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Social loafing in knowledge contribution (namely, knowledge contribution loafing [KCL]) usually happens in group context, especially in the mobile collaboration tasks. KCL…
Social loafing in knowledge contribution (namely, knowledge contribution loafing [KCL]) usually happens in group context, especially in the mobile collaboration tasks. KCL shows dynamic features over time. However, most previous studies are based on static assumption, that is, KCL will not change over time. This paper aims to reveal the dynamics of KCL in mobile collaboration and analyze how network centrality influences KCL states considering the current loafing state.
This study is based on empirical study design. Real mobile collaboration behavioral data related to knowledge contribution were collected to investigate the dynamic relationship between network centrality and KCL. In total, 4,127 chat contents were collected through Slack (a mobile collaboration APP). The text data were first analyzed using the text analysis method and then analyzed by a machine learning method called hidden Markov model.
First, the results reveal the inner structure of KCL, showing that it has three states (low, medium and high). Second, it is found that network centrality positively influences individuals involved in medium and high loafing state, while it has a negative influence on individuals with low loafing state.
The limitations are related to the single machine learning method and no subdivision of social network. First, this paper only uses one kind of text classification model (TF-IDF) to divide chat contents, which may not be superior to other classification models. This paper considers the eigenvector centrality, and not further divides the social network into advice network and expressive network.
This study helps companies infer tendency of different KCL and dynamically re-organize a mobile collaborative team for better knowledge contribution.
First, previous studies based on static assumptions regarding KCL as static and the relationship between loafing reducing mechanisms and team members KCL does not change over time. This study relaxes static assumptions and allows KCL to change during the process of collaboration. Second, this study allows the impact of network centrality to be different when members are in different KCL states.
This paper analyzes the connection between black political protest and mobilization, and the rise and fall of a black urban regime. The case of Oakland is instructive…
This paper analyzes the connection between black political protest and mobilization, and the rise and fall of a black urban regime. The case of Oakland is instructive because by the mid-1960s the ideology of “black power” was important in mobilizing two significant elements of the historically disparaged black community: (1) supporters of the Black Panthers and, (2) neighborhood organizations concentrated in West Oakland. Additionally, Oakland like the city of Atlanta also developed a substantial black middle class that was able to mobilize along the lines of its own “racialized” class interests. Collectively, these factors were important elements in molding class-stratified “black power” and coalitional activism into the institutional politics of a black urban regime in Oakland. Ultimately, reversal factors would undermine the black urban regime in Oakland. These included changes in the race and class composition of the local population: black out-migration, the “new immigration,” increasing (predominantly white) gentrification, and the continued lack of opportunity for poor and working-class blacks, who served as the unrequited base of the black urban regime. These factors would change the fortunes of black political life in Oakland during the turbulent neoliberal era.
The Chief Executive's attention for the moment is riveted on the short‐term problem of weathering the tidal waves of the current inflation‐Tecession economic storm. But before many months go by he and his staff will be back at the drawing boards mapping out alternative strategies for the new 1976 long‐term corporate plan. Last year's economic forecast has been torn up, but the question remains, “What do we use in its place?”
Although the current world recession has deflected interest away from the question of supply adequacy, it remains a long‐term problem. To be sure, inventories are now…
Although the current world recession has deflected interest away from the question of supply adequacy, it remains a long‐term problem. To be sure, inventories are now being liquidated and raw material prices are falling, but as we look ahead to 1976 it is possible again to see a situation in which demands are pressing against capacity constraints. In the past it was commonly accepted that firms should expand their capacities ahead of increases in demand (and, if possible, ahead of their competitors' capacity increases). This approach is now being debated, as part of a broader questioning of some guidelines that have frequently been followed by business managers and executives.
This work is intended to historically commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the invention of a new type of electronic circuit, referred to in 1919 by Abraham and…
This work is intended to historically commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the invention of a new type of electronic circuit, referred to in 1919 by Abraham and Bloch as a multivibrator and by Eccles and Jordan as a trigger relay (later known as a flip-flop).
The author also considers the circuit-technical side of this new type of circuit, considering the technological change as well as the mathematical concepts developed in the context of the analysis of the circuit.
The multivibrator resulted in a “circuit shape” which became one of the most applied nonlinear circuits in electronics. It is shown that at the beginning the multivibrator as well as the flip-flop circuits were used because their interesting properties in the frequency domain.
Therefore, it is a very interesting subject to consider the history of the multivibrator as electronic circuits in different technologies including tube, transistors and integrated circuits as well as the mathematical theory based on the concept from electrical circuit theory.
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt…
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt that the Great Depression exerted an enormous influence on economic thought, but the exact nature of its impact should be examined more carefully. In this chapter, I examine the transformation from a perspective which emphasizes the interaction between economic ideas and economic events, and the interaction between theory and policy rather than the development of economic theory. More specifically, I examine the evolution of what became known as macroeconomics after the Depression in terms of an ongoing debate among the “stabilizers” and their critics. I further suggest using four perspectives, or schools of thought, as measures to locate the evolution and transformation; the gold standard mentality, liquidationism, the Treasury view, and the real-bills doctrine. By highlighting these four economic ideas, I argue that what happened during the Great Depression was the retreat of the gold standard mentality, the complete demise of liquidationism and the Treasury view, and the strange survival of the real-bills doctrine. Each of those transformations happened not in response to internal debates in the discipline, but in response to government policies and real-world events.
American society has undergone many changes since World War II. Perhaps the most notable of these has been its transformation from an industrial to a post‐industrial…
American society has undergone many changes since World War II. Perhaps the most notable of these has been its transformation from an industrial to a post‐industrial society, a society that is no longer primarily goods‐producing but one that has increasingly been providing a greater variety of services.
THE library service commenced in Grimsby in 1901 in a former Mechanics' Institute dating from 1856 and, with a lending library erected on an adjoining site in 1910, the two buildings served with moderate success until a German bomb destroyed the older of the two in February 1941, fortunately sparing the two special collections on Lincolnshire and the fishing industry. After the war the service was re‐organised and expanded in three wooden huts erected on the bombed site and in an old three‐storeyed house adjacent to the surviving lending library.
The Department of Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts incorporates collections which were previously included in the Departments of Printed Books and of Manuscripts. A…
The Department of Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts incorporates collections which were previously included in the Departments of Printed Books and of Manuscripts. A Department of Oriental Manuscripts was formed out of the latter in 1867, the Oriental printed books being added from the former department in 1892. Prior to these dates, any catalogues which were issued were technically publications of the parent departments. All, however, are included in this list for convenience.
THE greatly increased interest in historical studies since the second world war has been, I hope, a welcome challenge to librarians, but it has been very difficult to meet it. That the librarians of our new universities should have had little research material to offer was only to be expected. Unfortunately, research scholars have discovered that our older libraries were also deficient, that source materials had either not been purchased, in the years when they were readily available, or had been acquired only to be discarded at a later date. Recently, therefore, both old libraries and new have found themselves in competition for a small and dwindling supply of out‐of‐print publications.