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Article

Sang Thanh Le and Chi Dao Vo

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs the sustainable livelihood framework at a household and also an individual scale. The general data obtained from a survey of 2,100 households provide an overview of their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted, as case studies, to comprehensively assess 100 households in one commune affected by annual floods and an additional 100 households in another commune affected by sea level rises. Livelihood profile analysis is beneficial to identify specific livelihood change patterns that have taken place in these specific cases.

Findings

There are four types of livelihood adaptation to climate stressors: (1) change of structure of agricultural systems, (2) change of employment locations, (3) resettlement with strong impact on livelihoods and (4) out-migration. The household livelihood resources and the local economic structures have significant roles in driving adaptive solutions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides detailed profiles of the livelihood change considered as passive adaptation of smallholders in the Mekong Delta.

Originality/value

It contributes to the knowledge of rural households in multiple aspects with regard to how they cope with climate change via reflection on their livelihoods.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Content available
Article

Suhiyini I. Alhassan, John K.M. Kuwornu and Yaw B. Osei-Asare

This paper aims to investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate change and variability in the northern region of Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate change and variability in the northern region of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study assessed the vulnerability of male-headed and female-headed farming households to climate change and variability by using the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and tested for significant difference in their vulnerability levels by applying independent two-sample-student’s t-test based on gender by using a sample of 210 smallholder farming households.

Findings

The results revealed a significant difference in the vulnerability levels of female-headed and male-headed farming households. Female–headed households were more vulnerable to livelihood strategies, socio-demographic profile, social networks, water and food major components of the LVI, whereas male-headed households were more vulnerable to health. The vulnerability indices revealed that female–headed households were more sensitive to the impact of climate change and variability. However, female-headed households have the least adaptive capacities. In all, female-headed farming households are more vulnerable to climate change and variability than male-headed farming households.

Research limitations/implications

The study recommends that female-headed households should be given priority in both on-going and new intervention projects in climate change and agriculture by empowering them through financial resource support to venture into other income-generating activities. This would enable them to diversify their sources of livelihoods to boost their resilience to climate change and variability.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examined the gender dimension of vulnerability of smallholder farmers in Ghana by using the livelihood vulnerability framework. Female subordination in northern region of Ghana has been profound to warrant a study on gender dimension in relation to climate change and variability, especially as it is a semi-arid region with unpredictable climatic conditions. This research revealed the comparative vulnerability of male- and female-headed households to climate change and variability.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article

Ha Thi Thuy Nong, Christopher Gan and Baiding Hu

This study analyses climate change vulnerability and adaptation in a northern province in Vietnam from the gender perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyses climate change vulnerability and adaptation in a northern province in Vietnam from the gender perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) was calculated for 134 female and 239 male-headed households. Descriptive statistics were synthesized to investigate climate change adaptation from the gender perspective.

Findings

The results show that the LVI of female-headed households is higher than male-headed households, but the variation is negligible. In addition, female and male farmers in the study area use different methods to adapt to climate change. Female farmers have critically contributed to the family workforce and climate change adaptation. Nevertheless, female farmers have less accessibility to agricultural services such as training and credit.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that gendered interventions for improvement of livelihood to adapt to climate change should be developed for each aspect of the livelihood. Furthermore, enhancement of services for women and recognition of women's roles in responding to climate change would contribute to more active adaptation to climate change.

Originality/value

Studies on climate change from the gender perspective in Vietnam have been conducted on a limited scale. Particularly, there are very limited studies on climate change in association with gender issue in North Vietnam. Thus, this study will provide more insights into the gender dimension of climate change vulnerability and adaptation so that gender-based adaptation strategies can be developed.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

Nafisa Priti Sanga and Rajeev Kumar Ranjan

Addressing probable complexities of climate change on rural livelihoods, food security, and poverty reduction, requires mainstreaming of cross-sectoral interventions and…

Abstract

Purpose

Addressing probable complexities of climate change on rural livelihoods, food security, and poverty reduction, requires mainstreaming of cross-sectoral interventions and adaptations into existing frameworks. Indigenous communities due to their isolation, reluctance to current practices, and knowledge deprivation are difficult to reach by many developmental programs. The purpose of this paper is to identify relevant adaptations from indigenous rural Jharkhand (India), applicable to improving livelihoods through integrated natural resource management (NRM). Prospects of rainwater harvest and management for supporting local rural livelihoods were also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Tested and applicable models of participatory research methods widespread in sociological research were used. Focussed group discussions and structured interviews were conducted for primary data collection from micro-watershed units of this study.

Findings

In-situ soil and water conservation methods showed increased availabilities of freshwater both for food and non-food consumption in the area. Construction of rural infrastructure and land husbandry practices improved agricultural productivity and resulted in subsequent reductions in women's drudgeries. Culture fishery provided ample scope for livelihood diversification, food and nutrition security of households. Overall, micro-watershed area developmental approach improved food and nutrition securities, generated employment opportunities, improved agricultural productivity, diversified livelihoods and were widely accepted by communities.

Originality/value

Creating greater sense of ownership among grass-root communities was an important thrust behind the success of this particular project. By entrusting tribal communities with fund management, rural planning, and execution of various interventions, a successful replicable model was produced, which has wider community implications extending beyond societies and geographies.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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Article

Mark Pelling

The Millennium Declaration and the Hyogo Framework for Action point towards the need for methods to identify urban vulnerability to disaster risk as a pre-cursor for the…

Abstract

The Millennium Declaration and the Hyogo Framework for Action point towards the need for methods to identify urban vulnerability to disaster risk as a pre-cursor for the development of benchmarks with which to track policy progress for urban sustainability and risk reduction. This paper responds to this call by assessing the state of the art in urban vulnerability and risk assessment tools. It presents a review of the conceptual frameworks, methodologies and comparative advantages of ten tools. These are categorised into deductive and inductive approaches, with inductive approaches in turn separated into those that use social-survey and participatory methods. The tools examined vary in the focus of their interests between those concerned with the vulnerability of places (cities or buildings) and people (either as predefined vulnerable social groups or identified through household livelihood sustainability).

The paper calls for a deeper conversation between the emerging community of practitioners working on urban disaster risk management and the existing urban development community. For example, disasters are typically defined as exceptionally large, single events, which adds to analytical clarity, but misses the cumulative impact of multiple small, local events on household sustainability and urban infrastructure, ultimately distorting planning guidance. There is also a need for natural hazard specific vulnerability assessment tools to be interpreted alongside, or to incorporate social, economic and political sources of danger to livelihoods and human health. For forward looking policy relevance, tools are also needed that can assess adaptive or coping capacity. This is essential for the building of a holistic approach to urban risk management. An approach that coherently tackles the multiple hazards and vulnerabilities faced by urban dwellers, and seeks to avoid the shifting of risk burdens between populations and the movement of people from one kind of threat to another.

Details

Open House International, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article

Ayodele O. Majekodunmi

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore social risk management strategies amongst Fulani in the subhumid zone of Nigeria; and second, to determine current…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore social risk management strategies amongst Fulani in the subhumid zone of Nigeria; and second, to determine current status and nature of reciprocal exchange networks, risk pooling and social support for pastoral livelihoods in North-Central Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys of cattle productivity and pastoral livelihoods were carried out amongst Fulani pastoralists on the Jos Plateau: between 2008 and 2013 using participatory epidemiology methods and the sustainable livelihoods framework. Qualitative and quantitative data on livelihood activities, knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal husbandry and disease control, wealth grouping, herd entries and exits was gathered to determine the current state of cattle productivity and pastoral livelihoods in the study area.

Findings

Results show that reciprocal exchange networks for risk management have mostly disintegrated and patron-client relationships have become an important social risk management strategy.

Practical implications

This research has significant implications for sustainability of Fulani livelihoods and communities: decreased social risk-management strategies and increased self-reliance means that the most vulnerable households will find it more difficult to withstand shocks and climb out of poverty. Wealthier households may cope better with high incidence/low severity shocks like but are more vulnerable to low incidence/high severity shocks. Likewise, decreased social cohesion reduces the ability of communities to mobilise and act collectively in the face of community-level shocks. This is very important for engagement with the state – a crucial process, given current levels of acrimony and conflict.

Originality/value

Given the high levels of farmer-herder conflict and civil unrest in this region over the past 15 years this research is valuable in providing insights into economic drivers of conflict, current dynamics of pastoral livelihoods and social cohesion within and between communities.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

Mittul Vahanvati and Beau Beza

The purpose of this paper is to identify “key processes” during the owner-driven reconstruction (ODR) process by implementing agencies, to enhance the long-term…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify “key processes” during the owner-driven reconstruction (ODR) process by implementing agencies, to enhance the long-term disaster-resilience of housing and community.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods methodology and “case-study” approach is adopted to compare good practice reconstruction projects in India in the past 15 years. This paper discusses findings from investigations conducted in two settlements of Bihar – Orlaha and Puraini, after major flooding in 2008. The sites were visited during 2012 and 2014.

Findings

One of the key processes that lead to the success of the ODR process in terms of its effect on the long-term disaster-resilience in Bihar is community mobilisation it functions primarily as an information and communication device promoting the success (or otherwise) of the reconstruction project.

Originality/value

The findings are based on empirical evidence gathered during in-field investigations and interviews to post-disaster reconstructed villages. While these findings represent a snapshot of diverse and complex disaster experiences in the Indian context, the comparison offers insight on how to turn the rhetoric surrounding “owner-driven” or “built back better” into positive long-term community outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Content available
Article

Eric Yaw Naminse, Jincai Zhuang and Fangyang Zhu

There is a recent growing interest to find a lasting intervention to rural poverty (RP) in developing countries based on farmer entrepreneurship and innovation. The…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a recent growing interest to find a lasting intervention to rural poverty (RP) in developing countries based on farmer entrepreneurship and innovation. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the relation between entrepreneurship and RP alleviation in two resource-constrained provinces of China. This paper assesses the influence of three capabilities of farm entrepreneurs – educational, economic and socio-cultural – on farmer entrepreneurship growth and how these, in turn, impact alleviation of RP.

Design/methodology/approach

Household survey data comprising 363 respondents were taken from four deprived communities in two provinces of China. The paper employed structural equation modeling (SEM), using AMOS 21.0 alongside SPSS 20.0 to test the relations between the constructs.

Findings

The results show that a statistically significant and positive relation exists between entrepreneurship and RP alleviation in China. The findings of the study further reveal that qualitative growth of entrepreneurship has a stronger positive influence on RP alleviation than on quantitative growth, and socio-cultural capabilities of respondents significantly and positively affect entrepreneurial growth of farmers, rather than education and economic capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

The use of data from four communities in two provinces tends to limit the ability to generalize the findings of the study. Furthermore, the survey did not collect information on non-farm entrepreneurs, making it impossible to compare the findings from farm entrepreneurs with non-farm entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications for policy makers in rural China toward addressing targeted RP. This paper, therefore, suggests that entrepreneurship should be pursued vigorously among farmers in rural areas of China to help solve poverty. The paper also presents a useful lesson for various stakeholders in poverty alleviation programs in other developing countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the academic literature on the entrepreneurship–RP alleviation nexus by combining the theory of capability and SEM in the analysis of an emerging economy such as China.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new master’s programme for promoting energy access and energy efficiency in Southern Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A transdisciplinary approach called “participatory integrated assessment of energy systems” (PARTICIPIA) was used for the development of the curriculum. This approach is based on the two emerging fields of “multi-scale integrated assessment” and “science for governance”, which bring innovative concepts and methods.

Findings

The application of the PARTICIPIA methodology to three case studies reveals that the proposed transdisciplinary approach could support energy and development policies in the region. The implementation of the PARTICIPIA curriculum in three higher education institutions reveals its ability to respond to the needs of specific contexts and its connection with existing higher education programmes.

Practical implications

Considering energy issues from a transdisciplinary approach in higher education is absolutely critical because such a holistic view cannot be achieved through engineering curricula. Deliberate and greater efforts should be made to integrate methods from “multi-scale integrated assessment” and “science for governance” in higher education curricula to train a new breed of modern-day energy planners in charge of coming up with solutions that are shared by all relevant stakeholders.

Originality/value

This paper presents an innovative higher education curriculum in terms of the attention given to energy access and energy efficiency that affect the southern Africa region and the nature of the methodology adopted to face these issues.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article

A.M.M. Maruf Hossain, Hasibur Rahman and Kihong Park

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the climate change effects on the socio‐economy in Bangladesh, focusing on the framework of sustainable development and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the climate change effects on the socio‐economy in Bangladesh, focusing on the framework of sustainable development and assisting in “policy and integration” innovation. The paper also aims to project the importance of translation of physical parameter changes in climate change models into effects on natural productive systems and the socio‐economy in the future. This should be regarded as one of the most important prerequisites for “policy and integration” innovation towards sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

The most tangible climate change effects linked with the socio‐economy in Bangladesh are described and used to construct a single schematic that starts with susceptibility to climate change and ends into sustainable development. Further focus is given into the framework of sustainable development.

Findings

Bangladesh is highly susceptible to increase in floods, moisture stress and salinity intrusion in a changed climatic scenario. All major user sectors of water will be affected despite of the country's very high per capita quanta water availability. This will adversely effect the overall socio‐economy and will be disproportionate to the poor. Adaptation and coping strategies must be addressed with development initiatives, thus “policy and integration” innovation are greatly required for sustainable development.

Originality/value

The paper describes the most tangible climate change effects linked with the socio‐economy in Bangladesh resulting in the construction of a single schematic starting with susceptibility to climate change and ending into sustainable development.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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