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Article

Nienke Verstegen, Vivienne de Vogel, Michiel de Vries Robbé and Martijn Helmerhorst

Inpatient violence can have a major impact in terms of traumatic experiences for victims and witnesses, an unsafe treatment climate, and high-financial costs. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

Inpatient violence can have a major impact in terms of traumatic experiences for victims and witnesses, an unsafe treatment climate, and high-financial costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into patterns of violent behavior, so that adequate preventive measures can be taken.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on inpatient violence in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital between 2008 and 2014 were extracted from hospital files on 503 patients.

Findings

More than half of all the patients (n=276, 54.9 percent) displayed verbal aggression on at least one occasion, whereas 27.2 percent of all patients (n=137) exhibited one or more incidents of physical violence. Female patients were responsible for more physically violent episodes than male patients. Patients admitted with a civil court order exhibited more violent behavior than patients with a criminal court order. Violent patients with a civil commitment had a significantly longer length of stay than non-violent patients with a civil commitment. More violence was found to take place on the earlier days of the week.

Originality/value

This study points at important differences between groups of forensic inpatients in frequency and type of inpatient violent behavior and in temporal factors. Interventions aimed at reducing the number of violent incidents should take these differences into account. Further research is necessary to gain more insight into the background of inpatient violence.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article

Benjamin Rosser and Christopher Eccleston

Technology in various forms is being developed and applied to provide new solutions to the increasing prevalence of long‐term health conditions. This article describes the…

Abstract

Technology in various forms is being developed and applied to provide new solutions to the increasing prevalence of long‐term health conditions. This article describes the potential of telehealth and telecare applications in response to increased demands for health and social care. The impact of technology on provision of person‐centred treatment and self‐management is described using the emergent results from the SMART2 project. SMART2 is a multi‐disciplinary collaboration which spans academia, health providers and people with long‐term conditions.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article

Cassandra Perryman and Genevieve Dingle

The purpose of this paper is to summarize research conducted in long-term residential rehabilitation centers, including therapeutic communities (TCs), in order to further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize research conducted in long-term residential rehabilitation centers, including therapeutic communities (TCs), in order to further clarify the effectiveness of this treatment approach and to evaluate the quality of TC research conducted in the period 2000-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The composite search engine UQ database Summon were used to find articles with “Therapeutic Community” as title words, and the search was limited to adult participants, peer-reviewed articles, published between January 2000 and June 2013 in the English language. The review was conducted using Cochrane Collaboration methods and reported under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses guidelines.

Findings

In total, 25 studies met inclusion criteria for the review and represented data from n=5,923 participants in the USA, Australia, Spain, England, and Belgium. Evidence supports the TC approach for a diverse range of individuals who misuse a range of substances. Several studies reported a relationship between retention and outcomes however dropout from treatment is a widespread issue. A paucity of research using multiple time points precludes any firm conclusions regarding the optimal length of treatment in a TC. There is a lack of research on the interplay between individual and community-level factors on client well-being, retention, and longer term outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This review highlights the need for TC research that includes multiple time points and follow-up assessments, and measures of change in theoretically meaningful constructs alongside standard measures of demographics, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms.

Practical implications

The reporting format of TC research should be better standardized in order to create a better basis for research comparison. More standardized reporting would also allow for effect size analysis, and create a more efficacious evidence base.

Originality/value

This updates the systematic review body of research.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article

Tatenda Kondoni and Christos Kouimtsidis

Opioid substitution treatment is effective in reducing harm for the person and society. However, the introduction of the recovery agenda has changed treatment philosophy…

Abstract

Purpose

Opioid substitution treatment is effective in reducing harm for the person and society. However, the introduction of the recovery agenda has changed treatment philosophy. Associated targets such as successful treatment completions have introduced new expectations from treatment providers and service users. The purpose of this paper is to provide a service user-centred evaluation of underlying reasons that might prevent them from considering completion of treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten service users who were stable on opioid substitution treatment for more than five years were interviewed face-to-face using a semi-structured format. Detailed inductive coding and thematic analysis of all transcripts was conducted.

Findings

Most participants expressed fear of change to their treatment and in particular reduction of the prescribed medication, due to past traumatic withdrawal experience, fear of relapse, fear of negative impact on their mental and physical health. Nevertheless all were optimistic about their future lives and were hoping to be able to complete their treatment at some point. A three-month follow-up revealed little change, with most participants not considering changing their medication dose in the future.

Practical implications

It could be argued that treatment providers, instead of focussing their efforts on stable service users in promoting treatment exit, should focus on new service users, avoiding coercion to treatment aims and rushed detoxifications.

Originality/value

This small qualitative study confirms results of other recent studies on the same theme and argues for the importance of the quality of the treatment experience of new people accessing treatment.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article

Margaret Richards, Mike Doyle and Peter Cook

Dual‐diagnosis strategies are developing in medium secure services in response to both government policies and clinical need and there has been a move towards integrated…

Abstract

Dual‐diagnosis strategies are developing in medium secure services in response to both government policies and clinical need and there has been a move towards integrated services for this patient group. Substance use that has been a feature of the index offence must be taken into account as much as psychosis or the offending behaviour. Treatment of dual diagnosis relies heavily on cognitive‐behavioural therapies. Relapse in either psychosis or substance use increases risk and re‐admission rates to medium security. This paper reviews the literature on family interventions in dual diagnosis and its applicability to forensic mental health inpatient services. As there appeared to be limited direct evidence, various domains were examined and extrapolated to a forensic setting as appropriate. The review indicates the potential for positive outcomes for families following family interventions in dual diagnosis, which may be beneficial in a forensic setting in lowering risk.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article

Laura Aslan

Therapeutic communities (TC’s) are consciously designed, living-learning environments designed to evoke social, psychological and behavioural change. The success of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Therapeutic communities (TC’s) are consciously designed, living-learning environments designed to evoke social, psychological and behavioural change. The success of the residential TC model saw these community-led, self-help environments for addicts move into custodial settings and early evidence suggests this transition was effective. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence relevant to the effectiveness of prison based, drug-free TCs.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to establish their true efficiency, particular focus has been placed on studies conducted over the last ten years (2007-2017).

Findings

To date, the TC remains superior to other forms of drug treatment in reducing recidivism and drug relapse amongst addicts who offend.

Originality/value

Outcomes of this review highlighted the importance of aftercare in providing transitional support; a fundamental aspect of treatment necessary for success and for maintaining long-term recovery post release.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article

Peter Bishop, Rebecca Tamarchak, Christine Williams and Laszlo Radvanyi

This study aims to investigate into the future of cancer and cancer research in preparation for a strategic plan for a cancer research centre.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate into the future of cancer and cancer research in preparation for a strategic plan for a cancer research centre.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used framework foresight, a method for creating scenarios and their implications developed by the MS program in Foresight at the University of Houston.

Findings

The study identified four scenarios: a continuation scenario in which progress in detecting and treating cancer progressed as it has over the past few decades, a collapse scenario in which attention was diverted from medical research due to a climate crisis, a new equilibrium scenario in which cost became the overriding concern for cancer treatment, and a transformation scenario in which individuals took control of their treatment through Do-It-Yourself remedies. Those scenarios suggested four strategic issues for the planning exercise: the growing volume of genomic and clinical data and the means to learn from it, the increased involvement and influence of patients in diagnosis and treatment, the ability to conduct research in a time of fiscal austerity and declining levels of trust in all professions, including medicine.

Research limitations/implications

The paper not only provides guidance for cancer centers but also for medical practice in general.

Practical implications

The client used the scenarios and their implications as part of its considerations in strategic planning.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first time that Framework Foresight has been applied to a medical topic.

Details

foresight, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article

Margaret Richards, Mike Doyle and Peter Cook

With permission, this paper is an edited and abridged version of an article written by Richards, Doyle and Cook for The British Journal of Forensic Practice (Richards et…

Abstract

With permission, this paper is an edited and abridged version of an article written by Richards, Doyle and Cook for The British Journal of Forensic Practice (Richards et al, 2009), detailing their literature review on family interventions in dual diagnosis and with reference to forensic mental health care. There appeared to be limited direct evidence, therefore various domains were examined and extrapolated to a forensic setting as appropriate. The review indicates the potential for positive outcomes for families following family interventions in dual diagnosis, which may be beneficial in a forensic setting in lowering risk.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article

Lynne Magor-Blatch, Navjot Bhullar, Bronwyn Thomson and Einar Thorsteinsson

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review quantitative research since 2000 on the effectiveness of residential therapeutic communities (TCs) for the treatment

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review quantitative research since 2000 on the effectiveness of residential therapeutic communities (TCs) for the treatment of substance-use disorders with reference to substance-use, crime, mental health and social engagement outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search with broad inclusion criteria resulted in the review of 11 studies. The studies investigated community-based TCs, as well as TCs modified for prisoners, prisoners transitioning to community living and TCs for individuals with co-occurring substance-use and mental health issues.

Findings

Results were analysed by comparing the findings of the studies under investigation, of which three studies investigated within-subjects outcomes, four compared TC treatment with a no-treatment control condition and four compared TC treatment with another treatment condition. Conclusion: consistent with previous systematic reviews of TCs, outcomes varied across studies but indicated TCs are generally effective as a treatment intervention, with reductions in substance-use and criminal activity, and increased improvement in mental health and social engagement evident in a number of studies reviewed.

Research limitations/implications

Variability in outcomes suggests further TC research and research syntheses focusing on a second key research question in the evaluation of complex interventions – how the intervention works – could play an important role in understanding TC effectiveness, and for whom it is effective and in what contexts.

Practical implications

Although there is some variability in treatment populations included in this review, evidence reported in other studies suggests individuals with severe substance-use disorders, mental health issues, forensic involvement and trauma histories, will benefit from TC treatment. This is supported by the literature which has found a general relationship between severity of substance use and treatment intensity (Darke et al., 2012; De Leon et al., 2008) with outcomes further enhanced by self-selection into treatment and appropriate client-treatment matching (see De Leon, 2010; De Leon et al., 2000, 2008). The weight of evidence gleaned from multiple sources of research, including randomised control trials and field outcome studies (De Leon, 2010) suggests TCs are an important and effective treatment for clients in improving at least some aspects of their quality of life, specifically mental health and social engagement, and in reducing harmful behaviours, including substance-use and crime. Variability in treatment setting and populations reflect the real-world setting in which TC treatment is delivered, providing a multifaceted treatment modality to a complex population in variable circumstances.

Originality/value

The strength of the current study is that it provided a broad evaluation of TC effectiveness across a range of outcomes (substance-use, criminal activity, mental health and social engagement), and is therefore valuable in updating the current literature and providing context for future research in this area. It aimed to address a key question in evaluating complex interventions: whether they are effective as they are delivered. Findings suggest that TC treatment is generally effective for the populations of concern in reducing substance use and criminal activity and contributing to some improvement in mental health and social engagement outcomes.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Book part

Peter Huaiyu Chen, Sheen X. Liu and Chunchi Wu

Current US tax laws provide investors an incentive to time the sales of their bonds to minimize tax liability. This gives rise to a tax-timing option that affects bond…

Abstract

Current US tax laws provide investors an incentive to time the sales of their bonds to minimize tax liability. This gives rise to a tax-timing option that affects bond value. In reality, corporate bond investors’ tax-timing strategy is complicated by risk of default. Existing term structure models have ignored the effect of the tax-timing option, and how much corporate bond value is due to the tax-timing option is unknown. In this chapter, we assess the effects of taxes and stochastic interest rates on the timing option value and equilibrium price of corporate bonds by considering discount and premium amortization, multiple trading dates, transaction costs, and changes in the level and volatility of interest rates. We find that the value of the tax-timing option accounts for a substantial proportion of corporate bond price even when interest rate volatility is low. Ignoring the timing option value results in overestimation of credit spread, and underestimation of default probability and the marginal investor’s income tax rate. These estimation biases generally increase with bond maturity and credit risk.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-285-6

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