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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Jase R. Ramsey, Amine Abi Aad, Chuandi Jiang, Livia Barakat and Virginia Drummond

The purpose of this paper is to establish under which conditions researchers should use the constructs cultural intelligence (CQ) and global mindset (GM). The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish under which conditions researchers should use the constructs cultural intelligence (CQ) and global mindset (GM). The authors further seek to understand the process through which these constructs emerge to a higher level and link unit-level knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) capital to pertinent firm-level outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a conceptual study with a multilevel model.

Findings

This paper differentiates two similar lines of research occurring concordantly on the CQ and GM constructs. Next, the authors develop a multilevel model to better understand the process through which CQ and GM emerge at higher levels and their underlying mechanisms. Finally, this paper adds meaning to the firm-level KSAs by linking firm-level KSAs capital to pertinent firm-level outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusion implies that researchers should use CQ when the context is focused on interpersonal outcomes and GM when focused on strategic outcomes. The multilevel model is a useful tool for scholars to select which rubric to use in future studies that have international managers as the subjects. The authors argue that if the scholar is interested in an individual’s ability to craft policy and implement strategy, then GM may be more parsimonious than CQ. On the other hand, if the focus is on leadership, human resources or any other relationship dependent outcome, then CQ will provide a more robust measure.

Practical implications

For practitioners, this study provides a useful tool for managers to improve individual-level commitment by selecting and training individuals high in CQ. On the other hand, if the desired outcome is firm-level sales or performance, the focus should be on targeting individuals high in GM.

Originality/value

This is the first theoretical paper to examine how CQ and GM emerge to the firm level and describe when to use each measure.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jase R Ramsey, Livia Barakat, Matthew C. Mitchell, Thomas Ganey and Olesea Voloshin

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that firms that are more committed to internationalization, systematically differ from firms that are less committed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that firms that are more committed to internationalization, systematically differ from firms that are less committed to internationalization in their future intention to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI). The authors analyzed data from 42 large Brazilian multinational enterprises (MNEs) and found that results support previous research on the degree of satisfaction with prior internationalization efforts and future intent to internationalize, such that the relationship between the two is positive. Yet contrary to existing literature, the degree to which a firm was committed to internationalization has a negative influence on the positive relationship between satisfaction and intent.

Design/methodology/approach

All Brazilian firms that have entered foreign markets via FDI were surveyed to measure the firm’s: intent to internationalize; satisfaction with prior internationalization; and commitment to internationalization. Intent to internationalize is future based while both satisfaction and commitment reflect previous year’s activities. The potential response pool included publically traded companies listed on the Bovespa (São Paulo Stock Exchange) and private limited companies (Ltda.). The authors conducted a hierarchical moderated regression analysis to test the moderating effect of commitment to internationalization on the relationship between international satisfaction and intent to internationalize.

Findings

This study adds to the literature by examining how past international satisfaction and commitment affect the future intent to internationalize for large Brazilian MNEs. The results confirm that the degree of past satisfaction regarding a firm’s international business is positively related to the firm’s future intent to internationalize. However, the results diverge from past research in two important ways. First, contrary to the organizational behavior literature, past commitment to internationalization does not have a significant relationship with future intention to internationalize. Second, the results show the relationship between satisfaction and intent is weakened by a high degree of international commitment.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is the small sample size. While it encompasses the vast majority of large MNEs in Brazil, the authors still do not have enough data points to test more hypotheses such as the effects of firm size, number of countries the firm is in, and age of the firm. Future studies should attempt to expand the work done here by examining these effects. Another limitation of this study is that it is based on solely one country; Brazil. Future studies should attempt to replicate these findings in other emerging market countries.

Practical implications

These results have three main managerial implications. First, international strategists analyzing the trajectory of a firm’s future intentions to internationalize should focus on how satisfied the firm has been with its past efforts. Second, managers should not assume that just because their firms have a large presence abroad that this will subsequently lead to future plans to internationalize. Finally, for emerging market MNEs in a period of the financial crises, committing more to internationalization may reduce the positive relationship between satisfaction and intention.

Originality/value

The purpose of this study is to add to the small but growing work on large MNEs from Brazil in order to better understand their internationalization strategies. While there are literally hundreds of articles investigating the individual-level relationship between satisfaction and the intent to do something, there are a dearth at the firm level (see Wood et al., 2011, as a notable exception). The authors therefore attempt to extend the literature on internationalization by discussing how satisfaction at the firm level affects a firm-level decision.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Livia L. Barakat, Melanie P Lorenz, Jase R. Ramsey and Sherban L Cretoiu

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship.

Findings

The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs.

Practical implications

Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context.

Originality/value

The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First, the authors introduce job satisfaction as a possible outcome variable of CQ. Thus, this work is the first empirical study to test the effect of CQ on the job satisfaction of global managers. Second, although the job satisfaction-job performance relationship is recurrently discussed in the organizational behavior literature, it is not often explicitly associated with global managers that are working in cross-cultural settings. Finally, the authors posit that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between CQ and job performance.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Arti Pandey and Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol

This study aims to examine the contribution of cultural intelligence (CQ) to the level of adaptive selling behavior and customer-oriented selling behavior of salespeople…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the contribution of cultural intelligence (CQ) to the level of adaptive selling behavior and customer-oriented selling behavior of salespeople in a cross-cultural selling context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected data from a total of 210 Thai salespeople who had been assigned to work at trade shows in Japan (n = 110) and in Vietnam (n = 100).

Findings

The findings show that salespeople with higher CQ tend to demonstrate a higher degree of adaptive selling behavior and customer-oriented selling behavior in both countries. The moderating effect analysis shows that the positive relationship between CQ and adaptive selling behavior is significantly higher for Thai salespeople in Japanese trade shows than in Vietnamese trade shows.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses cross-sectional data collection; therefore, the results have been interpreted as associations, but not causations.

Practical implications

The study suggests that CQ development programs could be considered as part of the training that organizations provide to salespeople to develop cross-cultural competencies to deal effectively with foreign customers.

Originality/value

This study provides additional evidence concerning the benefits of CQ in an occupational area that has not been previously explored. More importantly, the result regarding the positive linkage between CQ and adaptive selling behavior was significantly stronger in the country characterized by higher cultural differences. This also contributed to CQ research by showing that differences in a cultural context might also influence the benefits of CQ in relation to the outcome variables.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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