzed in detail.

Findings

The analyzed papers use a wide range of designs and methodological approaches. They support the assumption that sophisticated quantitative longitudinal designs and methods can be applied effectively in school improvement research. However, considering the complexity of school improvement is accompanied by high demands on designs and methods. Due to this none of the papers met the standards applied in this review completely.

Research limitations/implications

In particular, further research is needed to consider a long period of observation, reciprocal indirect and nonlinear processes in a multilevel structure. Moreover, research is required for a better and unambiguous theoretical foundation and empirical validation of the number of and intervals between measurement points.

Practical implications

If more consideration is given to the complex nature of school improvement in future studies, the broader knowledge base will allow a better understanding of the dynamic relation of school improvement and student learning. It would thus be possible to make more appropriate recommendations for the support of school improvement practice.

Originality/value

The original contribution of the paper is to show which aspects of the complexity of school improvement processes – and to what extent – are currently addressed in designs and methods of analysis applied in quantitative longitudinal studies that investigate the relation between schools’ capacity to managing change and student outcomes. Additionally the authors aim at deriving need for further research and giving guidelines how designs and methods in further studies can reflect the complexity appropriately. It is highly important to consider all aspects of this complexity to describe and understand the dynamic relation of school improvement processes and student outcomes.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Rachel S. Rauvola, Cort W. Rudolph and Hannes Zacher

In this chapter, the authors consider the role of time for research in occupational stress and well-being. First, temporal issues in studying occupational health…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors consider the role of time for research in occupational stress and well-being. First, temporal issues in studying occupational health longitudinally, focusing in particular on the role of time lags and their implications for observed results (e.g., effect detectability), analyses (e.g., handling unequal durations between measurement occasions), and interpretation (e.g., result generalizability, theoretical revision) were discussed. Then, time-based assumptions when modeling lagged effects in occupational health research, providing a focused review of how research has handled (or ignored) these assumptions in the past, and the relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches were discussed. Finally, recommendations for readers, an accessible tutorial (including example data and code), and discussion of a new structural equation modeling technique, continuous time structural equation modeling, that can “handle” time in longitudinal studies of occupational health were provided.

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Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Fakir M. Sahoo

This paper covers different types of research designs, like, longitudinal, cross-section and sequential design, experimental design (including factorial experimental design

Abstract

This paper covers different types of research designs, like, longitudinal, cross-section and sequential design, experimental design (including factorial experimental design), and correlational design, with illustrative examples. This paper will help a scholar to know how choice of research design depends on a number of parameters, highlighted by author.

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Methodological Issues in Management Research: Advances, Challenges, and the Way Ahead
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-973-2

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Jinglong Liu, Zhonghua Wu, Xiaowen Xing and Qizhi He

The purpose of this paper is to find an omnidirectional robust gust response stabilization (GRS) scheme with anti-disturbance and state-limited features.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find an omnidirectional robust gust response stabilization (GRS) scheme with anti-disturbance and state-limited features.

Design/methodology/approach

Disturbance observer and barrier Lyapunov techniques, which can, respectively, estimate the lumped disturbances of the dynamic system in real-time and ensure the middle states within some prescribed ranges according to some flight safety indexes.

Findings

In the existing literature, almost all of the GRS controllers are either only for the longitudinal dynamics or only for the latitudinal dynamics. Few studies have considered the gust response alleviation problem with omnidirectional wind disturbance and full aircraft model.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a fresh scheme to deal with a more holistic GRS problem; the disturbance observer based (DOB) barrier Lyapunov backstepping longitudinal controller has been put forward; DOB nonlinear dynamic inversion to handle the multi-input-multi-output lateral dynamics; and to closely connect the two loops of the latitudinal dynamics, a manipulating variable conversion method is proposed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Enrique Murillo and Ceridwyn King

The purpose of this study is to extend previous research by using a longitudinal design to examine the differential contribution of brand understanding (BU) drivers at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extend previous research by using a longitudinal design to examine the differential contribution of brand understanding (BU) drivers at various moments in the early tenure of service employees. Employee BU is a prerequisite of brand promise delivery among service employees. Previous studies, using cross-sectional samples, established that brand-oriented recruitment, training and leadership are significant BU drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-wave survey was collected from a 105-member panel of recent hires at a restaurant chain that displayed a strong brand culture and adopted internal brand management (IBM) practices. Structural equation models with carryover effects were estimated to measure the impact of BU drivers on Day 1, as well as at four and seven months of tenure. In addition, a latent growth model of BU was estimated using random coefficients modeling.

Findings

Results show a significant positive effect of IBM practices on BU at each point in time; however, despite this, by the seven month milestone, BU is still not fully developed.

Research limitations/implications

As with most organizational longitudinal studies, there was sample attrition because of the high turnover that characterizes the restaurant industry. This attrition is not believed to be correlated with the variables measured in the study.

Practical implications

Managers seeking a differentiated customer experience should not assume new hires attain a good understanding of the service brand even after the first seven months of tenure. Hence, brand training and leadership should extend well beyond this time frame.

Originality/value

This study is the first, as per the authors’ understanding, to use a longitudinal design to model BU as a dynamic variable because it befits the learning trajectories of new employees.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

M. Vijaya Kumar, Prasad Sampath, S. Suresh, S.N. Omkar and Ranjan Ganguli

This paper aims to present the design of a stability augmentation system (SAS) in the longitudinal and lateral axes for an unstable helicopter.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the design of a stability augmentation system (SAS) in the longitudinal and lateral axes for an unstable helicopter.

Design/methodology/approach

The feedback controller is designed using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control with full state feedback and LQR with output feedback approaches. SAS is designed to meet the handling qualities specification known as Aeronautical Design Standard (ADS‐33E‐PRF). A helicopter having a soft inplane four‐bladed hingeless main rotor and a four‐bladed tail rotor with conventional mechanical controls is used for the simulation studies. In the simulation studies, the helicopter is trimmed at hover, low speeds and forward speeds flight conditions. The performance of the helicopter SAS schemes are assessed with respect to the requirements of ADS‐33E‐PRF.

Findings

The SAS in the longitudinal axis meets the requirement of the Level 1 handling quality specifications in hover and low speed as well as for forward speed flight conditions. The SAS in the lateral axis meets the requirement of the Level 2 handling quality specifications in both hover and low speed as well as for forward speed flight conditions. The requirements of the inter axis coupling is also met and shown for the coupled dynamics case. The SAS in lateral axis may require an additional control augmentation system or adaptive control to meet the Level 1 requirements.

Originality/value

The study shows that the design of a SAS using LQR control algorithm with full state and output feedbacks can be used to meet ADS‐33 handling quality specifications.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Yunpeng Zhang and Haibin Duan

The purpose of this paper is to develop a directional and roll control system for unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) automatic takeoff roll, with the objective of keeping…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a directional and roll control system for unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) automatic takeoff roll, with the objective of keeping the UCAV along the runway centerline and keeping the wings level, especially when there is a crosswind.

Design/methodology/approach

The nonlinear model of the UCAV during takeoff roll is established. The model is linearized about the lateral‐directional equilibrium point at different forward speeds. The approximate directional model and roll model are extracted using time‐scale decomposition technique. Then the directional control law and roll control law are developed using gain scheduling approach. Nose wheel steering, differential brake and rudder are used as the primary directional control device at low, medium and high speeds, respectively, according to both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of their control effectiveness at different speeds. A priority matrix is developed to determine the secondary control device which is used if the primary control device fails, thus the directional control system can have a certain degree of fault tolerance.

Findings

This work developed the directional control law and roll control law by using gain scheduling approach. Experimental results verified that the developed directional and roll control system has high robustness and satisfactory fault tolerance: it can guarantee a safe takeoff under a 50 ft/sec crosswind, even if one directional control device fails, which satisfies the relevant criteria in MIL‐HDBK‐1797.

Practical implications

The directional and roll control system developed can be easily applied to practice and can steer the UCAV during takeoff roll safely, which will considerably increase the autonomy of the UCAV.

Originality/value

The paper shows how time‐scale decomposition technique is employed to extract the approximate directional model and roll model, which simplifies model analysis and control law design. A fault‐tolerant directional control system is designed to improve safety during takeoff.

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Badrinarayan Srirangam Ramaprasad, Nandan Prabhu K.P., Sethumadhavan Lakshminarayanan and Yogesh P. Pai

The purpose of this paper is to outline the various research methods adopted by researchers in studies that have investigated the relationship between human resource…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the various research methods adopted by researchers in studies that have investigated the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational commitment (OC).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted a comprehensive review that covers empirical research on HRM-OC relationship, which was published between 2001 and 2016 in international peer-reviewed journals. A total of 63 empirical studies were included in this review. Authors adopted content analysis to synthesize the findings on the adopted research methods.

Findings

This review clearly indicates the excessive reliance of researchers on specific research methods (i.e. surveys, individual-level analysis, and cross-sectional design). However, there is a steady increase in empirical studies that have adopted mixed-method, multi-actor, and multi-level research designs.

Originality/value

This review has attempted to explore advanced research methods that may offer assistance to overcome methodological limitations of the current HRM-OC literature.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Orland Hoeber

HotMap web search was designed to support exploratory search tasks by adding lightweight visual and interactive features to the commonly used list‐based representation of…

Abstract

Purpose

HotMap web search was designed to support exploratory search tasks by adding lightweight visual and interactive features to the commonly used list‐based representation of web search results. Although laboratory user studies are the most common method for empirically validating the utility of information visualization and information retrieval systems such as this, it is difficult to determine if such studies accurately reflect the tasks of real users. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal user evaluation was conducted in two phases over a ten‐week period to determine how this novel web search interface was being used and accepted in real‐world settings.

Findings

Although the interactive features were not used as extensively as expected, there is evidence that the participants did find them useful. Participants were able to refine their queries easily, although most did so manually. Those that used the interactive exploration features were able to effectively discover potentially relevant documents buried deep in the search results list. Subjective reactions regarding the usefulness and ease‐of‐use of the system were positive, and more than half of the participants continued to use the system even after the study ended.

Originality/value

As a result of conducting this longitudinal study, the author has gained a deeper understanding of how a particular visual and interactive web search interface is being used in the real world, as well as issues associated with resistance to change. These findings may provide guidance for the design, development, and study of next generation interfaces for online information retrieval.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Karen D. Arnold and Katherine Lynk Wartman

Research that tracks low-income populations across educational transitions contains threats to validity that can compromise evidence-based educational policy and practice…

Abstract

Research that tracks low-income populations across educational transitions contains threats to validity that can compromise evidence-based educational policy and practice. The Big Picture Longitudinal Study is a national, multiyear study that follows low-income urban youth who were accepted into college as high school seniors. Triangulating the results of multiple longitudinal data sources showed that reported college aspirations and enrollment intentions were inconsistently and differently reported by students and teachers in the final semester of high school. Relying on a particular data source and time can result in mistakenly equating college aspirations and enrollment behaviors, these findings suggest. In particular, secondary school educators’ inflated assumptions about their students’ college aspirations can obscure the need for supporting multiple pathways to college and work for low-income, first-generation high school seniors.

Details

Paradoxes of the Democratization of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-234-7

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