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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Linfang Wang, Lijuan Zheng, Cheng yong Wang, Shan Li, Yuexian Song, Lunqiang Zhang and Peng Sun

Compared with the traditional printed circuit board (PCB) drilling process, the technology of drilling IC substrate is facing more problems, such as much smaller hole diameter…

Abstract

Purpose

Compared with the traditional printed circuit board (PCB) drilling process, the technology of drilling IC substrate is facing more problems, such as much smaller hole diameter, more intensive hole space, thinner sheet and more complicated materials are drilled in process. Moreover, the base material of IC substrate is different from traditional PCB, more kinds of fillers added in IC substrate which make the drill worn seriously during drilling process. Micro-drills wear and micro holes quality are the most important questions when drilling IC substrate so far. Wear morphology of micro-drill, holes wall roughness and hole location accuracy are researched in this paper. The influence factors of micro-drills wear and micro holes quality are also studied in this drilling process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Two drills with same structure and different diameter are used to drill different stacks of IC substrate and drill different holes in this paper. There are four experiments made and the drilling parameters including spindle speed (n), feed rate (vf) and retraction speed (vr) are recommended by drill manufacturing company. Wear morphologies of drill are observed, holes wall roughness (Rmax) and holes location accuracy (Cpk) are measured in this paper. Analyzing the main factors influence on drill wear, holes wall roughness and holes location accuracy through these experiments.

Findings

The micro-drills of IC substrate wear more severely compared with other material of PCB through the experimental results in this paper. Drill diameter has influence on micro-drill wear when drilling IC substrate, the smaller of drill is, the more severely of micro-drill wears. Drill diameter affect the holes wall roughness too, the holes wall roughness of larger holes is better than smaller one in a certain range. The drilled holes number also has influence on micro-drills wear, holes wall roughness and holes location accuracy. The more drilled holes, the seriously of micro-drills wear, and the worn drill would destroy the hole quality. Therefore, the more drilled holes lead the bad holes wall roughness and holes location accuracy in this paper. In addition, stacks of IC substrate affect much on the holes location accuracy, the more stacks, the worse holes location accuracy.

Originality/value

Chinese Mainland is obviously lagging behind in technology and manufacturer of IC substrate which is incompatible with the nation circumstances. There is few research of drilling IC substrate in China and research data are lacking so far. It is most necessary to improve the technology level of drilling IC substrate in China. In order to reduce the wear of micro-drills and improve the quality of micro-holes, many experimental tests about drilling IC substrate are researched in this paper.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2022

Bahadur Ali Soomro, Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed and Naimatullah Shah

The current environment is unhelpful to female entrepreneurs, and they need to overcome numerous barriers when starting their own businesses. In this study, the researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

The current environment is unhelpful to female entrepreneurs, and they need to overcome numerous barriers when starting their own businesses. In this study, the researchers investigated the significant barriers that Pakistani female entrepreneurs require to overcome in this respect.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the researchers used a quantitative study and they used a questionnaire to survey the respondents and collect cross-sectional data. The researchers targeted female students who were undertaking bachelor’s and master’s degree programs in different Pakistani public and private sector universities. Accordingly, the researchers based this study’s findings on the usable samples received from 498 Pakistani female students.

Findings

The researchers used a structural equation model (SEM) in this study and its findings highlight that aversion to risk (ATR) has an insignificant impact on entrepreneurial inclinations (EI). In addition, fear of failure (FoF), lack of resources (LoR), aversion to hard work and stress (ASH) and the lack of social networking (LSN) have negative and insignificant effects on EI. The ATR factor has an insignificant effect on entrepreneurial success (ES), whereas FoF, LoR, ASH and LSN are negative and insignificant predictors of Pakistani female students’ ES.

Practical implications

This study’s findings may help Pakistani women to overcome the barriers to ES. In this respect, the researchers recommend that the Pakistan Government and policymakers develop significant strategies to provide the conducive business environment and to financially support Pakistani women to start their own businesses. Furthermore, this study’s findings contribute greatly to the vast amount of current literature and help to overcome the entrepreneurial conditions and barriers that potential entrepreneurs from advanced and developing countries experience frequently.

Originality/value

This study’s findings provide empirical evidence of EI and ES in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Mohsin Raza, Rimsha Khalid, Worakamol Wisetsri, Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere, Hamza Subhi Mohammad Alnawafleh and Magna Guzman-Avalos

The e-health services came up as an effective tool to mitigate effects of COVID-19 and following social distance norms. This study highlighted an issue of contentious usage…

Abstract

Purpose

The e-health services came up as an effective tool to mitigate effects of COVID-19 and following social distance norms. This study highlighted an issue of contentious usage intentions of e-health services among Thai older citizens. This study aims to examine the relationship of social influence (SI), information quality (IQ) and the digital literacy (DL) to contentious usage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows quantitative techniques, and the sample size is 140 to analyze, that is collected from the older Thai citizens. The convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data and the items were measured by using a five-point Likert scale.

Findings

The findings of this study are having mixed results. The effect of DL and satisfaction (SAT) on continuous usage intention (CUI) is significant. The effect of IQ and SI on CUI is non-significant. The effect of IQ and SI on SAT is significant. Further, the mediating effect of SAT between IQ and CUI is non-significant. However, the mediating effect of SAT between SI and CUI is significant.

Originality/value

This study contributes to knowledge by empirical testing of DL and usage of the medicine. Furthermore, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the rare studies that incorporate technological intervention for drug usage intentions.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2024

Divya Mishra, Gopika Mangla and Nidhi Maheshwari

This research investigates the barriers hindering women from pursuing entrepreneurship as a career choice, particularly in the Indian context.

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates the barriers hindering women from pursuing entrepreneurship as a career choice, particularly in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs rigorous data analysis techniques, including Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis, on a sample of 590 MBA students, comprising both male and female participants.

Findings

The findings reveal that social and psychological factors significantly influence women’s decisions regarding entrepreneurship. Social factors such as social stigma and cultural norms, along with psychological factors like societal expectations, emerge as major barriers.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have implications for policymakers, practitioners, and academics in designing interventions to address social and psychological barriers effectively. Recommendations include promoting cultural sensitivity and fostering confidence among women entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by quantifying the specific barriers faced by women entrepreneurs in India. It offers insights into advancing gender equity and inclusive economic development through targeted policies and programs.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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