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Article

James A. Hunt

Examines the wide range of liquid and solid level sensors, their technologies and commercial application.

Abstract

Purpose

Examines the wide range of liquid and solid level sensors, their technologies and commercial application.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides background information on trends in level sensing, on how each type works and the various applications. Some selection criteria are given.

Findings

There is a wide range of level sensors for every target liquid and solid sensing application, but the sector is technologically mature. There are some new application areas deriving from legislation and climate change.

Originality/value

Provides information of value for those involved with sensor applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Sathies Thangavel and Senthil Ponnusamy

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usage of three-dimensionally (3D) printed polylactic acid (PLA)-carbon black (CB) conductive polymer composite in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usage of three-dimensionally (3D) printed polylactic acid (PLA)-carbon black (CB) conductive polymer composite in the measurement of the void fraction and liquid level.

Design/methodology/approach

PLA-CB conductive polymer composite is 3D printed through fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique and used as a capacitive sensor for void fraction measurement and liquid level sensing. The sensitivity of 3D printed ring and concave type capacitive sensors are compared for void fraction measurement. The effect of electrode length, thickness and pipe dimension on the capacitance achievable for the particular void fraction is studied. Concept of fringing capacitance is used for the sensing of liquid level.

Findings

Compared to the concave design comprising four electrodes, the ring-type capacitive sensor produced better results in void fraction measurement. Increase in pipe diameter and electrode length results in the enhancement of capacitance arising from specific void fraction. For a 100 mm diameter pipe, the capacitance of the 150 mm-long concave electrode (0.4 mm thick) increased from 9.98 to 67.77 pF as the void fraction decreased from 100% to 0%. Development of the fringing capacitance in 3D printed PLA-CB composite helps in the measurement of liquid level. Both parallel finger topology and interdigital electrode configuration are able to sense the liquid level.

Originality/value

Ability of the 3D printed conductive PLA-CB composite to act as a capacitive sensor is experimentally analysed. Performance of different electrode configuration is tested for both void fraction measurement and liquid level sensing. Results of experimentation prove that FDM printed PLA-CB composite is suitable for the void fraction and liquid level measurement.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Ning Jing

This paper aims to propose a liquid level sensor with a multi-S-bend plastic optical fiber.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a liquid level sensor with a multi-S-bend plastic optical fiber.

Design/methodology/approach

The principle of liquid sensing used is based on the leakage of higher modes out of the fiber and repeated regeneration in the following bend sections. Therefore, a propagation loss was introduced in every bend section of the fiber with the loss depending on the refractive index of the environment.

Findings

Therefore, a continue shift in the liquid level can be detected by observing changes in the propagation loss of the fiber. The sensor features compactness and a flexible resolution.

Originality/value

Compared with the exited ones, the sensor has capability of continue liquid measurement and a greater measurement range.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Yiqing Wang, Wanhua Zhao, Yucheng Ding, Zhongyun He and Bingheng Lu

The purpose of this paper is to detect and control the liquidlevel of stereolithography apparatus precisely.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect and control the liquidlevel of stereolithography apparatus precisely.

Design/methodology/approach

A brightness‐variable laser source is adopted to remove the computational error of divider and a closed‐loop circuit is set to measure the terminal voltage directly proportional to the output current of photosensitive devices. It employs a sinking‐block device to control the liquidlevel.

Findings

The precise calibration result of this detecting device indicates that the resolution of the liquidlevel detection can reach ±1.5 μm.

Originality/value

This sinking‐block style liquidlevel control device can allow for the liquidlevel wave reduced from ±45 to ±15 μm.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Mohd Anwar Zawawi, Sinead O'Keffe and Elfed Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review of intensity‐modulated fiber optic sensors with non‐optical sensors for health monitoring applications, from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review of intensity‐modulated fiber optic sensors with non‐optical sensors for health monitoring applications, from the current research activities in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published research work in sensor design for four different health monitoring applications, including, lumbar spine bending, upper and lower limb motion tracking, respiration and heart rate monitoring, are presented and discussed in terms of their respective advantages and limitations.

Findings

This paper provides information on the various types of sensors applied into the health monitoring area. The sensing techniques of the fiber optic sensor for the stated applications are focused and compared in details to highlight their contributions.

Originality/value

A comparative review of published work is illustrated in an informative table content, to allow a clear idea of the current sensing approaches for health monitoring applications.

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Article

More exhibitors than ever before took part in the Hanover Fair this year, and a much bigger share than ever before was taken by computers in what is now the biggest…

Abstract

More exhibitors than ever before took part in the Hanover Fair this year, and a much bigger share than ever before was taken by computers in what is now the biggest exhibition within the Hanover Fair — CeBIT, the World Centre for Office and Data Technology.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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