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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Jing Wang and Weisheng Lu

Over the past two decades, building information modeling (BIM) has been promoted as one of the most disruptive innovations across the global architecture, engineering and

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades, building information modeling (BIM) has been promoted as one of the most disruptive innovations across the global architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) community. Nevertheless, despite its widely propagated benefits, BIM adoption in various localities is not progressing excitingly. BIM as an innovation developed from a presumed, general context may not fit well with the specific regulatory, social and cultural settings of a locality. This study aims to tackle the lukewarm local BIM adoption by developing a deployment framework for BIM localization.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon the diffusion of innovation (DoI) theory, a longitudinal case study is designed and conducted by engaging closely with a top cost consultancy company in Hong Kong for forty-one months.

Findings

The findings refuted the “one-size-fits-for-all” view to use a standardized BIM for international users. Rather, an organization needs to undergo a series of localization works to integrate global BIM in its specific local context. The deployment framework outlines the BIM dimensions (i.e. technology, process and protocol) and the mechanisms (i.e. configuration, coupling and reinterpretation) of BIM localization that go through the three “A”s (i.e. analysis, adaption and assimilation) process under a firm's network and contextual factors.

Originality/value

This study improves our understanding of sluggish BIM adoption by attributing it to the gap between general BIM development and the local, unique BIM use context. Proposing the deployment framework, the study also offers a handy tool for prospective executives to localize BIM and harness its power in their respective organizations and localities.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Turkhan Sadigov

The purpose of this paper is to explore relatively neglected side of corruption – citizen-initiated bribe offers – to identify the degree to which citizens on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore relatively neglected side of corruption – citizen-initiated bribe offers – to identify the degree to which citizens on the grassroots level are ready to support top-down government anti-corruption policies.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on Avessalom Podvodny’s framework of modalities, this research analyzes the results of the nationally representative survey of 1,002 respondents, and ten in-depth interviews – both held in Azerbaijan. The author uses both logistic regression and qualitative description to highlight research inferences.

Findings

Modalities provide a new way of making sense of the factors affecting corruption, and informality. Bribe offers are associated with imbalance within Local-Global, Symbol-Content, Active-Passive pairs of modalities. All of the relevant independent variables (except for one), drawn from relevant theories and organized around modalities, are statistically significant in predicting bribe offers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is able to pose and answer fundamental policy questions: why villagers in Azerbaijan prefer to invest in building mosques and cemeteries rather than schools and kindergartens? Why insurance is not perceived as a sphere of business by the Azerbaijani population? On a practical level, the paper shows that governments’ selective focus on bureaucratic graft neglects formidable argument that the problem of corruption is tightly woven into political culture of a post-Soviet society. Simple administrative measures cannot overcome fundamental value orientations within a society.

Originality/value

The paper adds to corruption researchers’ toolkit, by expanding research to factors affecting citizen voluntary choices to bribe. The research shows what specific variables should be considered and which of them are statistically significant in explaining citizen choices.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 5-6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Rotem Shneor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by culture, geography and infrastructure on European airline's decision to launch market‐specific websites.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by culture, geography and infrastructure on European airline's decision to launch market‐specific websites.

Design/methodology/approach

Logistic regression analysis based on 440 observations of home‐target country dyads collected from websites of nine European airlines, and supplemented by additional sources of macro level indicators. The unit of analysis is the country dyad.

Findings

Cultural distance between home and target country, geographical distance between home and target country, website traffic volumes originating from target country, demand conditions in target country, and competition intensity in target country all influence the decision to launch local sites. The cultural dimensions of individualism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance, as well as the legal, commercial and IT infrastructures in target countries don't impact the same decision.

Research limitations/implications

The study's findings are limited contextually to B2C e‐service models, the airline industry and the European origin. Other industries, business models or regional origin of firms may exhibit different patterns.

Originality/value

The study shifts the research focus from what constitutes website localization into what dictates localization efforts' implementation. Surprising findings suggest that counter to earlier suggestions, infrastructural conditions and cultural dimensions' levels in target markets do not predict the launch of local sites, and that geographical distance impact decisions related to the geography neutral medium of the internet.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2004

Nitish Singh, Olivier Furrer and Massimiliano Ostinelli

With the growth of worldwide e‐commerce, companies are increasingly targeting foreign online consumers. However, there is a dearth of evidence as to whether global…

Abstract

With the growth of worldwide e‐commerce, companies are increasingly targeting foreign online consumers. However, there is a dearth of evidence as to whether global consumers prefer to browse and buy from standardized global web sites or web sites adapted to their local cultures. This study provides evidence from five different countries as to whether global consumers prefer local web content or standardized web content. The study also measures how the degree of cultural adaptation on the web affects consumer perception of site effectiveness.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2007

Frederic Carluer

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth

Abstract

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth. Contrariwise, the objective of competitiveness can exacerbate regional and social inequalities, by targeting efforts on zones of excellence where projects achieve greater returns (dynamic major cities, higher levels of general education, the most advanced projects, infrastructures with the heaviest traffic, and so on). If cohesion policy and the Lisbon Strategy come into conflict, it must be borne in mind that the former, for the moment, is founded on a rather more solid legal foundation than the latter” European Commission (2005, p. 9)Adaptation of Cohesion Policy to the Enlarged Europe and the Lisbon and Gothenburg Objectives.

Details

Managing Conflict in Economic Convergence of Regions in Greater Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-451-5

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Barry Gerhart

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human…

Abstract

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human resource management (HRM) strategies and organization cultures to fit with the host country or rather standardize HRM strategies and organization cultures across countries. However, an important vein of academic work assumes that country differences, especially in national culture, are so important that management is “culturally dependent” (Hofstede, 1983) and that “national culture constrains variation in organization cultures” (Johns, 2006). I critically evaluate the logical and empirical evidence (including methodological issues regarding effect size) used to support such constraint arguments and conclude that the evidence is much weaker than widely believed. One implication then is that organizations may be less constrained by national culture differences in managing workforces in different countries than is often claimed. A second implication is that researchers may wish to re-think how they study such issues. I provide suggestions for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-056-8

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2018

Theophilus Azungah, Snejina Michailova and Kate Hutchings

Despite the growing economic importance of Africa, the region has received scant attention in the international human resource management literature. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the growing economic importance of Africa, the region has received scant attention in the international human resource management literature. The purpose of this paper is to address the gap in examining human resource management (HRM) practices in Western multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) subsidiary operations in Ghana, which is a significant foreign direct investment market in Africa. Focusing on recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, and rewards management viewed through the ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) framework, the research emphasizes that effectiveness of the MNEs’ cross-cultural operations has necessitated embracing localization across a range of practices in accordance with the Ghanaian cultural landscape and specificities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on 37 in-depth interviews with managers and employees in eight subsidiaries of British, European and US MNEs in Ghana. Interviews were conducted in 2015 in three locations – the capital city Accra, Tema (in the south) and Tamale (in the north).

Findings

The research reinforces earlier literature emphasizing the importance of paternalism and family and to a lesser extent patronage, but presents new findings in highlighting the erstwhile unexplored role of local chiefs in influencing HRM practices in Western MNEs in Ghana. Utilizing the AMO framework, this paper highlights practices within each HR area that influences performance through impact on employee AMO.

Practical implications

The research informs MNE managers about the strategic importance of observing local cultural practices and designing appropriate strategies for ensuring both operational effectiveness and successful cross-cultural collaboration with local managers and employees in Ghana. It is suggested that if managers implement practices that foster and enhance employee AMO, subsidiaries may benefit from employee potential and discretionary judgment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a dearth of literature on HRM practices of Western MNEs’ subsidiaries in Africa by examining the extent to which MNEs strategically localize their practices to accommodate specificities of the host country cultural context and operate successfully.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Tony Yan and Michael R. Hyman

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product hybridization – defined as a process or strategy that generates symbols, designs, behaviors and cultural identities that blend local and global elements – emerges as a popular intermediate strategy worthy of further inquiry. After examining the mechanisms and processes underlying this strategy, a schema for classifying product hybridization strategies is developed and illustrated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical historical research method is applied to historical data and historical “traces” from pre-communist China’s corporate documents, memoirs, posters, advertisements, newspapers and secondhand sources.

Findings

Strategic interactions between domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China fostered products and a city (Shanghai) containing Chinese and non-Chinese elements. Informed by historical traces and data from pre-communist China (1912-1949), a 2 × 2 classification schema relating company type (i.e. foreign or domestic) to values spectrum endpoint (i.e. domestic vs foreign) was formulated. This schema reflects the value of communication, negotiation and cultural (inter)penetration that accompanies cross-culture product flows.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-culture marketing strategies meant to help companies satisfy diverse marketplace interests can induce a mélange of product design elements. Because product hybridization reflects reciprocity between domestic and foreign companies that embodies multiple interests and contrasting interpretations of product meanings, researchers should examine globalization and localization synergistically.

Practical implications

Strategies adopted by domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can help contemporary companies design effective cross-culture marketing strategies in a global marketplace infused with competing meanings and interests.

Originality/value

Examining historical strategies adopted in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can inform contemporary marketers’ intuitions. Understanding product hybridization in global marketplaces can improve marketing efficiency.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2013

Satoko Suzuki and Kosuke Takemura

To explore and examine cultural differences in the consumer attitudes toward social media.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore and examine cultural differences in the consumer attitudes toward social media.

Methodology/approach

Internet survey.

Findings

The influence of culture toward the consumer attitudes in social media may be less salient compared with other consumer behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

This study is exploratory in nature.

Practical implications

To encourage managers to revisit the issue of globalization versus localization, particularly in the domain of social media.

Originality/value of paper

This study is one of the first attempts in exploring cultural differences in the consumer behavior of social media.

Details

Social Media in Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-898-3

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