Previous research suggests that inefficiencies in the small business market exist surrounding the availability of capital by Small and Microenterprises (SMMEs). Using data…
Previous research suggests that inefficiencies in the small business market exist surrounding the availability of capital by Small and Microenterprises (SMMEs). Using data from the 1992 Characteristics of Business Owners Survey (CBO), the 2002 Survey of Business Owners (SBO), and the 2003 Survey of Small Business Finance (SSBF) this paper empirically estimates the "capital gap"- that is the unmet capital demand for business by SMMEs. We find that there is in fact a capital gap as the supply of capital available in the SMME market is not large enough to meet market demand. Given the importance of small businesses to economic vitality, growth, and recovery of the United States economy, the research provides critical and timely findings for policymakers and public finance managers seeking economic development and recovery
Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of womenʼs entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship…
Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of womenʼs entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship field needs to recognize gendered assumptions in theorizing. Deploying a feminist framework, we suggest that understanding the “gender gap” in entrepreneurship requires focus on institutional and structural barriers women entrepreneurs face. Existing studies of women entrepreneurs often compare women with men without considering how gender and gender relations impact the very concepts and ideas of entrepreneurship. We propose, therefore, a conceptualization of entrepreneurship that illuminates gender bias and calls attention to the interrelated individual, institutional, and structural barriers in the entrepreneurial process that arrive out of societal and cultural gender norms. Through praxis or engaged practice, we redirect scholarship in the entrepreneurship field, while proposing ways that can promote gender equality in entrepreneurial activities. In all, our gender integrative conceptualization of entrepreneurship contributes to the entrepreneurship field by recognizing and addressing a more expansive realm of influential factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem that have previously been researched separately.
The contemporary city is a field with a myriad of problems that require deep reflection and the questioning of habitual ways of thinking and acting. This chapter examines…
The contemporary city is a field with a myriad of problems that require deep reflection and the questioning of habitual ways of thinking and acting. This chapter examines some of these, while seeking a path – or perhaps a way out – in order to deal with the difficulties linked to the most pressing emergent phenomena: the multiplication of new citizens, the complicated mosaic of differences, the spread of voluntary communities and the requests for recognition in a socially diverse and multiple society.
The reflections brought together in this chapter leave behind mundane literary routines, imprisoned in the clichés of the discourse on post-modernity, to single out a ‘field of practices’ that is enigmatic but at the same time constitutes and generates a new idea of urbanity. DiverCity (Perrone, 2010) is the literary and evocative figuration that recounts this set of practices. The figuration uses a ‘play on words’ between diversity and city, in which the two concepts are understood as entities with a one-to-one correspondence, an ontological interconnection. DiverCity is the outcome of a process to produce and exchange multiple, plural, interactive (built up during the action), expert and experiential knowledge.
The purpose of this paper is to study the “underbanked” – those who already possess bank accounts but are patrons of alternative financial services (AFS) providers at the same time.
Linking the FDIC unbanked/underbanked surveys of nationally represented households with FDIC bank information and local MSA demographics, demographic and economic profiles of the underbanked households are examined, together with the determinants of their choice of nonbank financial services.
The author finds that bank fees are associated with the likelihood for households to obtain AFS, especially nonbank credit. Households’ attitudes and experience with banks are important in the choice of getting AFS. Furthermore, most underbanked households used AFS temporarily, partly reflecting rather informed and calculated financial decisions.
The results from this paper provide implications for different types of AFS users. For example, the use of transactional AFS responds to the availability of online or mobile banking; meanwhile, it is also sensitive to branch closure. Users of nonbank credits are likely to be price savvy, and these products serve as valuable alternatives for short-term financing, especially during unfavorable economic situation.
Better understanding of the underbanked could help banks tailor to existing clients’ needs, for instance, providing innovative short-term credit products for those with little or impaired credit history. The study also helps policy makers re-evaluate banking regulations since the Great Recession. As regulations squeezed bank profits in certain areas and forced banks to consolidate, come alongside higher bank fees, potential branch closure and loss of service, which ultimately forced banked individuals to the less regulated alternative providers.
The analysis utilizes a comprehensive set of variables, from household social-economic characteristics to local banking industry characteristics, together with households’ subjective opinions of their banking institutions. The focus on the underbanked brings attention to this underserved population and discusses areas where banks can improve. The study contributes to the understanding of AFS users, draws implications for regulation toward banking and shadow banking.