Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Ana M. Aranda and Tal Simons

We explore the simultaneous influence of activist organizations and corporations on institutional change. Focusing on protests, campaign contributions, and lobbyists as…

Abstract

We explore the simultaneous influence of activist organizations and corporations on institutional change. Focusing on protests, campaign contributions, and lobbyists as the strategies used by activist organizations and corporations to influence institutional change, we study the dynamics between movements and counter-movements and their influence on the probability of institutional change. In the context of the US tobacco industry, the results shed light on the effectiveness of these strategies and uncover potential moderators of this relationship. Overall, we demonstrate the simultaneous and asymmetric effects of activist organizations and corporations that use conspicuous and inconspicuous strategies to change institutions.

Details

Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-349-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

William Dinan

The Scottish Parliament was founded on principles of openness and accessibility and signalled the potential for a new style of politics after devolution. In the aftermath…

Abstract

Purpose

The Scottish Parliament was founded on principles of openness and accessibility and signalled the potential for a new style of politics after devolution. In the aftermath of allegations of political sleaze early in the life of the new institution, the Standards Committee of the Scottish Parliament conducted an inquiry into the registration of lobbyists. This process attracted much comment and criticism from public affairs practitioners and the Scottish media. Based on original empirical research, numerous interviews and first‐hand observation, the purpose of this paper is to offer a response to some of these criticisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The research reported here is based upon extended fieldwork and observation of the developing lobbying industry around the new Scottish Parliament, spanning the period from late 1998 until summer 2003. It involved some 73 interviews with various corporate and voluntary sector lobbyists, public servants and elected representatives. It also draws on participant observation at more than 70 official, public and private meetings for those involved in public affairs in Scotland. In addition, the paper monitored the popular and specialist media in Scotland for news and analyses of issues relating to lobbying at the new Parliament, undertook focus group research to test public opinion on the issue of registration, designed and administered an e‐mail survey of public servants in the USA and Canada charged with maintaining registers of lobbyists and conducted archival research at the Scottish Executive's library at Saughton House in Edinburgh.

Findings

The paper suggests the efforts by parliamentarians to regulate their relations with lobbyists need to be grounded in principles that apply to all outside interests seeking to influence the democratic process.

Originality/value

The paper challenges the assertions that lobbying is misunderstood by elected representatives and that the lobbying industry is entirely committed to increasing transparency.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Miia Jaatinen

Presents a modern definition of lobbying suitable for the use of organizational lobbyists and a theory of lobbying as conflict accommodation which arouses ethical…

Abstract

Presents a modern definition of lobbying suitable for the use of organizational lobbyists and a theory of lobbying as conflict accommodation which arouses ethical considerations. A contingency model of effective lobbying strategies and dynamics of lobbying is developed and tested in a multiple‐case study. Finnish interest group representatives are interviewed to construct cases based on their lobbying efforts on political issues at the national and the EU‐level of political decision making. It is concluded that the definition of lobbying corresponds well to the activities of the interviewees' associations and that it is fruitful to apply the theory of conflict resolution in the study of lobbying. The new model of lobbying reflects the reality excellently. It can be used as a tool for planning and evaluating lobbying in different political issues and at different levels of political decision making.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Conor McGrath

Lobbying and lobbyists have for some time been regarded with suspicion and even outright mistrust by journalists and the wider public. While to some extent, popular…

Abstract

Purpose

Lobbying and lobbyists have for some time been regarded with suspicion and even outright mistrust by journalists and the wider public. While to some extent, popular (mis)perceptions about lobbyists are understandable, they are also regrettable: lobbyists operate in every political system, and generally do so in an entirely proper fashion. This paper seeks to consider the personal characteristics which effective and successful lobbyists require.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on 60 interviews with lobbyists in Washington, London and Brussels; the approach used here is simply to allow lobbyists themselves to discuss at some length their views about the issues they feel are important in a practical sense.

Findings

The paper examines a range of personal qualities including skills such as listening, observation, and relationship‐building, as well as issues surrounding gender/sexuality, courtesy, honesty, integrity and credibility.

Research limitations/implications

While it is unrealistic to claim that 60 interviews constitute a fully representative sample of the entire lobbying industry worldwide, it is true that they offer a first‐cut overview of key factors. This area does not yet feature prominently in academic research, but will increasingly.

Practical implications

This paper is a contribution to the discussion which the lobbying industry must engage in more explicitly as to the qualities required by lobbyists. In order to produce a reasonably definitive “person specification” for a lobbying position, the next step would be to involve those responsible for recruiting people to such posts, to establish which elements of the personal mix discussed (alongside other professional competencies) are of priority across a range of organisations and levels of seniority.

Originality/value

The paper helps to set an agenda for both academic and professional debate.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Kerri Milita and Jaclyn Bunch

Just over ten years ago, the American legislative system was rocked by a series of scandals surrounding powerful lobbyist Jack Abramoff who claimed to have “bought”…

Abstract

Just over ten years ago, the American legislative system was rocked by a series of scandals surrounding powerful lobbyist Jack Abramoff who claimed to have “bought” influence in nearly half of the United States congressional offices. The Abramoff scandal brought public attention to three critical areas of corruption in congressional politics: loopholes in gift-giving laws, campaign finance, and the revolving door. For instance, why are lobbyists allowed to buy a meal for congressional representatives if they are both standing up but not if they are sitting down? Why is sharing a simple meal with an elected official banned but allowed so long as campaign contribution checks are exchanged (i.e., the mystery of the $5,000 hamburger)? And just how much does it cost to buy your congressman? We explore these areas of corruption that were brought to light in 2006 by “the biggest political scandal of the century,” and examine how things have, or in some instances, haven’t changed in the years since the Abramoff scandal broke. Does Congress run cleaner today? Or is it still politics as usual?

Details

Corruption, Accountability and Discretion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-556-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Robert Mack

Lobbying of politicians by business and other organisations has spread across the Atlantic and is now working strongly in Brussels. With the recent expansion of the…

Abstract

Lobbying of politicians by business and other organisations has spread across the Atlantic and is now working strongly in Brussels. With the recent expansion of the European Union (EU) to 25 member states, the number of lobbyists in Brussels will soon equal those in Washington. The expansion of lobbying has mirrored the increase of the powers of central governments. Key components of effective lobbying are universal: intelligence, strategy and implementation. Implementation of lobbying strategies can now be as intensely developed as marketing or advertising campaigns. Lobbying has developed beyond the pursuit of individual and defined objectives to the development of corporate reputations. Attitude research in the sector suggests that lobbyists have become an intrinsic part of the political process. The debate over the influence of lobbyists on policy continues on both sides of the Atlantic.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ian Coldwell

A key issue that has shaped opinion on ethics in the fields of public relations and public affairs in Scotland since 2000‐2001 has been the debate on the proposed…

Abstract

A key issue that has shaped opinion on ethics in the fields of public relations and public affairs in Scotland since 2000‐2001 has been the debate on the proposed registration of lobbyists by the Standards Committee of the Scottish Parliament. This paper summarises some of the key issues that emerged in this debate, drawing out some of the wider lessons for the PR industry as a whole. It illustrates how well‐meaning attempts to prevent improper influence over legislators can have broader ethical implications for those engaged in public affairs. It also highlights how narrow perceptions of the role of the so‐called “lobbyist” had a major impact on how the issue was dealt with. It argues that politicians, the media and others have relatively limited understanding of the range of activities that public relations and public affairs practitioners undertake and remain influenced by perceptions that owe more to the North American experience than that of the UK.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Alan Rosenthal

This chapter examines the range of possible effects of ethics laws enacted by state legislatures. One objective of ethics law, to reduce corruption, cannot be…

Abstract

This chapter examines the range of possible effects of ethics laws enacted by state legislatures. One objective of ethics law, to reduce corruption, cannot be demonstrated. Other objectives, to placate the media, defend against partisan attack, and permit the legislature to move on, have mixed results, while a final objective, to restore public confidence, is not achieved. Nevertheless, ethics law does affect the process, by somewhat discouraging legislator recruitment and retention, by raising the consciousness of legislators, and by changing the cultures of state capitals.

Details

Public Ethics and Governance: Standards and Practices in Comparative Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-226-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Clifford D. Scott

This paper aims to prepare executives to pilot a US lobbying effort within the bounds of the US Federal law. Lobbying law may be thought of as the “regulation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prepare executives to pilot a US lobbying effort within the bounds of the US Federal law. Lobbying law may be thought of as the “regulation of regulation”, as it defines the ground rules for those wishing to have a direct impact upon all other regulatory systems. The article outlines what the US lobbying law requires, what it forbids and, perhaps most important, what the law does NOT regulate.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the full spectrum of US laws and regulations relevant to lobbying – including the Internal Revenue Service Code (tax code), the Federal Election Campaign Act, the Ethics in Government Act, the internal rules of both the House and Senate, the US Criminal Code and the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act – and organizes them into a single 2 × 2 matrix, explaining what all parties must do as well as what they must not do. Via this approach, the rules that govern the “marketplace” for lobbying in the USA are explained. The competition to shape US government policy transpires within this marketplace.

Findings

Few activities the executive may engage in carry the potential payback of a well-executed lobbying campaign: empirical estimates range to returns on investment in the thousands of per cent. But the uninitiated may easily step over the line and invite both legal and public relations (PR) nightmares.

Practical implications

Effective lobbying can afford a corporation or industry a lasting competitive advantage. Every well-rounded business strategy should include such a component, and every well-rounded executive should be capable of performing in this arena. A solid grounding in the legal matrix forming the boundaries of this activity is a prerequisite for effective performance.

Originality/value

The paper organizes and outlines lobbying law in a fashion digestible by executives without legal training. It is of value to anyone wishing to engage in lobbying activities targeted at the US Government.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Øyvind Ihlen and Øystein Berntzen

The purpose of this paper is to improve upon lobby theory by learning from a failed lobby campaign in which the lobbyist managed to annoy and anger key constituencies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve upon lobby theory by learning from a failed lobby campaign in which the lobbyist managed to annoy and anger key constituencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a qualitative case study, conducted on attempts made by the Norwegian oil industry in 2002‐2004 to achieve a tax amendment. Qualitative interviews were carried out with oil industry representatives, two former ministers, political advisers, and members of parliament, and with journalists who had followed the campaign.

Findings

The main argument being put forward in this paper is that lobbyists should use insights from stakeholder theory.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is a single‐case study and it is difficult to generalise its findings. This invites more research.

Practical implications

The paper combines lobby theory with an approach suggested by stakeholder theory which might temper single‐minded advocacy that is too preoccupied with getting immediate political results, and help organizations to remember that it is important to develop good long‐term relations with stakeholders.

Originality/value

The paper has potential to improve lobby theory and efforts.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000