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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Lisa K. Gundry, Miriam Ben-Yoseph and Margaret Posig

This article examines major areas of inquiry related to entrepreneurial capabilities, motivations, and the acquisition of resources to launch and grow women-owned businesses.

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Abstract

This article examines major areas of inquiry related to entrepreneurial capabilities, motivations, and the acquisition of resources to launch and grow women-owned businesses.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Jill Kickul and Lisa K. Gundry

Implications for opportunity identification, alliance formation, and strategic orientation of Internet entrepreneurs are presented as preliminary steps toward a new…

Abstract

Implications for opportunity identification, alliance formation, and strategic orientation of Internet entrepreneurs are presented as preliminary steps toward a new "netpreneurship" model of business formation.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jill Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths, Colleen C. Robb and Lisa Gundry

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study…

102

Abstract

Purpose

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study poses the research question: How much Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) funding was distributed to women-owned and minority-owned businesses in comparison to other firms? Additionally, as the purpose of the PPP funding was to assist small businesses in retaining their workforce, the authors pose a second research question: Of those who received PPP funding, how many jobs on average were retained? And importantly related to our first research question, are there differences across gender and race in the average number of jobs retained?

Design/methodology/approach

This is one of the first empirical studies with an initial sample size of 661,218 loans from July 2020 that examines whether the United States PPP had the intended impact to save jobs in small businesses and to examine any reported differences across gender and race in loans issued and jobs saved.

Findings

The authors find that significant differences exist between women- and men-owned businesses across all five loan categories, with male-owned firms receiving over 80% of PPP loans. However, women-owned firms saved more jobs on average across all but the largest loan category. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study pertains to certain missing data that were not reported by participants. While a participant may have included their gender, they may not have included their race. Therefore, the varying sets of data may not be a reflection of the same individuals. Additionally, the industries were not included in this analysis, which may shed light on the job creation differences across gender and race.

Practical implications

Many of the industries that have been significantly impacted have been the tourism, restaurant and hospitality sectors, and knowing “where the money was allocated” can assist policymakers in allocating additional funds to those businesses, especially those who did not receive funding in the initial first waves of PPP.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical studies that examine over 600,000 loans and found that women-owned firms saved more jobs across all loan categories except the largest loans. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Lisa K. Gundry, Jill R. Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths and Sophie C. Bacq

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship flourishes in resource-constrained environments, social innovation may depend on the extent to which social entrepreneurs can combine and apply the resources at hand in creative and useful ways to solve problems – “bricolage.” Moreover, innovating for social impact relies on a set of institutional and structural supports – “innovation ecology,' which can facilitate or impede innovation. Our research empirically examines these variables as drivers of systemic social change through scaling and replication – “catalytic innovation” (i.e., the development of products and services targeted to unserved markets). Results of a survey conducted with 113 social entrepreneurs indicate that, while innovation ecology is associated with the degree of catalytic innovation, it is mediated by the role and degree of bricolage that social entrepreneurs bring to solving problems. These findings reinforce the role of entrepreneurs as the indispensable agents of social change.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Mark D. Griffiths, Lisa Gundry, Jill Kickul and Angeles Muñoz Fernandez

The purpose of this paper is to examine the governmental, economic, and technological factors contributing to a country's innovation ecology that have an impact on…

1733

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the governmental, economic, and technological factors contributing to a country's innovation ecology that have an impact on sustainable economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates governmental, economic, and technological supports that comprise the innovation ecology of 34 nations using ordinary least squares, discriminant analysis, and mediated regression. It is proposed that the strength of a country's innovation ecology is associated with greater sustainable entrepreneurial growth opportunities. Innovation indicators and trend analyses were collected from Eurostat Yearbook 2007, Science and Technology, and Global Financial Data over the 1995‐2005 period.

Findings

The results reveal that while the influence of government and the economic environment encourage innovation ecology, having resources at the research and development levels, human capital, and early seed funding were key indicators of innovation. The greater the degree of research and development, the availability of a highly skilled labor force, and the amount of private and public venture capital funding, the more likely it is that a strong national innovation ecology will emerge leading to the creation of new business ideas and growth opportunities.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the understanding of the significant role of innovation investment for new business development and growth.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Bala Mulloth, Jill R. Kickul and Lisa K Gundry

There has been a profound neglect in most of the literature dealing with social entrepreneurship on the relationship between social entrepreneurship and technological…

1911

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a profound neglect in most of the literature dealing with social entrepreneurship on the relationship between social entrepreneurship and technological innovation. The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into that relationship by using the case of Prezi, a Budapest, Hungary-based mission-driven software company.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach used for this paper is qualitative in nature and uses the case study methodology. Evidence was based on interpretative/qualitative interviews and direct observations.

Findings

Using the example of Prezi, the authors show that social entrepreneurial activities and projects could act as an important innovation source for technology-based industries.

Originality/value

The authors use the case of Prezi and describe several of Prezi’s socially driven projects and show how they influence those involved with the company to continuously innovate and solve problems that have positive impact in the community as well as their core product offering.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2013

Mark D. Griffiths, Lisa K. Gundry and Jill R. Kickul

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the demand and supply‐side theories of entrepreneurship development in a series of stage‐based models that analyze how…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the demand and supply‐side theories of entrepreneurship development in a series of stage‐based models that analyze how macro‐level and contextual variables influence social entrepreneurship activity. The paper investigates the macro‐level influences, including the socio‐political, cultural and economic factors that can stimulate or impede the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Although little research on these determinants has been conducted, this study seeks to reveal that several variables that are crucial in traditional entrepreneurial studies do not appear to significantly affect social entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure social entrepreneurial activity, the authors used the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) findings from the 2009 study. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test three multi‐level stages of the socio‐political, economic, and cultural determinants of social entrepreneurship activity. The series of three stages for all of the variables were entered in the following order: first, socio‐political variables; second, cultural variables; third, economic variables. This approach allows the authors to explore and thus extend the previous research reviewed here, on how the economic context beyond socio‐political and cultural factors affects social enterprise activity.

Findings

A three‐stage analysis revealed that socio‐political variables accounted for 76 percent of the variance in social entrepreneurial activity. It was found that the single greatest determinant of social entrepreneurial activity is the degree of female participation in the labor force. Additional findings and implications for understanding the role of macro‐level factors on social entrepreneurship are discussed.

Originality/value

Social entrepreneurship has the potential to confront and address some of society's most challenging and complex problems arising from market and government inadequacies or failures. Social entrepreneurial firms exist within environments that are often severely resource‐constrained. Therefore, social entrepreneurs may rely on a unique set of strategies to mobilize resources available to them, such as collaboration with others and accessing social capital to generate value solutions for their communities. The growth of women's participation in the labor force is a powerful influence on social entrepreneurship activity, and with the increase in training programs and local networks to support women's business ownership, it is likely that this trend will continue and positively impact communities around the world.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2017

Abstract

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

G.T. Lumpkin and Jerome A. Katz

From its earliest incarnations, entrepreneurship has been linked to innovation, and often innovations with a societal or social impact. Although classical economists…

Abstract

From its earliest incarnations, entrepreneurship has been linked to innovation, and often innovations with a societal or social impact. Although classical economists discussed the role entrepreneurs play in handling risk in an economy (Hébert & Link, 2009), perhaps the greater risks have been the social impacts which entrepreneurship brought to societies (Drucker, 1985). The power of mercantile economies like the Phoenician or two thousand years later the British came as much from the new ideas and processes they introduced to the societies of trading partners as from the goods traded.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Vanessa Ratten

240

Abstract

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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