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The current study examined employment rates and predictors of employment among Syrian refugees currently living in Lebanon and Jordan. This paper argues that men and women…
The current study examined employment rates and predictors of employment among Syrian refugees currently living in Lebanon and Jordan. This paper argues that men and women refugees have different experiences seeking out employment after resettlement due to patriarchal structures and attitudes toward women that are present in the Arab Middle East. The goals of this paper were a) to examine employment rates among Syrian refugees, b) to examine predictors of employment among male and female refugees, and c) to examine refugee status as a moderator of the relationship between attitudes toward women and employment status.
Nationally representative data from the Arab Barometer on 600 refugees and 1400 native-born individuals living in Lebanon and Jordan from 2016–2017 were used.
Native-born individuals living in Lebanon and Jordan were 2.16 times more likely to be employed than refugees. Men living in Lebanon and Jordan were 7.83 times more likely to be employed than women. Finally, refugee status moderated the relationship between attitudes toward women's rights and roles and employment. Among native-born women, a positive attitude toward women's rights and roles predicted employment status, whereas this positive relationship was not found for women refugees. Among refugee men, a positive attitude toward women's rights and roles was linked to a lower likelihood of holding a job.
These findings suggest that agencies supporting refugees should communicate realistic expectations about employment during resettlement and should address the challenges that women refugees face when seeking employment.
This study is the first study to identify attitudes toward women's rights and roles as a predictor of employment among refugee populations and highlights the unique struggles that refugee women face.
Multidimensional fit (MDF) has been coined as “elusive” and relevant to an individual’s social identity and self-concept, unfolding over time as individuals assess their…
Multidimensional fit (MDF) has been coined as “elusive” and relevant to an individual’s social identity and self-concept, unfolding over time as individuals assess their fit relative to Person-Organization, Person-Vocation, Person-Job, and Person-Team Fit. In this chapter, the literature as it relates to the refugee employment journey, MDF, and HRM practices that facilitate or inhibit MDF is reviewed. Furthermore, in this study, the process-oriented view of the refuge path highlights the complexity of their experience, noting an array of antecedents as they relate to country, host country and individual differences, interventions through NGOs, refugee resettlement agencies, and organizations, as well as the less explored entrepreneurial path. These diverse paths and the process of finding fit, and the obstacles refugees face, are viewed through the lens of shocks and reassessment of MDF throughout their journey. Finally, the study’s outcomes illustrate individual wellbeing factors, organizational level benefits, as well as community level benefits to MDF.
Using mood regulation theories and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that the relationship between…
Using mood regulation theories and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors aimed at individuals (OCB-Is) and depressed mood, burnout, and satisfaction with life and health would be mediated by positive affect.
Lagged data were collected from employee-supervisor dyads.
OCB-Is were related to positive affect, and positive affect was positively related to subsequent reports of life satisfaction and general health satisfaction, and negatively related to burnout and depressed mood. Positive affect mediated the relationship between OCB-Is and life satisfaction, general health satisfaction, and depressed mood but not burnout. An alternative reverse causality mediation model ruled out the possibility that OCB-Is mediated the relationship between positive affect and the employee outcomes.
These findings lend support for OCBs being an antecedent of mood, rather than vice versa.
This cross-disciplinary, empirical study aims to examine the phenomenon of organizational opinion leadership. Extant research concerning social capital and both referent…
This cross-disciplinary, empirical study aims to examine the phenomenon of organizational opinion leadership. Extant research concerning social capital and both referent and expert power suggests that informal opinion leaders within an organizational setting have the ability to influence their co-workers. This study focuses on the transformational leadership characteristics of idealized influence-attributed (charisma) and -behavior (role modeling). The social exchange aspects of the opinion leader–seeker relationship process are examined through an application of dyadic concepts found within leader–member exchange (LMX) theory. This study examines potential outcomes of opinion leader influence, specifically, opinion-seeker perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment and normative commitment.
This study examines the dynamics of organizational opinion leader (OOL)–organizational opinion seeker (OOS) relationship to determine whether OOLs influence OOSs through role modeling and charisma, captured through the idealized influence aspect of transformational leadership. The OOL–OOS relationship is examined through the lens of LMX, commonly used to examine supervisor–subordinate exchange relationships. This study also examines whether OOLs’ idealized influence and OOL–OOS exchange relationships are related to OOSs’ perceived organizational support (POS) and both affective and normative commitment, and whether POS mediates their influence. Hypotheses are offered and survey data collected from a heterogeneous sample of 646 individuals is examined using structural equation modeling.
The results suggest that idealized influence consistently positively influences the outcomes. LMX-affect, -loyalty and -professional respect influence OOS perceptions of POS. Idealized influence and POS influence OOS affective and normative commitment. LMX-affect influences OOS affective and normative commitment, while LMX-loyalty influences normative commitment. LMX-professional respect slightly influenced OOS affective commitment negatively, suggesting that respect does not engender positive feelings and had no influence on normative commitment.
This interdisciplinary study integrates concepts found within marketing, political science and organizational literature works to shed new light on the informal influence organizational members have on one another, which furthers our understanding of both shared leadership and opinion leadership. This research provides another frame for the concept of shared leadership, suggesting that OOL influence occurs horizontally and vertically within organizations. The overall findings suggest that both the characteristics of opinion leaders and the quality of OOL–OOS relationships matter.
This research highlights the importance of recognizing and enabling organizational members whose opinions are sought by their peers. Organizational opinion leadership exists within organization and influences organizational members’ attitudes and perceptions. Therefore, it is a necessity that organizations understand the phenomenon and guide it, much as organizational culture is guided, so that it produces positive organizational outcomes.
Very little research exists concerning organizational opinion leadership. This study breaks new ground by developing theory, applying accepted constructs to the phenomenon and empirically testing the impact of opinion leadership.