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Book part

Kerstin Röse

This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these…

Abstract

This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these variables. Starting with basics of culture-oriented design, these are followed by an approach to machine localization issues and a cost model, then basics of the intercultural design and human machine system engineering process, a definition and specification of intercultural variables, a systematic treatment for their integration into the process, and a description of how to use these variables in the process. Finally, an example of an intercultural variables approach to “information coding” in a human-machine system is presented for China and Germany.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article

Forbes Gibb and Ioannis Matthaiakis

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a framework for assessing the level of localisation on web sites.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a framework for assessing the level of localisation on web sites.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identifies the key forms of localisation that may be evident on a web site. A two‐by‐two matrix is presented which incorporates language in one dimension and non‐language criteria in the other. Web sites are then evaluated against these criteria and mapped onto the matrix to assess the relative level of localisation between web sites. The criteria and matrix have been tested against web sites operating in the Greek exporting sector.

Findings

The framework was found to be easy to use in practice. While a large set of potential localisation criteria were identified, only a subgroup of these criteria are likely to be relevant for any target group of web sites and the framework should therefore be scoped to match the characteristics of the survey group. The issue of localisation was not found to have been addressed to any great extent amongst the sample of Greek exporting companies.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used was small as the prime purpose was to test the usability of the framework, and further evaluations will be needed to confirm these initial findings.

Practical implications

Given the relative poor performance of the Greek exporting sector, localisation is an aspect that should be given higher priority. The framework represents a cost‐effective method for self‐assessment and benchmarking against competitors.

Originality/value

The framework is novel and should be usable by both web designers and users.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

I-hsum Li, Wei-Yen Wang, Chung-Ying Li, Jia-Zwei Kao and Chen-Chien Hsu

This paper aims to demonstrate a cloud-based version of the improved Monte Carlo localization algorithm with robust orientation estimation (IMCLROE). The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate a cloud-based version of the improved Monte Carlo localization algorithm with robust orientation estimation (IMCLROE). The purpose of this system is to increase the accuracy and efficiency of indoor robot localization.

Design/methodology/approach

The cloud-based IMCLROE is constructed with a cloud–client architecture that distributes computation between servers and a client robot. The system operates in two phases: in the offline phase, two maps are built under the MapReduce framework. This framework allows parallel and even distribution of map information to a cloud database in pre-described formats. In the online phase, an Apache HBase is adopted to calculate a pose in-memory and promptly send the result to the client robot. To demonstrate the efficiency of the cloud-based IMCLROE, a two-step experiment is conducted: first, a mobile robot implemented with a non-cloud IMCLROE and a UDOO single-board computer is tested for its efficiency on pose-estimation accuracy. Then, a cloud-based IMCLROE is implemented on a cloud–client architecture to demonstrate its efficiency on both pose-estimation accuracy and computation ability.

Findings

For indoor localization, the cloud-based IMCLROE is much more effective in acquiring pose-estimation accuracy and relieving computation burden than the non-cloud system.

Originality/value

The cloud-based IMCLROE achieves efficiency of indoor localization by using three innovative strategies: firstly, with the help of orientation estimation and weight calculation (OEWC), the system can sort out the best orientation. Secondly, the system reduces computation burden with map pre-caching. Thirdly, the cloud–client architecture distributes computation between the servers and client robot. Finally, the similar energy region (SER) technique provides a high-possibility region to the system, allowing the client robot to locate itself in a short time.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Jing Wang and Weisheng Lu

Over the past two decades, building information modeling (BIM) has been promoted as one of the most disruptive innovations across the global architecture, engineering and…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades, building information modeling (BIM) has been promoted as one of the most disruptive innovations across the global architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) community. Nevertheless, despite its widely propagated benefits, BIM adoption in various localities is not progressing excitingly. BIM as an innovation developed from a presumed, general context may not fit well with the specific regulatory, social and cultural settings of a locality. This study aims to tackle the lukewarm local BIM adoption by developing a deployment framework for BIM localization.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon the diffusion of innovation (DoI) theory, a longitudinal case study is designed and conducted by engaging closely with a top cost consultancy company in Hong Kong for forty-one months.

Findings

The findings refuted the “one-size-fits-for-all” view to use a standardized BIM for international users. Rather, an organization needs to undergo a series of localization works to integrate global BIM in its specific local context. The deployment framework outlines the BIM dimensions (i.e. technology, process and protocol) and the mechanisms (i.e. configuration, coupling and reinterpretation) of BIM localization that go through the three “A”s (i.e. analysis, adaption and assimilation) process under a firm's network and contextual factors.

Originality/value

This study improves our understanding of sluggish BIM adoption by attributing it to the gap between general BIM development and the local, unique BIM use context. Proposing the deployment framework, the study also offers a handy tool for prospective executives to localize BIM and harness its power in their respective organizations and localities.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Justin Williams, Ramudu Bhanugopan and Alan Fish

This paper seeks to provide an overview of the concept of “localization” of human resources in Qatar. Relative to the rest of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide an overview of the concept of “localization” of human resources in Qatar. Relative to the rest of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCCCs), economic development began late in Qatar due to political and economic factors such as the influx of an immigrant labour force and changes in the education system. Now, with one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and the highest per capita income, Qatar has vigorously embraced rapid economic expansion. However, in a small country awash with natural resources, and with a population engulfed by expatriates, the issue of “localization” is a pressing economic and social issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the national human resource situation in this atypical context, and seeks to determine the factors that impact on “localization” in this small, yet important Gulf nation.

Findings

There are some common barriers to “localization” throughout the GCCCs. These can be summarized as: an inefficient quota system; a culture that is focused more on prestige than performance; strict cultural practices concerning women in the workforce; education systems that are not market driven; and an inequitable social contract and distribution of oil and natural gas wealth in the GCCCs.

Originality/value

While much attention has been directed to the concept of “localization” in developing countries, “Qatarization” has received no attention in the scholarly literature, despite the resounding political and economic role that Qatar has in the GCCCs.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Book part

Monica Chong

How do you efficiently design a global yet local user experience for Web sites? Arguably, the user-centered design approach has been one of the best methods in designing a…

Abstract

How do you efficiently design a global yet local user experience for Web sites? Arguably, the user-centered design approach has been one of the best methods in designing a successful user experience for Web services in the initial market, but why isn’t this process applied to international markets? This chapter makes a case for applying a user-centered design process to the international expansion of Web sites and discusses issues impacting the creation of a successful user experience for local audiences. Although this chapter primarily focuses on designing large scale Web services, many of the principles can be applied to any sites that undergo internationalization.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article

Qing Zou and Guoying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate various issues related to Chinese language localisation in Evergreen, an open source integrated library system (ILS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate various issues related to Chinese language localisation in Evergreen, an open source integrated library system (ILS).

Design/methodology/approach

A Simplified Chinese version of Evergreen was implemented and tested and various issues such as encoding, indexing, searching, and sorting specifically associated with Simplified Chinese language were investigated.

Findings

The paper finds that Unicode eases a lot of ILS development problems. However, having another language version of an ILS does not simply require the translation from one language to another. Indexing, searching, sorting and other locale related issues should be tackled not only language by language, but locale by locale.

Practical implications

Most of the issues that have arisen during this project will be found with other ILS‐like systems.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into issues of, and various solutions to, indexing, searching, and sorting in the Chinese language in an ILS. These issues and the solutions may be applicable to other digital library systems such as institutional repositories.

Details

Program, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article

Shannon L.L. Lloyd and Charmine E.J. Härtel

International human resource management (IHRM) is becoming increasingly fundamental to organisational success, as globalisation forces demand organisations to design and…

Abstract

International human resource management (IHRM) is becoming increasingly fundamental to organisational success, as globalisation forces demand organisations to design and implement a global strategy. One of the most critical choices faced by IHRM practitioners is whether and when an organisation should adapt its human resource policies and practices to the local context (localisation). A typology of International Human Resource Management Orientations (IHRMO) that clarifies what IHRMO’s are and what they entail is developed from a review of the literature on localisation and globalisation, convergence and divergence and Perlmutter’s management typology. Additionally, two theoretical models are developed that predict which IHRM orientation identified in the typology should be adopted. The article takes a step towards elucidating effective IHRM strategy and practice decision‐making by showing that culture and institutional pressures, amongst other tings, do make a difference.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

Devika P. Madalli and Dimple Patel

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various issues involved in Indian languages computing, particularly Telugu, like creating, displaying, searching and retrieving…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various issues involved in Indian languages computing, particularly Telugu, like creating, displaying, searching and retrieving digital content. The paper also aims to emphasize the issues involved in retrieval in Indian languages. The complexities presented by the grammar, syntax and morphology of Indian languages are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper undertakes and presents descriptive study of the issues and challenges in Indian languages computing in general and Telugu language in particular.

Findings

The problem of multilingual information retrieval in Indian languages is multi‐pronged. A major observation of this study is that, though digital content is available in Indian languages, it is mostly in non‐standard encoding format and fonts. There is an urgent need to work in the area of developing search algorithms for Indian languages, like soundex and metaphones to tolerate spelling variations and mistakes that a user might make in queries and suggest correct spelling(s).

Practical implications

With existing technologies libraries can now build online catalogues in the language of the documents or build digital repositories with content in various Indian languages. Though a few library automation software like NewGenLib and digital library software like DSpace, etc. are offering Unicode support for Indian languages, they do not allow for different types of search such as truncation search, word variants, etc. The present study is a step towards developing algorithms for indexing and searching in Indian languages.

Originality/value

The paper addresses various issues in Indian language computing with emphasis on search and retrieval.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

Janusz Marian Bedkowski and Timo Röhling

This paper aims to focus on real-world mobile systems, and thus propose relevant contribution to the special issue on “Real-world mobile robot systems”. This work on 3D…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on real-world mobile systems, and thus propose relevant contribution to the special issue on “Real-world mobile robot systems”. This work on 3D laser semantic mobile mapping and particle filter localization dedicated for robot patrolling urban sites is elaborated with a focus on parallel computing application for semantic mapping and particle filter localization. The real robotic application of patrolling urban sites is the goal; thus, it has been shown that crucial robotic components have reach high Technology Readiness Level (TRL).

Design/methodology/approach

Three different robotic platforms equipped with different 3D laser measurement system were compared. Each system provides different data according to the measured distance, density of points and noise; thus, the influence of data into final semantic maps has been compared. The realistic problem is to use these semantic maps for robot localization; thus, the influence of different maps into particle filter localization has been elaborated. A new approach has been proposed for particle filter localization based on 3D semantic information, and thus, the behavior of particle filter in different realistic conditions has been elaborated. The process of using proposed robotic components for patrolling urban site, such as the robot checking geometrical changes of the environment, has been detailed.

Findings

The focus on real-world mobile systems requires different points of view for scientific work. This study is focused on robust and reliable solutions that could be integrated with real applications. Thus, new parallel computing approach for semantic mapping and particle filter localization has been proposed. Based on the literature, semantic 3D particle filter localization has not yet been elaborated; thus, innovative solutions for solving this issue have been proposed. Recently, a semantic mapping framework that was already published was developed. For this reason, this study claimed that the authors’ applied studies during real-world trials with such mapping system are added value relevant for this special issue.

Research limitations/implications

The main problem is the compromise between computer power and energy consumed by heavy calculations, thus our main focus is to use modern GPGPU, NVIDIA PASCAL parallel processor architecture. Recent advances in GPGPUs shows great potency for mobile robotic applications, thus this study is focused on increasing mapping and localization capabilities by improving the algorithms. Current limitation is related with the number of particles processed by a single processor, and thus achieved performance of 500 particles in real-time is the current limitation. The implication is that multi-GPU architectures for increasing the number of processed particle can be used. Thus, further studies are required.

Practical implications

The research focus is related to real-world mobile systems; thus, practical aspects of the work are crucial. The main practical application is semantic mapping that could be used for many robotic applications. The authors claim that their particle filter localization is ready to integrate with real robotic platforms using modern 3D laser measurement system. For this reason, the authors claim that their system can improve existing autonomous robotic platforms. The proposed components can be used for detection of geometrical changes in the scene; thus, many practical functionalities can be applied such as: detection of cars, detection of opened/closed gate, etc. […] These functionalities are crucial elements of the safe and security domain.

Social implications

Improvement of safe and security domain is a crucial aspect of modern society. Protecting critical infrastructure plays an important role, thus introducing autonomous mobile platforms capable of supporting human operators of safe and security systems could have a positive impact if viewed from many points of view.

Originality/value

This study elaborates the novel approach of particle filter localization based on 3D data and semantic mapping. This original work could have a great impact on the mobile robotics domain, and thus, this study claims that many algorithmic and implementation issues were solved assuming real-task experiments. The originality of this work is influenced by the use of modern advanced robotic systems being a relevant set of technologies for proper evaluation of the proposed approach. Such a combination of experimental hardware and original algorithms and implementation is definitely an added value.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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