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Article

Hope‐Arlene Fennell

During the past 25 years, many researchers and scholars have suggestedthat schools and school organizations often operate with a structurallooseness much different from…

Abstract

During the past 25 years, many researchers and scholars have suggested that schools and school organizations often operate with a structural looseness much different from that of the rational bureaucracy. Coupling and linkage are two metaphors which have been developed to describe the intricacies of life in schools and school organizations. Briefly reviews some of the developments of the linkage metaphor, the relationships between coupling and linkage, and illustrates how the linkage metaphor might be useful in developing greater understanding of change processes in schools and school organizations.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Pasqual Esteve‐Calvo and Miguel Lloret‐Climent

Previous articles have studied the basic behaviour and structure of the systems‐linkage from several points of view and were interested primarily in the different objects…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous articles have studied the basic behaviour and structure of the systems‐linkage from several points of view and were interested primarily in the different objects which compose a system‐linkage and the properties generated by the iterations of the associated structural function. Some of these properties raised the idea of the existence of order within a system‐linkage, but that idea was only semantic. There was not any formal definition of order within a system‐linkage. The purpose of this paper is to define more precisely what is understood to be an “ordered” system‐linkage, as well as studying before one of the main cases of disorder in these systems: turbulences.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a reminder is given of all the concepts and proved results that readers need for understanding the paper. Then, two new and important definitions are given: definition of ordered system‐linkage and the definition of turbulence. The paper proves several questions linking this definition with the main objects which appear within a system‐linkage. Several examples of turbulences will be showed using graphs.

Findings

The definition of turbulence presented, basically refers to the dependent relationship between two subsets disjoint from the M set of variables, once the associated structural function operates on them. It is a good example of disorder within a system‐linkage and, moreover, it is a good example of how the initial conditions, in a lot of cases, do not allow to see the real relationships between the variables or sets of them of a system‐linkage.

Originality/value

It is the first time that an ordered system‐linkage is formalized. Moreover, the situation of turbulence, under the qualitative point of view, is also shown for the first time.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Matt Tonkin and Martin Joseph Weeks

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder accurate crime linkage and (iii)whether computerised decision-support tools might assist crime linkage practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 39 New Zealand Police staff completed a questionnaire/interview/focus group relating to the process, challenges, products and uses of crime linkage with residential burglary in New Zealand. These data (alongside four redacted crime linkage reports) were subjected to thematic analysis.

Findings

The data clearly indicated wide variation in crime linkage process, methods and products (Theme 1). Furthermore, a number of factors were identified that impacted on crime linkage practice (Theme 2).

Research limitations/implications

Future research should develop computerised crime linkage decision-support tools and evaluate their ability to enhance crime linkage practice. Also, researchers should explore the use of crime linkage in court proceedings.

Practical implications

To overcome the barriers identified in the current study, greater training in and understanding of crime linkage is needed. Moreover, efforts to enhance the quality of crime data recorded by the police will only serve to enhance crime linkage practice.

Social implications

By enhancing crime linkage practice, opportunities to reduce crime, protect the public and deliver justice for victims will be maximised.

Originality/value

The practice of crime linkage is under-researched, which makes it difficult to determine if/how existing empirical research can be used to support ongoing police investigations. The current project fills that gap by providing a national overview of crime linkage practice in New Zealand, a country where crime linkage is regularly conducted by the police, but no published linkage research exists.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article

Jan-Martin Winter and Gina Rossi

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of linkage accuracy. Such an approach is a coarse reflection of reality by focussing mainly on the outcome of an offence, neglecting the forceful differences due to the intricate offender-victim interaction. Only few researchers have examined sexual assaults through the lens of a sequence analysis framework. This paper aims to present the first empirical test of offence sequence-based crime linkage, moving beyond exploratory analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Offence accounts from 90 serial sexual assault and rape victims from the UK were analysed and sequentially coded. Sequence analysis allowed to compare all offences combinations regarding their underlying sequence of events. The resulting comparison was transformed and plotted in two-dimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis for a visual inspection of linkage potential. The transformed proximities of all offences were used as predictors in a receiver operating characteristic analysis to actually test their discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose.

Findings

Sequence analysis shows significant discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose. However, the method does perform less well than previous binary crime linkage studies.

Research limitations/implications

Several limitations due to the nature of the data will be discussed.

Practical implications

The practical limitations are as follows: the study is a potential practical value for crime analysts; it is a complimentary methodology for statistical crime linkage packages; it requires automated coding to be useful; and it is very dependent on crime recoding standards.

Originality/value

The exploratory part of this study has been published in a book chapter in 2015. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the succinct test of crime linkage accuracy is the first of its kind.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Book part

Pervez N. Ghauri and Fatima Wang

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework that can be used to study the impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs) on sustainable development and poverty…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework that can be used to study the impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs) on sustainable development and poverty alleviation in developing countries. In the 3-year project awarded by the EC-FP7 program, six universities from Europe and three partners from developing countries participated: Brazil, Ghana, and India. For this purpose, a thorough literature review is done and a framework is presented. To confirm the conceptual framework, we performed several case studies with three MNEs in two countries, Ghana and India. Data collection was done through qualitative in-depth interviews with managers in the headquarters of MNEs, the subsidiaries, and the “linked” local firms and host governments. Results confirm our conceptual model that the autonomy of the subsidiary, strategies of MNEs, and local government policies play a major role in achieving positive externalities from MNE operations in developing countries. The key contribution of this study is the development of a relevant conceptual framework that can be used in the overall project. Our study confirms that an interaction between the MNE subsidiary and the local government is essential for the linkages and spillovers to occur that may benefit local economic development and poverty reduction in developing countries.

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Book part

Iiris Hilvo and Joanna Scott-Kennel

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role of the multinational enterprise (MNE) in Finland, a small but advanced economy known for its innovative industry clusters…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter investigates the role of the multinational enterprise (MNE) in Finland, a small but advanced economy known for its innovative industry clusters. Specifically, the research explores how resource sharing differs between national MNEs, foreign MNE subsidiaries and solely domestic enterprises by type of resources transferred, industry cluster, international orientation, ownership and linkage type.

Design/methodology/approach – The responses are drawn from 85 of Finland's 500 largest firms using a survey instrument for data collection. Results are analysed using SPSS/PASW.

Findings – The chapter provides evidence that MNEs share innovation-related resources via collaborative and supply chain linkages. More importantly, it confirms the important role of national flagship firms – those firms that are Finnish by origin but international in scope. The findings suggest that local cluster development may be attractive to foreign MNEs, but is more likely shaped by the significant contributions to resource sharing made by national MNEs. The research also finds that linkages with customers rather than suppliers are more likely to involve resource sharing, highlighting the importance of forward linkages in the small, advanced economy context.

Originality/value – The results suggest that future research should take a finely grained approach to examining the role of MNEs in resource sharing. Determinants such as types of resources, MNE characteristics and types of linkages are important inclusions in future work.

Details

Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-115-2

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Book part

Pervez N. Ghauri and Rebecca Firth

This study focuses on the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on local firms in host economies. We examine both backward and forward linkages and their effects on…

Abstract

This study focuses on the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on local firms in host economies. We examine both backward and forward linkages and their effects on domestic firms. Data collection was undertaken over a three-year period whereby qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with senior managers in UK headquarters, subsidiaries and ‘linked’ local firms in order to facilitate a multi-perspective approach to examining this topic. Results indicate that linkages do exist, contrary to earlier belief. The main factors which facilitate linkage formation were found to be subsidiary-related variables, mainly the mode of entry into the local market, subsidiary autonomy, level of embeddedness and subsidiary role. It was also found that government regulation and policy had some impact on the formation of linkages. Over time the impact on local firms was found to be positive with increased employment, productivity and significant upgrading of skills and competencies. The key contribution of this chapter is to extend the literature on linkages to consider services while developing a conceptual framework in this area. Overall, our study confirms the importance of the subsidiary in linkage formation and also shows how the externalities occurring from linkage formation in the service sector may benefit local firms and subsequently aid local economic development as a whole.

Details

The Future of Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-555-7

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Article

Serena Davidson and Wayne Petherick

Case linkage theory and practice have received growing empirical support; however, they have yet to be examined fully within Australia. For sexual assault case linkage to…

Abstract

Purpose

Case linkage theory and practice have received growing empirical support; however, they have yet to be examined fully within Australia. For sexual assault case linkage to be successful, it is assumed that a serial rapist will behave relatively consistently across offences yet distinctively compared to other offenders. The purpose of this paper is to test the underlying principles of case linkage, behavioural consistency and distinctiveness, as well as distinguishing accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 250 solved stranger rapes by 171 offenders (46 serial rapists, 125 one-off rapists) were taken from Queensland Police Service (QPS) crime records. All possible crime pairings were created and cross-crime similarity was assessed using Jaccard’s coefficient. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to examine the ability to distinguish between linked and unlinked offence pairs.

Findings

Serial linked pairs had the highest Jaccard’s coefficient (0.456), followed by non-serial unlinked (0.253) and finally, serial unlinked pairs (0.247). Within the ROC analysis, an area under the curve value was found of 0.913, indicating excellent distinguishing accuracy. Both the underlying principles of behavioural consistency and distinctiveness were supported through theoretical and practical methods. This paper provides the first analysis of serial rape case linkage in Australia, adding validity to this practice.

Research limitations/implications

The authors wish to acknowledge the support and assistance from the QPS in undertaking this research. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the QPS and any errors of omission or commission are the responsibility of the authors.

Practical implications

This paper provides validity to the practice of case linkage using a database within Australia. The results of this paper can be used to inform investigators of serial offender behaviours. The theories of offender consistency and distinctiveness are supported, highlighting the importance of behavioural evidence for practitioners. This paper provided a practical increase of the quantity and quality of offences uploaded on the Australian violent and sexual crimes database, which will assist further linkage efforts.

Originality/value

This paper is the first in Australia to examine consistency, distinctiveness and case linkage of serial stranger rape. Thus is contributes significantly not only to an increased understanding of serial rape and case linkage in Australia but also brings Australia closer to modern research practices in this field.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article

Shaista Wasiuzzaman, Nabila Nurdin, Aznur Hajar Abdullah and Gowrie Vinayan

This study investigates the influence of inter-firm linkages between small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms on the relationship between an SME's…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the influence of inter-firm linkages between small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms on the relationship between an SME's creditworthiness and its access to finance.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaire was distributed to 456 SMEs in the manufacturing sector in the Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur regions and a total of 145 useable responses were gathered. Investigation into the possible differences in the effect of creditworthiness – and its dimensions – on access to finance for SMEs with and without linkages are examined using Partial Least Squares-Multi Group Analysis (PLS-MGA).

Findings

It is found that the relationship between creditworthiness and access to finance is significant for both SMEs with and without links to large firms. However, no significant difference is found in the effect of creditworthiness on access to finance for both types of SME. Further analysis on the five different dimensions of creditworthiness shows statistically significant differences between SMEs with links and those without for the dimensions of collateral and condition. This implies that alliances formed between SMEs and large firms do not have much of an influence on the overall creditworthiness but do influence the collateral and condition of the SME.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the effects of interfirm linkages on SME creditworthiness and access to finance. To the authors' knowledge no such study has been conducted on links between SMEs and large firms, especially in a developing country such as Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article

Muhammad Jawad Sajid, Qingren Cao, Ming Cao and Shuang Li

Presentation of the different industrial carbon linkages of India. The purpose of this paper is to understand the direct and indirect impact of these industrial linkages.

Abstract

Purpose

Presentation of the different industrial carbon linkages of India. The purpose of this paper is to understand the direct and indirect impact of these industrial linkages.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a hypothetical extraction method with its various extensions. Under this method, different carbon linkages of a block are removed from the economy, and the effects of carbon linkages are determined by the difference between the original and the post-removal values. Energy and non-energy carbon linkages are also estimated.

Findings

“Electricity, gas and water supply (EGW)” at 655.61 Mt and 648.74 Mt had the highest total and forward linkages. “manufacturing and recycling” at 231.48 Mt had the highest backward linkage. High carbon-intensive blocks of “EGW” plus “mining and quarrying” were net emitters, while others were net absorbers. “Fuel and chemicals” at 0.08 Mt had almost neutral status. Hard coal was the main source of direct and indirect emissions.

Practical implications

Net emitting and key net forward blocks should reduce direct emission intensities. India should use its huge geographical potential for industrial accessibility to cheaper alternative energy. This alongside with technology/process improvements catalyzed by policy tools can help in mitigation efforts. Next, key net-backward blocks such as construction through intermediate purchases significantly stimulate emissions from other blocks. Tailored mitigation policies are needed in this regard.

Originality/value

By developing an understanding of India’s industrial carbon links, this study can guide policymakers. In addition, the paper lays out the framework for estimating energy and non-energy-based industrial carbon links.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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