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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Hassan Abdolrezaei, Hassan Siahkali and Javad Olamaei

This paper aims to present a hybrid model to mid-term forecast the load of transmission substations based on the knowledge of expert site and multi-objective posterior…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a hybrid model to mid-term forecast the load of transmission substations based on the knowledge of expert site and multi-objective posterior framework. The main important challenges in load forecasting are the different behavior of load in specific days. Regular days, holidays and special holidays, days after a holidays and days of load shifting are characterized by abnormal load profiles. The knowledge of these days is verified by expert operators in regional dispatching centers.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a hybrid model for power prediction of transmission substations based on the combination of similar day selection and multi-objective posterior technique has been proposed. In the first step, the important data for prediction is provided. Posterior method is used in the second step for prediction that it is based on kernel functions. A multi-objective optimization has been formulated with three type of output accuracy measurement function that it is solved by non-dominated sorting genetic technique II (NSGT-II) method. TOPSIS way is used to find the best point of Pareto.

Findings

The presented method has been tested in four scenarios for three different transmission stations, and the test results have been compared. The presented results indicate that the presentation method has better results and is robust to different load characteristics, which can be used for better forecasting of different stations for better planning of repairs and network operation.

Originality/value

The main contributions of this paper can be categorized as follows: A hybrid model based on similar days selection and multi-objective framework posterior is presented. Similar day selection is done by expert site that the day type and days with scheduled repair are considered. Hyperparameters of posterior process are found by NSGT-II based on TOPSIS method.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Pandimani , Markandeya Raju Ponnada and Yesuratnam Geddada

This study aims to present comprehensive nonlinear material modelling techniques and simulations of reinforced concrete (RC) beams subjected to short-term monotonic static…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present comprehensive nonlinear material modelling techniques and simulations of reinforced concrete (RC) beams subjected to short-term monotonic static load using the robust and reliable general-purpose finite element (FE) software ANSYS. A parametric study is carried out to analyse the flexural and ductility behaviour of RC beams under various influencing parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop and validate the numerical FE models, a total of four experimentally tested simply supported RC beams are taken from the available literature and two beams are selected from each author. The concrete, steel reinforcements, bond-slip mechanism, loading and supporting plates are modelled using SOLID65, LINK180, COMBIN39 and SOLID185 elements, respectively. The validated models are then used to conduct parametric FE analysis to investigate the effect of concrete compressive strength, percentage of tensile reinforcement, compression reinforcement ratio, transverse shear reinforcement, bond-slip mechanism, concrete compressive stress-strain constitutive models, beam symmetry and varying overall depth of beam on the ultimate load-carrying capacity and ductility behaviour of RC beams.

Findings

The developed three-dimensional FE models can able to capture the load and midspan deflections at critical points, the accurate yield point of steel reinforcements, the formation of initial and progressive concrete crack patterns and the complete load-deflection curves of RC beams up to ultimate failure. From the numerical results, it can be concluded that the FE model considering the bond-slip effect with Thorenfeldt’s concrete compressive stress-strain model exhibits a better correlation with the experimental data.

Originality/value

The ultimate load and deflection results of validated FE models show a maximum deviation of less than 10% and 15%, respectively, as compared to the experimental results. The developed model is also capable of capturing concrete failure modes accurately. Overall, the FE analysis results were found quite acceptable and compared well with the experimental data at all loading stages. It is suggested that the proposed FE model is a practical and reliable tool for analyzing the flexural behaviour of RC members and can be used for performing parametric studies.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Shahnawaz Anwer, Heng Li, Maxwell Fordjour Antwi-Afari, Waleed Umer, Imran Mehmood and Arnold Yu Lok Wong

Since construction workers often need to carry various types of loads in their daily routine, they are at risk of sustaining musculoskeletal injuries. Additionally…

Abstract

Purpose

Since construction workers often need to carry various types of loads in their daily routine, they are at risk of sustaining musculoskeletal injuries. Additionally, carrying a load during walking may disturb their walking balance and lead to fall injuries among construction workers. Different load carrying techniques may also cause different extents of physical exertion. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of different load-carrying techniques on gait parameters, dynamic balance, and physiological parameters in asymptomatic individuals on both stable and unstable surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Fifteen asymptomatic male participants (mean age: 31.5 ± 2.6 years) walked along an 8-m walkway on flat and foam surfaces with and without a load thrice using three different techniques (e.g. load carriage on the head, on the dominant shoulder, and in both hands). Temporal gait parameters (e.g. gait speed, cadence, and double support time), gait symmetry (e.g. step time, stance time, and swing time symmetry), and dynamic balance parameters [e.g. anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure (CoP) displacement, and CoP velocity] were evaluated. Additionally, the heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) was assessed to estimate physiological parameters.

Findings

The gait speed was significantly higher when the load was carried in both hands compared to other techniques (Hand load, 1.02 ms vs Head load, 0.82 ms vs Shoulder load, 0.78 ms). Stride frequency was significantly decreased during load carrying on the head than the load in both hands (46.5 vs 51.7 strides/m). Step, stance, and swing time symmetry were significantly poorer during load carrying on the shoulder than the load in both hands (Step time symmetry ration, 1.10 vs 1.04; Stance time symmetry ratio, 1.11 vs 1.05; Swing time symmetry ratio, 1.11 vs 1.04). The anteroposterior (Shoulder load, 17.47 mm vs Head load, 21.10 mm vs Hand load, −5.10 mm) and mediolateral CoP displacements (Shoulder load, −0.57 mm vs Head load, −1.53 mm vs Hand load, −3.37 ms) significantly increased during load carrying on the shoulder or head compared to a load in both hands. The HR (Head load, 85.2 beats/m vs Shoulder load, 77.5 beats/m vs No load, 69.5 beats/m) and EDA (Hand load, 14.0 µS vs Head load, 14.3 µS vs Shoulder load, 14.1 µS vs No load, 9.0 µS) were significantly larger during load carrying than no load.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that carrying loads in both hands yields better gait symmetry and dynamic balance than carrying loads on the dominant shoulder or head. Construction managers/instructors should recommend construction workers to carry loads in both hands to improve their gait symmetry and dynamic balance and to lower their risk of falls.

Practical implications

The potential changes in gait and balance parameters during various load carrying methods will aid the assessment of fall risk in construction workers during loaded walking. Wearable insole sensors that monitor gait and balance in real-time would enable safety managers to identify workers who are at risk of falling during load carriage due to various reasons (e.g. physical exertion, improper carrying techniques, fatigue). Such technology can also empower them to take the necessary steps to prevent falls.

Originality/value

This is the first study to use wearable insole sensors and a photoplethysmography device to assess the impacts of various load carrying approaches on gait parameters, dynamic balance, and physiological measures (i.e. HR and EDA) while walking on stable and unstable terrains.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Sajad Hasheminasab and Ehsan Kashi

In many coastal areas where there are problematic soils, pavement construction on the soil is difficult because of the low shear strength and high consolidated. Also…

Abstract

Purpose

In many coastal areas where there are problematic soils, pavement construction on the soil is difficult because of the low shear strength and high consolidated. Also, given that the container terminals constitute more than 70% of the port area and as pavement in these areas is subject to heavy loads due to the long-term container storage, wheels of transport and movement equipment, the pavement must tolerate a distributed loading of at least 4 ton/m2 in accordance with the type and weight of the containers imposed on the pavement. This study aims to investigate a variety of common pavement designs in coastal areas of southern Iran. The pavement type and characteristics of the subgrade layers are the same for each port; the thickness of different pavement layers is designed.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to problematic soil in the pavement subgrade, heavy and long-term container loading and the associated equipment, port pavement enjoys great importance.

Findings

The designed pavements are modeled by ABAQUS finite element software. The pavements are subject to a static load imposed by the corner casting container and resulted a distributed load 4 tons/m2. The results from data analysis show that the concrete block pavements influenced by the containers static loads of 3%–20% have less vertical displacement on the subgrade than other pavements (rigid and flexible).

Originality/value

This paper is modeling 3 port pavement in Iran. Based on field evaluation and simulation actual loading on pavement.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Kathiresh Mayilsamy, Maideen Abdhulkader Jeylani A,, Mahaboob Subahani Akbarali and Haripranesh Sathiyanarayanan

The purpose of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm, which is a blend of auto-regressive integral moving average (ARIMA) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm, which is a blend of auto-regressive integral moving average (ARIMA) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) for addressing the non-linearity of the load time series.

Design/methodology/approach

Short-term load forecasting is a complex process as the nature of the load-time series data is highly nonlinear. So, only ARIMA-based load forecasting will not provide accurate results. Hence, ARIMA is combined with MLP, a deep learning approach that models the resultant data from ARIMA and processes them further for Modelling the non-linearity.

Findings

The proposed hybrid approach detects the residuals of the ARIMA, a linear statistical technique and models these residuals with MLP neural network. As the non-linearity of the load time series is approximated in this error modeling process, the proposed approach produces accurate forecasting results of the hourly loads.

Originality/value

The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested in the laboratory with the real load data of a metropolitan city from South India. The performance of the proposed hybrid approach is compared with the conventional methods based on the metrics such as mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. The comparative results show that the proposed prediction strategy outperforms the other hybrid methods in terms of accuracy.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Sachin B.P. and N. Suresh

The purpose of the paper is to study the effect of elevated temperature on load carrying capacity of reinforced self compacting concrete beams and the performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to study the effect of elevated temperature on load carrying capacity of reinforced self compacting concrete beams and the performance of deteriorated beams after retrofitting by GFRP sheets. The reinforced beams which were exposed to sustained elevated temperature and tested for flexural load-carrying capacity. Further deteriorated beams (exposed from 500°C to 800°C) were re-strengthened by adopting retrofitting with GFRP sheets.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation includes the concrete specimens, i.e. cubes of 150 mm, cylinders of size 150 mm dia with 300 mm height and beams of 150 × 150 × 1,100 mm, reinforced with minimum tension reinforcement according to IS 456–2000. The specimens were subjected to elevated temperature from 300°C to 800°C with an interval of 100°C for 2 h. The residual compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, load at first crack of beams and load-carrying capacity of beams for 5-mm deflection were measured before and after retrofitting.

Findings

The result shows that there is a gain in residual compressive strength at 300°C and beyond which it decreases. The modulus of elasticity, load at first crack and load-carrying capacity of beams reduces continuously with an increase in temperature. The decrease in load-carrying capacity of beams is observed from 27.55% and up to 38.77% between the temperature range of 500°C–800°C and after the retrofitting of distressed beams, the load carrying capacity increases up to 24.48%.

Originality/value

Better performance was observed with retrofitting by GFRP sheets when the specimens were distressed due to elevated temperatures.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Silambarasan R., Veerappan A.R. and Shanmugam S.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of structural deformations and bend angle on plastic collapse load of pipe bends under an in-plane closing bending…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of structural deformations and bend angle on plastic collapse load of pipe bends under an in-plane closing bending moment (IPCM). A large strain formulation of three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis was performed using an elastic perfectly plastic material. A unified mathematical solution was proposed to estimate the collapse load of pipe bends subjected to IPCM for the considered range of bend characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

ABAQUS was used to create one half of the pipe bend model due to its symmetry on the longitudinal axis. Structural deformations, i.e. ovality (Co) and thinning (Ct) varied from 0% to 20% in 5% steps while the bend angle (ø) varied from 30° to 180° in steps of 30°.

Findings

The plastic collapse load decreases as the bend angle increase for all pipe bend models. A remarkable effect on the collapse load was observed for bend angles between 30° and 120° beyond which a decline was noticed. Ovality had a significant effect on the collapse load with this effect decreasing as the bend angle increased. The combined effect of thinning and bend angle was minimal for the considered models and the maximum per cent variation in collapse load was 5.76% for small bend angles and bend radius pipe bends and less than 2% for other cases.

Originality/value

The effect of structural deformations and bend angle on collapse load of pipe bends exposed to IPCM has been not studied in the existing literature.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Haitao Wang, Tao Guo and Haoyu Sun

This paper aims to focus on establishing the bond-slip constitutive relation of mortar anchor under high loading rates by the dynamic pull-out test.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on establishing the bond-slip constitutive relation of mortar anchor under high loading rates by the dynamic pull-out test.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-made specimens were made for the dynamic pull-out test to explore the bond performance of mortar anchor, and the bond-slip constitutive relation of mortar anchor under high loading rates was established according to the analysis of test data.

Findings

During the loading process, the position of the peak bond stress was observed to translate to the free end. The bearing capacity of the mortar anchor was enhanced to some extent due to the increase of the loading rate.

Originality/value

The bond-slip constitutive relation of mortar anchor under high loading rates was established with the introduction of the position function and dynamic-load expanded coefficient.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

P.S. Liu and X.M. Ma

The purpose of this paper is to provide a summarization and review of the present author's main investigations on failure modes of reticular metal foams under different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a summarization and review of the present author's main investigations on failure modes of reticular metal foams under different loadings in engineering applications.

Design/methodology/approach

With the octahedral structure model proposed by the present authors themselves, the fundamentally mechanical relations have been systematically studied for reticular metal foams with open cells in their previous works. On this basis, such model theory is continually used to investigate the failure mode of this kind of porous materials under compression, bending, torsion and shearing, which are common loading forms in engineering applications.

Findings

The pore-strut of metal foams under different compressive loadings will fail in the tensile breaking mode when it is brittle. While it is ductile, it will tend to the shearing failure mode when the shearing strength is half or nearly half of the tensile strength for the corresponding dense material and to the tensile breaking mode when the shearing strength is higher than half of the tensile strength to a certain value. The failure modes of such porous materials under bending, torsional and shearing loads are also similarly related to their material species.

Originality/value

This paper presents a distinctive method to conveniently analyze and estimate the failure mode of metal foams under different loadings in engineering applications.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Aydin Shishegaran, Behnam Karami, Elham Safari Danalou, Hesam Varaee and Timon Rabczuk

The resistance of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the conventional…

Abstract

Purpose

The resistance of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the conventional weapons effect program (CONWEP) model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a multiple linear regression (MLR), multiple Ln equation regression (MLnER), gene expression programming (GEP), adaptive network-based fuzzy inference (ANFIS) and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Design/methodology/approach

The SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Findings

The resistance of SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Originality/value

The resistance of SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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