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Article

Lisana B. Martinez, Valeria Scherger, M. Belén Guercio and Sofía Orazi

This paper analyses the evolution of the financial inclusion and its main determinants in seven Latin American countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the evolution of the financial inclusion and its main determinants in seven Latin American countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The database used is the Global Findex from the World Bank for the latest data released that includes the years 2011 and 2014. The variables used are formal financial accounts, formal savings and formal credit as proxies of financial inclusion for the years of study. Moreover, the use of debit and credit cards is considered. The methodologies applied are the mean difference tests, in order to contrast the hypotheses of the inclusion evolution and binary probit regressions models.

Findings

The results of the analysis show that there is a positive evolution in the use of financial instruments in the countries of the sample, especially in the use of formal accounts. On the other hand, considering the characteristics of the individuals, age, level of education and income positively affect their financial inclusion.

Originality/value

There are no similar works for the region of study that allow us to evaluate the evolution of financial inclusion considering the variables selected in the literature. It is possible to clearly fulfil the proposed objective, highlighting the importance of implementing financial inclusion policies in view of the low percentage of use of the instruments in the analyzed countries.

Propósito

Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la inclusión financiera y los principales determinantes que la afectan en siete países de América Latina.

Diseño/metodología/Enfoque

Se utiliza la base de datos Global Findex del Banco Mundial, considerando los últimos datos relevados para los años 2011 yrs 2014. Se usa las variables cuentas financieras formales, ahorro formal y crédito formal como proxies de la inclusión financiera en los años de estudio, como así también la tenencia de tarjetas de débito y crédito. Se aplican test de diferencias de medias a fin de contrastar las hipótesis propuestas de evolución de la inclusión y se estiman modelos de regresión binaria probit.

Resultados

Los resultados del análisis muestran que existe una evolución positiva en el grado de inclusión financiera. Se identifica un mayor uso de los instrumentos financieros en los países de la muestra, siendo la tenencia de cuentas en instituciones financieras formales la variable más significativa. Por otro lado, considerando las características de los individuos, se encuentra que la edad de las personas, el nivel de educación y de ingresos afectan positivamente a la inclusión financiera de los individuos.

Originalidad/valor

No existen trabajos similares para la región de estudio analizada que nos permitan evaluar la evolución de la inclusión financiera considerando las variables proxies seleccionadas de la literatura. Se logra cumplir el objetivo planteado, destacando la importancia de implementar políticas de inclusión financiera ante el bajo porcentaje de uso de los instrumentos en los países de la muestra.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

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Article

M. Teresa Sorrosal-Forradellas, Lisana B. Martinez and Antonio Terceño

The last great financial crisis which arose in the middle of 2007 in the USA produced contagion effects over others economies. The purpose of this paper is focused on…

Abstract

Purpose

The last great financial crisis which arose in the middle of 2007 in the USA produced contagion effects over others economies. The purpose of this paper is focused on analyzing the evolution of a set of economic variables of 17 European countries since 1991 until 2013. Sovereign bond spreads are also considered to compare the incidence of the financial crisis over the economies considering macroeconomics fundamentals and fixed bonds.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to achieve the purpose of the research. With this methodology, it is possible to analyze the evolution of the macroeconomic fundamentals of each country, obtaining particular and general conclusions according to the position of each country in the SOM. Moreover, the countries are compared between them and with its respective sovereign bond spreads level for each year of analysis.

Findings

The impact of the crisis is different between the countries was analyzed. Belonging to the European Monetary Union is an interesting characteristic of some of the most affect economies.

Research limitations/implications

This research presents wide implications for the economies to control the most vulnerable economic variables in front of financial crisis to prevent the contagion effect. The inclusion of more economic variables and countries could enhance the study.

Originality/value

This research analyzes the relationship between macroeconomic variables and sovereign bond spreads using an infrequent methodology. The results obtained are valuable because they highlight how the present crisis has differently affected the European countries.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Lisana B. Martinez, Valeria Scherger and M. Belén Guercio

The purpose of this paper is to organize and present the literature related to firm’s capital structure across the years and find the most relevant publications and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to organize and present the literature related to firm’s capital structure across the years and find the most relevant publications and authors in the research area. Moreover, the authors pretend to fill the gap in the literature by studying different works and their compatibility with the main theories.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic literature review is conducted by using the Scopus database. The methodology applied is through a concise searching considering keywords, the most cited papers, the latest publications and theories that explain small and medium enterprises (SMEs) capital structure.

Findings

Some key aspects about the capital structure of firms and SMEs are identified, such as documents per year, type of publications, the most used languages, the top journals, the most cited papers, the most productive and influential authors and the latest published papers.

Research limitations/implications

The information presented is only informative from the Scopus database. Hence, this work only gives a general orientation of the most relevant research and its tendency of this database. More exhaustive works could be done using different keywords and analyzing other firms’ characteristics.

Practical implications

This kind of study is effective in evaluating the scientific production and to find the most important contributions of the subject. Furthermore, this information is useful for researchers’ studies on SME capital structure to underline the research direction and to be acquainted with the literature tendency.

Originality/value

There are not similar works that delve into the literature respect to SME capital structure and compare the main theories in relation to empirical works. Therefore, a synthesized evolution of previous works related to the capital structure of firms and SMEs is presented.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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