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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Liping A. Cai, William C. Gartner and Ana María Munar

Academic inquiries have predominantly treated destination branding as a marketing phenomenon that happens to involve tourists as customers in a marketplace. The practice…

Abstract

Academic inquiries have predominantly treated destination branding as a marketing phenomenon that happens to involve tourists as customers in a marketplace. The practice of it has been entrenched in deploying tactical marketing tools such as attention-grabbing slogans. This opening chapter provides a critical review of destination and place branding literature, as well as a synopsis of each of the 15 chapters assembled in this state-of-the-art collection. Considering tourism branding as a community affair, this volume is distinguished from previous publications by adopting a global and more multidisciplinary approach and by placing the subject of tourism branding outside of the conventional domains of marketing and destination. By having the host community at the central stage, many chapters explicitly consider different stakeholders in the process of branding. Built on theoretical foundations with both empirical findings and practical cases, this book brings together different perspectives and offers an intellectual and open dialogue among academics and practitioners of the field.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Liping A. Cai

This chapter adopts a sociological perspective to examine the phenomenon of destination branding. Invoking the social exchange theory as the foundation and its complex…

Abstract

This chapter adopts a sociological perspective to examine the phenomenon of destination branding. Invoking the social exchange theory as the foundation and its complex exchange system as its framework, the chapter elaborates the uniqueness of rural destination as a social structure rather than a market or organizational entity. A branding model for rural destinations is proposed and illustrated through a case study. The model advocates a community-based approach to image research as a platform on which the branding process takes place. The chapter reports the comparative findings on the image as projected by a destination marketing organization, perceived by current and potential tourists, and desired by local residents. By highlighting the role of host community's participation in tourism branding, the study informs its definition as a continuing process to create affective experiences through building a unique identity and sustaining a consistent image that emotionally bond with residents and resonate with tourists.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Maja Konecnik Ruzzier and Mitja Ruzzier

This chapter integrates brand identity and equity as a two-dimensional approach to destination branding. By incorporating the supply- and demand-side perspectives, the…

Abstract

This chapter integrates brand identity and equity as a two-dimensional approach to destination branding. By incorporating the supply- and demand-side perspectives, the approach enables different destination stakeholders to be included in this process. Drawing on general branding and marketing literature, the study presents a three-part framework for building and implementing a destination brand. It illustrates consumer-based equity as consisting of the four dimensions: awareness, image, perceived quality, and loyalty. The chapter also offers a critical synthesis of destination image studies and recognizes the important research advancement from image to branding.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Wei Wei, Li Miao, Liping A. Cai and Howard Adler

The purpose of this study is to explore how event attendees experience interactive encounters in the most competitive segment of the business sector of events – conferences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how event attendees experience interactive encounters in the most competitive segment of the business sector of events – conferences.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 26 in-depth personal interviews was conducted with previous conference attendees. Line-by-line open coding, axial coding and selective coding are performed.

Findings

This study develops a framework for experiences during customer–customer encounters (CCEs), which presents a dual motivational structure that explains one’s participation in CCEs, a classification of typical CCEs, four processes that one experiences during CCEs and three levels of situational factors that influence experiences during CCEs.

Originality/value

This study makes one of the first attempts to propose a multidimensional conceptualization of CCE experiences using an attendee perspective. Beyond the utilitarian and social benefits, this study suggests that it is important for event studies to explore the psychological and emotional meanings of CCE experiences through an experiential lens and that the competitive battleground in event industry should lie in staging memorable experiences during CCEs.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Martin Yongho Hyun and Liping A. Cai

As more destinations jump on the bandwagon of branding, their marketing organizations increasingly employ the Internet as a convenient medium for promotion. This chapter…

Abstract

As more destinations jump on the bandwagon of branding, their marketing organizations increasingly employ the Internet as a convenient medium for promotion. This chapter argues that instead of extending their brand communications to the Web by simply digitizing the logos, taglines, and other elements, destinations can build brands virtually in an internet-mediated environment where virtual experience takes place. The study examines how branding can be achieved through building virtualized destination image. It adopts the concepts of telepresence, virtual experience, and integrated informational response and explains how online and offline communication stimuli can affect various components of virtualized image. This expands and modifies the conventional image constructs by specifying information sources as antecedents through telepresence and integrated behavioral responses as consequences. The relationships between the image, its antecedents, and consequences, and among the image constructs are illustrated through 14 propositions. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the net community in which residents and other stakeholders of communities actively participate in virtually building a strong destination brand.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

OunJoung Park, Liping A. Cai and Xinran Y. Lehto

Collaboration has become a key paradigm in community-based tourism literature. Yet, it has not been well understood in destination branding. This chapter delineates a

Abstract

Collaboration has become a key paradigm in community-based tourism literature. Yet, it has not been well understood in destination branding. This chapter delineates a conceptual model to better describe and explain the nature and dynamism of collaborative branding for destinations. The model is based on a review of theoretical constructs of interorganizational collaboration process and the reconciliation of two product branding models. It suggests that the model begins in a context of environmental forces and evolves sequentially through the phrases of problem-setting, direction-setting, implementation, evaluation, and outcome.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Abstract

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Asli D.A. Tasci and William C. Gartner

Despite the recent academic attention to branding, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and…

Abstract

Despite the recent academic attention to branding, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their destinations as distinctive and strategic brands. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a practical framework for destination authorities. Review of relevant literature reveals that branding in a destination context involves development and maintenance of positive image and identity using several elements such as names, logos, slogans, and color. These elements need to be distilled from destination characteristics and they can lead to strong brand equity. A comprehensive research framework with both qualitative and quantitative methods is suggested to assess these brand elements, meanings, and assets for both supply and demand sides of the market.

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-384-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Abstract

Details

Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

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