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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1969

Parker of, Melford Stevenson J. and J. Cooke

July 7, 1969 Revenue — Selective employment tax — Qualifying activities — “Agriculture” — Defined as including “livestock breeding and keeping” — Meaning of “livestock”…

Abstract

July 7, 1969 Revenue — Selective employment tax — Qualifying activities — “Agriculture” — Defined as including “livestock breeding and keeping” — Meaning of “livestock” extended by separate definition of “livestock” — “any creature kept for the production of food, wool, skins or fur, or for the purposes of its use in the farming of land” — Breeding of cats and dogs for sale for research — Whether within extended or general definitions of “agriculture” — Selective Employment Payments Act, 1966 (c. 32), ss. 2(2) (a), (3) (e), 10(1).

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Managerial Law, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Colin Brown, Scott Waldron, Liu Yuman and John Longworth

The purpose of this paper is to show how the promotion of integrated forage/ruminant‐livestock industries forms a key plank in efforts to improve rural household…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how the promotion of integrated forage/ruminant‐livestock industries forms a key plank in efforts to improve rural household livelihoods in Western China.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper critiques how this industry development has proceeded in the case of Qingyang prefecture in Gansu. The way in which the industry policy has manifested from central to local levels of government is outlined along with how the industry policy relates to other measures intended to improve household livelihoods.

Findings

The outcomes of this forage‐livestock industry policy do not always match the intention, and the paper examines the various disconnects that arise between government agencies, government and households and households and the market. The foremost challenge for policy makers is in connecting households and markets.

Originality/value

Identifying the impacts of policy and institutional settings associated with forage‐livestock systems is crucial if improvements are to be made and as these systems become more widespread in Western China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Rosa Duarte Pac and Julio Sánchez‐Chóliz

This paper uses the input‐output methodology in order to study the water pollution associated with an economic system, through an examination of the productive…

Abstract

This paper uses the input‐output methodology in order to study the water pollution associated with an economic system, through an examination of the productive relationships which link the different sectors and their involvement in the water pollution that is generated. The indicators associated with the demand models are obtained on the basis of the construction of primary pollution and return matrices. In a second stage, an analysis is made of the trade‐offs between economic and environmental variables, as a way of linking the variables to be taken into account for the purposes of environmental planning. The empirical application is made for the regions of the Ebro Valley (Spain). The results show the importance of considering the responsibility of the agriculture, livestock and food sectors for the coherent treatment of the water pollution problem.

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Environmental Management and Health, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Shepherd Muchuru and Godwell Nhamo

This paper aims to investigate and review adaptation measures in the livestock sector from 21 African countries through literature survey and grounded theory approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate and review adaptation measures in the livestock sector from 21 African countries through literature survey and grounded theory approaches. The adaptation themes that emerged captured essence of measures and experience drawn from varied country submissions and contexts instituted to make the livestock sector climate compatible in as far as adaptation is concerned.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature survey approach was used on the impacts of climate change on livestock and a review of the submitted adaptation measures. The study used grounded theory approach to derive meaning from the retrieved information. The grounded theory was derived inductively through systematic collection and analysis of data pertaining to the submitted National Communications reports. The retrieved themes were then examined and interpreted to give meaning and draw conclusions through coding, conceptualizing, categorizing and theorizing.

Findings

Results identify eight adaptation themes: carrying capacity and policies; integrated pasture management; capacity building, extension, training, awareness and information sharing; livestock breeding, diversification and intensification; disease, vectors and parasites management; technology, innovation, research and development; alternative livelihood; and water supply. The findings show that African Governments have been implementing effective adaptation measures for food security through building a climate resilient livestock production system.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to lead to recommendations that decision- and policymakers, private sectors, relevant stakeholders and government officials and scientists should play a key role in ensuring that adaptation measures reach farmers, herders at grassroots level. In addition, governments should create an enabling environment (policies) in climate change adaptation to improve food security. These recommendations might be helpful in many communities where adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2011

Rasel Madaha and Barbara Wejnert

This study reveals that despite the negative effects of migration, the Tanzanian government has not done enough to address migration-related health issues. This is owing…

Abstract

This study reveals that despite the negative effects of migration, the Tanzanian government has not done enough to address migration-related health issues. This is owing to inadequate data or information about effects of migration in the country. Dodoma region, the focus of this study, is selected for its migration-inducing factors as they relate to the declining health status of its inhabitants. Harsh climatic conditions causing irregular and inadequate rainfall and prolonged drought have led to a severe decline of the health of the poor. The region is entirely dependent on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. The small-scale production is locally practiced at household level. Extreme poverty motivates rural people to migrate to cities with the main migrant groups being middle school (about 13 to 15 years old) and high school dropouts (15 to 18 years old), and youth including young parents (18 to 35 years old). The rural-urban migration conjoined with harsh climatic conditions significantly downsizes local population, available agricultural labor force, and further endangers food security. More importantly, however, due to exposure to HIV in the cities, most migrants who are unable to find city jobs return home terminally ill with HIV/AIDS, which further adds to impoverishment of rural families and to downsizing of rural population.

Details

Democracies: Challenges to Societal Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-238-8

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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2012

Aki Kogachi and Rajib Shaw

Burkina Faso is a land-locked country, sharing a border with six other countries, namely Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, and Cote D'Ivoire in the zone of West Africa …

Abstract

Burkina Faso is a land-locked country, sharing a border with six other countries, namely Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, and Cote D'Ivoire in the zone of West Africa (Fig. 1). Due to the geographical location of the Sahel region, the country's climate is characterized by rainy and dry seasons. According to the Human Development Report in 2010, the country has a very weak economy with a GDP of 522 USD per habitant, principally based on agriculture (25%), animal production (12%), and forestry/fishery (3%) (MECV & SP/CONEDD, 2006a). The population growth is extremely high at 2.8%, with 46.4% of the population living below the national poverty line and 81.2% living on less than $2 a day (UNDP, 2009). The biomass energy is the largest primary energy source covering 80% of total consumption, thus accelerating soil degradation as well as deforestation.

Details

Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-868-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Jacqueline Zonichenn Reis, Rodrigo Franco Goncalves, Epaminondas de Souza Lage and Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

Considering the relevance of innovative business models in the digitally transformed market and the lack of clarity on the internet of services (IoS) contribution for a…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the relevance of innovative business models in the digitally transformed market and the lack of clarity on the internet of services (IoS) contribution for a business model deployment in current literature, this study aims to fill this gap by evaluating a business model that converges to an IoS adoption in a direct sale of free-range eggs from farmers to consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

From the bibliographical research regarding the IoS and business model, the authors developed an IoS-based model framework. The framework has been evaluated in a real business scenario by using a single case study through an interview with the entrepreneur and documental analysis.

Findings

As the main result, a framework with the attributes can be considered a tool for an IoS-based business model deployment. The case study concluded that the business is aligned with the IoS adoption, and the framework presents adherence to it.

Research limitations/implications

The case study was limited to only one company owing to the IoS’s novelty and the lack of correlated business models. Although the case study limits to the agriculture field, the proposed framework may be broadly applied.

Originality/value

Considering that the lack of a comprehensive business model causes new businesses to face challenges, it is relevant bringing up the present case study of the IoS-based business model, which correlates these two subjects, still poorly explored in the scientific literature: IoS and business models.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Rahmah Ismail

Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) was established in 1987. The main objective of its establishment was to uplift households out of poverty through providing small loan to the…

Abstract

Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) was established in 1987. The main objective of its establishment was to uplift households out of poverty through providing small loan to the rural poor. Most studies of AIM have concentrated only on the impact of this scheme on its members. They do not compare the conditions with non‐members within the same community. This paper attempts to analyse an economic and social impact of AIM in the selected areas in Kedah and Terengganu. The analysis will be based on the data collected in 1993, which comprise 100 respondents of which 60 respondents are members of AIM and the other 40 are non‐members and 20 non‐members and the other 50 respondents in Terengganu with the same composition. Since the data comprises of members and non‐members of AIM, the comparative analysis of economic and social impact is made possible. Aspects that will be emphasised include levels of income, expenditure, decision‐making process, empowerment for instant ownership of asset and saving, self‐esteem and health and participation in social, economic and political organisations.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Vivake Anand, Kinza Yousfani and Jianhua Zhang

Natural disasters occur all around the world, in the last two decades these natural disasters have brought sever damages to the world economy. Mostly developing countries…

Abstract

Natural disasters occur all around the world, in the last two decades these natural disasters have brought sever damages to the world economy. Mostly developing countries bear severe consequences due to these natural disasters. In July 2010, Pakistan faced a massive flood, which affected almost all the countries. The disaster affected all sectors like daily life, transportation, infrastructure, etc., of the country. GOP did not have enough resources to cope with this giant disaster and called for international help. Local and international NGOs participated with GOP in the early phases of recovery. Millions of dollars were given away as the initial impact of this disaster, and GOP and other relief agents have spent other million to provide initial recovery and relief. GOP will need billions of dollars further to continue recovery from the disaster of 2010.

Details

International Case Studies in the Management of Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-187-5

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