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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Liz Sharples

This study aims to apply the relatively new concept of customer experience management (CXM) to the pre-consumptive stage within a cruise tourist’s journey.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the relatively new concept of customer experience management (CXM) to the pre-consumptive stage within a cruise tourist’s journey.

Design/methodology/approach

The work will apply CXM to the tourism sector and, in particular to the cruise market. Academics have noted how CXM needs to takes a holistic integrated approach and focus on the complete customer experience. The cruise sector has been selected for this research because, it is the fastest growing tourism sector globally and the pre-consumption stage for cruise passengers is longer than for other vacation types.

Findings

This study has shown how CXM has emerged from the more traditional marketing concept of relationship marketing and has highlighted its relevance within the tourism industry, in particular, the cruise sector. In addition, the work has shown how adapting CXM to the pre-consumptive phase more fully will enhance consumer relationships and improve business performance.

Research limitations/implications

This work is conceptual. It is proposed that the research propositions should be verified within the pre-consumptive stage of cruise passenger journeys. Another limitation is that the focus has been solely on the cruise sector and future research could be extended to other tourism service industries.

Practical implications

This work will provide tourism and other service industry managers with a new strategy to enhance consumer experience and improve business performance in the pre-consumptive stage and extend academic understanding within this stage of a cruise tourist’s vacation.

Originality/value

This research is significant because CXM is a model, which has been used within service businesses, but had a limited application to the cruise sector and to the pre-consumption timeframe. It is important to understand cruise passengers in this time-frame to encourage positive relationships, to potentially increase revenue opportunities and provide an overall improved consumer experience.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Tim Knowles and Liz Sharples

This paper charts the history and development of Chilean wines. The incredible growth of Chile's wine output is a textbook example of how aggressive private enterprise can…

Abstract

This paper charts the history and development of Chilean wines. The incredible growth of Chile's wine output is a textbook example of how aggressive private enterprise can combine with enthusiastic government backing. In 1988, Chile shipped 185,630 hectolitres abroad. By 1998, this had grown to an impressive 2.3 million hl worth US$500 million. Equally, instead of sending 88% of its wine to Latin America, as it had in the 1980s, in 2001 it sold in high‐profit markets like Europe (41% of all exports), North America (34%) and, increasingly, Asia, where in 1998 Chile sold 14% of its wine. The only country spared from the devastating blight of phylloxera, Chile's wine industry boomed in the early years of the 20th century. In 1981, there were 100,000 hectares (one ha = 2.47 acres) under vines, which sank to 67,000 in 1985, the nadir of the industry. Then, a new sense of identity and purpose swept Chile's winemakers and investors. Suddenly, the wine revolution which had earlier had its impact on California and Australia caught on in Chile. There were gigantic investments in land, plantings and equipment. Old‐fashioned vines were uprooted. In the late 1990s, Cabernet Sauvignon doubled from 11,000 to 20,000 hectares. Merlot vineyard acreage quadrupled between 1994 and 1999, similar growth was seen with Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Winemakers were also experimenting with Pinot Noir and with Shiraz, which loves the dry, hot Chilean autumn. Chile today has 75,600 hectares under vine about two‐thirds of them red grapes. That prime fruit is being pressed by the latest equipment from Europe, Australia and North America.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Liz Sharples

This paper examines the development of Wine Tourism in the country of Chile. In particular it looks at the different approaches that are being adopted by both private and…

Abstract

This paper examines the development of Wine Tourism in the country of Chile. In particular it looks at the different approaches that are being adopted by both private and public organisations in Chile, in order to promote the country to the ‘Wine Tourist’, as both an attractive holiday destination and, as a provider of quality wines. Chile has much to offer the tourist. A unique landscape, a wide range of climates, and an interesting culture and history which together provide a wealth of differing holiday opportunities. Although wine can be a prime motivator for tourists visiting the country, for example, embarking on wine tours with specialist international travel companies, such as Arblaster and Clarke (http://arblaster&clarke.ww‐c.co.uk), wine can also be a secondary activity that can be enjoyed as just part of a holiday. For example, tourists might take an opportunity to ‘sign up’ for a half day tour to a winery provided by a local company or simply ‘drop in’ to a winery in order to taste and possibly buy some wine when travelling through a wine growing area.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Liz Sharples

This paper examines the development of a small, yet highly significant section of the UK wine market with the arrival of a limited range of organically produced wines on…

Abstract

This paper examines the development of a small, yet highly significant section of the UK wine market with the arrival of a limited range of organically produced wines on to our mainstream supermarket shelves and highstreet restaurant wine lists. Until recently, UK demand for all organic produce was relatively small, the total size of the UK retail organic market during 1993/1994 being only £105 million (Soil Association Certification Ltd., 2000). The last five years has seen a period of rapid growth, with the same report predicting that the 1999/2000 total sales figure will have increased to £546 million (Soil Association Certification Ltd., 2000). Organic wine still features as a small category within the complete organic picture but experts indicate that the UK market is in a period of significant growth with estimated sales of approximately £7–8 million per annum (Gardener, 2000). The nature of consumers and suppliers involved with the organic food market also appears to be changing. Multinationals have entered the market alongside whole‐food independents, (Blythman, 2000) and the market is seemingly no longer limited to the ‘select few’ of the population willing to seek out and pay the price for a premium product. A recent report suggested that as many as one third of the UK population now buy organic produce of one category or another (Soil Association, 1999). The organic market has apparently ‘come of age’ and as the debate of ‘natural is better’ takes hold, fuelled by continual media coverage, in both the broad‐sheet (Slater, 1998; Dimbleby, 1999) and popular press (Organic Living, 2000). It will be interesting to observe the hospitality industry's response in attempting to keep pace with this developing market.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Joseph C. Rumenapp and P. Zitlali Morales

Purpose – This chapter presents an analysis of a researcher-led follow-up activity during an early childhood reading lesson that was aligned with a gradual release of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter presents an analysis of a researcher-led follow-up activity during an early childhood reading lesson that was aligned with a gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model. Particularly, the authors seek to understand how students used their language(s) in this lesson, how they described particular linguistic decisions, and how language could be further conceptualized in such events.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The authors develop a telling case (Mitchell, 1984) from the guided instruction portion of a lesson to make salient theoretical connections between metacognitive strategies taught in early literacy and metalinguistic knowledge theorized from the field of linguistic anthropology. The lesson was video recorded for interactional analysis. The video recording was also used to stimulate recall and allow students to reflect on their own language use.

Findings –Through the telling case, the authors use language socialization as a lens to understand the way students represent story retell with physical objects. Though some students do not use the school-based conventionalized form of retelling, they do engage in retelling by using a variety of other forms. The authors highlight through the case that the metacognitive strategy of story retell is distinct from the abstract linear, left-to-right representation of sequencing of events.

Research Limitations/Implications – This study suggests that further attention is needed to theorize the relationship between reading strategies and forms of representation in multilingual preschool contexts. In particular, the very notions of literacy and language need to be nuanced through conversations among multiple disciplines.

Practical Implications – Practitioners are encouraged to attend to the differences between metacognitive strategies that are useful for reading comprehension and the expected styles of representation. Teachers can consider leveraging the communicative repertoires of emergent bilingual students as they accomplish early literacy activities, thereby, potentially offering further scaffolds for learning reading strategies.

Originality/Value of Paper – This chapter brings nuance to the GRR model by demonstrating that there is a difference between the GRR of metacognitive strategies in reading instruction and the way they are represented through diverse semiotic repertoires.

Details

The Gradual Release of Responsibility in Literacy Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Liz Stubbings and Janet M. Scott

This analysis of the literature examines the implications of the changes in the National Health Service workforce and the ramifications for multi‐professional working…

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4070

Abstract

This analysis of the literature examines the implications of the changes in the National Health Service workforce and the ramifications for multi‐professional working practices, patient care and delivery of health services. Changes in medical working practices and education, together with the increasing numbers of doctors, have resulted in proposals for nurses to extend their role and the removal of professional restrictions. Whilst the numbers of nurses in the workforce have marginally increased, the qualified nurse ratio has declined, as has the balance between medical and registered nurses. Few attempts have been made to evaluate these changes in relation to the quality of service and patient outcomes. The changing roles of nurses and their value need to be quantified. Demographic trends, together with international shortages and the lack of educational capacity have also been understated. Adequate and accurate workforce information should be regularly collated and analysed.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Lynn E. Shanahan, Andrea L. Tochelli-Ward and Tyler W. Rinker

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explain the importance of thinking flexibly about the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) during the implementation of an…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explain the importance of thinking flexibly about the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) during the implementation of an explicit strategy instruction model, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). When the GRR model is typically used to inform teachers’ pedagogical practices, each phase of the scaffolding in the gradual release is usually represented as being a straight line of progression from modeling to guided practice, and then to independence. Scaffolding is often viewed as being a more static progression needed by all students. The authors explore the ebb and flow of scaffolding necessary in the GRR model when teaching the CESI framework to elementary aged students who demonstrated different degrees of competence in applying reading strategies.

Design/Methodology – The findings presented are the result of a two-year longitudinal professional development study with nine in-service elementary school teachers (one male and eight female), with masters’ degrees who ranged in experience from six to 18 years. The teachers used the Pedagogy of Video Reflection (Shanahan et al., 2013) to reflect on their implementation of the CESI, which draws upon the GRR model.

Findings – The authors use examples from their two-year explicit strategy instruction research to illustrate how their experienced in-service teachers learned to think more flexibly about scaffolding in the GRR model. Teachers explored their misconceptions about explicit strategy instruction and the gradual release. Two major shifts in their thinking were the GRR model was not the static model they interpreted it to be and they also realized that they had to use a gradual release when teaching readers the conditional knowledge so readers could use strategies independently.

Research Limitations/Implications – A two-dimensional representation of a complex concept, like the GRR can result in a less nuanced understanding of a complex concept, even when many of these issues are previously discussed in research and practitioner publications.

Practical Implications – Classroom teachers are provided with a more complex understanding of GRR model, where they need to interpret student responses to know when to and not release learners.

Originality/Value of Chapter – This chapter captures in-service teachers’ perspectives of the GRR model as being flexible instead of static and also reveals how student responses can be used to gauge how to make adaptations to ­scaffolding.

Details

The Gradual Release of Responsibility in Literacy Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2008

This index covers all issues between February 2005 (Volume 9, Issue 1) and November 2008 (Volume 12, Issue 4). Numbers in bold refer to yolume, numbers in brackets refer…

Abstract

This index covers all issues between February 2005 (Volume 9, Issue 1) and November 2008 (Volume 12, Issue 4). Numbers in bold refer to yolume, numbers in brackets refer to issue, with subsequent numbers to pages.

Details

A Life in the Day, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-6282

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Felicity Callard

Abstract

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Janeen Olsen and Liz Thach

The purpose of this paper is to present a model for promoting professional sales in winery visitor centers, as well as the results of an exploratory study to test the model.

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1292

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a model for promoting professional sales in winery visitor centers, as well as the results of an exploratory study to test the model.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey methodology was used to evaluate the sales behavior of winery personnel in three popular wine tourist regions of California, USA. In total, 284 mystery shopper evaluations were completed and analyzed. In addition, a professional sales model for winery visitor centers was developed based on secondary sources drawn from the literature.

Findings

Results indicate that some of the winery visitor centers have adopted professional sales techniques and trained their staff to perform these tasks, but there is still ample opportunity to improve. Sales presentations could become more interactive in many cases, and relationship and trust building actions could be emphasized more.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to three wine regions in California, and only provides descriptive statistics of service and sales in the tasting room. Further testing of the model in new locations with expanded statistics would be useful.

Practical implications

The study highlight effective professional selling tactics used in winery visitor centers which could be adopted by managers. It also identifies areas for improvement.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new model on professional sales in winery visitor centers. This is the first of its type to be applied to the wine industry for direct to consumer sales.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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