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Emergency services face increasing frontline pressure to support those experiencing mental health crises. Calls have been made for police and ambulance staff to receive…
Emergency services face increasing frontline pressure to support those experiencing mental health crises. Calls have been made for police and ambulance staff to receive training on mental health interventions, prevention of risk and inter-professional collaboration. Mental health simulation training, a powerful educational technique that replicates clinical crises for immersive and reflective training, can be used to develop competencies in emergency staff. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mental health simulation training for police and ambulance staff.
In total, 199 participants from the London Metropolitan Police Service and London Ambulance Service attended a one-day simulation training course designed to promote effective and professional responses to mental health crises. Participants took part in one of six simulated scenarios involving mental health crisis before completing structured debriefs with expert facilitators. Participants’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards mental illness were measured quantitatively using pre- and post-course questionnaires while participants’ perceived influence on clinical practice was measured qualitatively using post-course open-text surveys.
Statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy and attitudes towards mental illness were found. Thematic analyses of open-text surveys found key themes including improved procedural knowledge, self-efficacy, person-centred care and inter-professional collaboration.
This study demonstrates that mental health simulation is an effective training technique that improves self-efficacy, attitudes and inter-professional collaboration in police and ambulance staff working with people with mental health needs. This technique has potential to improve community-based responses to mental health crises.
Armstrong, Whitworth Aircraft, Ltd., Coventry.—Aircraft, Reconditioning of: Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers), Ltd., Woolston. Aircraft, Spares: Blackburn Aeroplane &…
Armstrong, Whitworth Aircraft, Ltd., Coventry.—Aircraft, Reconditioning of: Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers), Ltd., Woolston. Aircraft, Spares: Blackburn Aeroplane & Motor Co., Ltd., Brough; Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil.—Bitumen: Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd., London, E.C.—Blocks, Terminal: Oliver Pell Control, Ltd., London, S.E.—Brushes: C. H. Leng & Sons, Birmingham.—Camera Spares: Thornton Pickard Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Altrincham.—Canvas Duck: Jas. Stott, Ltd., Oldham.—Coats, Great: L. Silberston & Sons, London, E.—Cylinders: Walter Kidde Co., Ltd., Hanwell.—Dopes and Identification Colours: Nobel Chemical Finishes, Ltd., Slough.—Engines, Aero, Reconditioning and Spares: Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., Filton.—Engines, Aero, Spares, Repair of: D. Napier & Son, Ltd., London, W.—Engines, Aero, Spares: Rolls‐Royce, Ltd., Derby.—Glycerine: D. Thorn & Co., Ltd., Pendleton.—Landplane: De Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., Edgware.—Lay‐out of Moorings and Mark Buoys: Thos. Round & Sons, Scarborough.—Limousines, Humber, Pullman: Rootes, Ltd., Coventry.—Locomotive, Diesel: F. C. Hibbard & Co., Ltd., London, N.W.—Magnetos: British Thomson‐Houston Co., Ltd., Coventry; Rotax, Ltd., London, N.W.—Mahogany: M. A. Morris, London, N.—Nippers: Wynn Timmins & Co., Ltd., Birmingham.—Pantaloons: L. Silberston & Sons, London, E.—Plugs and Sockets: Vickers (Aviation), Ltd., Weybridge.—Pumps, Fuelling: Zwicky, Ltd., Slough.—Thermometers, Radiator: Negretti & Zambra, London, E.C —Transmitters: Standard Telephones and Cables, Ltd., London, N.W.—Trays for Racks: Hobbies, Ltd., Dereham.—Valves W/T: Edison Swan Electric Co.,Ltd., London, W.C.—Waistcoats, Life Saving: Robinson & Cleaver, Ltd., London, W.
This chapter analyses the attitude of local government to combating ethnic inequalities in Great Britain and France. With cities often seen as the ‘machines of…
This chapter analyses the attitude of local government to combating ethnic inequalities in Great Britain and France. With cities often seen as the ‘machines of integration’ and the integration of immigrants happening at the local level, this study looks at the everyday practice in London and Paris.
The response of London to the difficulties of mass migration in the 1950s was initially slow and it took major race riots in the 1970s for significant political change to be made. Boroughs such as Lewisham in South East London responded with policies that reflected their local situation including the formation of the first UK Race Equality Council to give the migrant population a political voice. Although this was a small step, its impact can be seen today with 37% of the council’s workforce coming from a black and minority ethnic (BAME) background.
The attitude of Paris and its Arrondissements shows us another kind of strategy. Its districts follow the multicultural strategy adopted by City hall in 2001, organised around three fields of action: anti-discrimination, citizenship and access to rights and valuing cultures of origin, in the context of extremely strict immigration laws. Examples of positive actions include establishing the advisory body of the city council composed of foreigners, the introduction of courses to learn the French language, special cafes for elderly immigrants, local councillors becoming godparents to illegal immigrants or renovation of the residences of immigrants.
This comparison allows us to see the possible differences in dealing with the same phenomenon, as well as identifying the key factors of its success, which in both cities is predominantly due to the political persuasion of city leaders.
The English banking system before the Panic of 1825, apart from the Bank of England, which maintained a monopoly of joint-stock banking, was one of private partnerships…
The English banking system before the Panic of 1825, apart from the Bank of England, which maintained a monopoly of joint-stock banking, was one of private partnerships both in London and in the provinces, most of which were independent unit banks. Since remittance was the principal function of country banks at this time close ties in the form of correspondent relations developed between country banks and London agents, similar to the structure prevailing in the United States later in the nineteenth century between New York and interior banks. Although efficient in the transfer of funds across space, these networks also proved to be quite efficient in the transmission of financial pressures during panics.
Office markets and particularly international financial centres over the past decade have experienced rapid financialisation, developments and indeed changes in the…
Office markets and particularly international financial centres over the past decade have experienced rapid financialisation, developments and indeed changes in the post-global financial crisis (GFC) landscape. Importantly, the volume and types of international capital flows have witnessed more foreign actors and vehicles entering into the investment landscape with the concentration of investment intensifying within key financial centres. This paper examines the interaction of international real estate capital flows in the London, New York and Tokyo office markets between 2007 and 2017.
Using Real Capital Analytics (RCA) data comprising over 5,700 office property transactions equating to $563bn between 2007 and 2017, the direct global capital flows into the London, New York and Tokyo office markets are assessed using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. Further, Granger causality tests are examined to analyse the short-run interaction of international real estate capital flows into these three major office markets.
By assessing the relativity of internal to external investments in these three central business district (CBD) office markets, differences in market dynamics are highlighted. The London office market is shown to be highly dependent on international flows and the USA, the foremost source of cross-border investment on the global stage. The cointegration and causality analysis indicate that cross-border real estate investment flows in these markets (and financial centres) show both long- and short-run relationships and suggest that the London office market remains more distinct and the most reliant on international capital flows with a wider geographical spread of investment activities and investor types. In the case of New York and Tokyo, these markets appear to be driven by more domestic investment activity and capital seemingly due to subtle factors pertaining to investor home bias, risk aversion and diversification strategies between the markets in the aftermath of the GFC.
Given the importance of the CBD offices in London, New York and Tokyo as an asset class for institutional investors, this paper provides some insights as to their level of connection and the interaction of the international capital flows into these three major cities.