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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Ming Qiu, Yanwei Miao, Yingchun Li, Long Chen, Rensong Hu and Jianjun Lu

The fabric self-lubricating liners are the key factors impacting the performances of self-lubricating spherical plain bearings. The purpose of this paper is to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The fabric self-lubricating liners are the key factors impacting the performances of self-lubricating spherical plain bearings. The purpose of this paper is to improve the friction and wear properties of self-lubricating radial spherical plain bearings by modification of the liners.

Design/methodology/approach

The liners of hybrid woven PTFE/Kevlar fabrics were treated respectively by the LaCl3 and CeO2 solutions. The tribological properties of self-lubricating spherical plain bearings with treated or untreated liners under continuous swaying conditions were investigated with the bearing tester at the swaying frequency of 2.5 Hz and the swaying angle of ±10°. The film formation and wear mechanisms were analyzed based on the observation of worn surfaces with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

Findings

Results show that the tribological properties of the bearings treated by the LaCl3 or CeO2 solution were improved compared with those of the untreated bearings. In particular, the wear resistance of bearings treated by the CeO2 solution was remarkably improved under higher swaying cycles, but the anti-friction properties and cooling effects of bearings treated by the LaCl3 solution were better under lower swaying cycles. Through SEM analysis, the reasons were analyzed. The bearings with treated liners only produced slight adhesive and abrasive wear, but the bearings with untreated liners produced more serious adhesive and abrasive wear under higher swaying cycles.

Originality/value

The paper proposed a new pretreatment process for the self-lubricating liners. The investigation on the friction and wear behaviors of the bearings is beneficial for prolonging the service lives of the radial spherical plain bearings.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Chao Zhen Yang, Zhiwei Guo and Changkun Xu

Frictions in cylinder liner-piston ring often cause an inevitable loss of energy loss in the diesel engine. This study aims at evaluating the effect of depths in the…

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77

Abstract

Purpose

Frictions in cylinder liner-piston ring often cause an inevitable loss of energy loss in the diesel engine. This study aims at evaluating the effect of depths in the cylinder liner groove texture on friction, wear and sealing performances.

Design/methodology/approach

Five depths of groove texture cylinder liners (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 µm) were fabricated, and experiments were carried out using a special-purpose diesel engine tester. Comparative analyses of cylinder liner contact resistances, piston ring wear losses and surface appearances were conducted with respect to different surface textures and applied loads.

Findings

Under no-load conditions, the cylinder liner with a 100 deep thread groove can significantly improve sealing and optimize its lubrication performance. On the other hand, the sealing is highly correlated with the depth of groove and the load within the cylinder liner. Under loaded conditions, the thread groove has less effect on the sealing performance.

Originality/value

The findings can provide feasible basis for the tribological design and production of diesel engines.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1967

THE equipment illustrated was used by R. W. Avery and J. G. Hoffman, of General Electric Company, Erie, Pa., to investigate the problem of cylinder liner scuffing, and…

Abstract

THE equipment illustrated was used by R. W. Avery and J. G. Hoffman, of General Electric Company, Erie, Pa., to investigate the problem of cylinder liner scuffing, and their results were presented in a paper to the ASME's Diesel and Gas Engine Power Conference at Chicago, 23–27 April, 1967. The liner specimens were cut from full size cylinders and ring segments, one inch long, were cut from full size rings and mounted rigidly so they could not tip. The feature of this rig is that the liner slope and curvature provides four different lubrication conditions for each test, and practical operating conditions were very well simulated. Loads, simulating ring loads, to a maximum of 5,100 p.s.i. were applied through an expandable ring carrier. The higher loads were above normal operating values, but were used to approximate imperfect ring and liner fit, as might occur during break‐in or with liner temperature distortion. Water cooling on the outer side of the liner maintained gross temperatures at values observed in operating diesel engines. Speed was constant at 650 r.p.m. making average surface speed 325 ft/min. and maximum speed 510 ft/min. Ring and liner temperatures were measured, the point of measurement of the former being 0.020 in. back from the contact face and in the latter 5/16 in. from the liner inner surface. Friction between a pair of rings and their liner was measured by a strain‐gauged transducer at the top end of each liner and was recorded by an oscilloscope and camera. Ring contact or loss of full oil‐film support was measured by electrical continuity of a 15 v. 50‐microamp. limited circuit.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Ray W. Coye and Patrick J. Murphy

The paper seeks to explore lessons in service delivery from an industry that no longer exists. The transatlantic passenger liner dramatizes some of the most unique…

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1186

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to explore lessons in service delivery from an industry that no longer exists. The transatlantic passenger liner dramatizes some of the most unique challenges of service delivery. The ship itself was a delivery mechanism completely separated from support services. Customers were essentially contained for extended periods. Whereas all customers received the same core transportation service, peripheral services varied substantially by service class.

Design/methodology/approach

Description of the historical context is followed by examinations of passenger and service provider perspectives to illustrate services expected and delivered. Primary and secondary source material is used to exemplify service management challenges.

Findings

Socioeconomic and technological factors played major roles in delivery system design decisions. With stable and loyal workforces and well designed delivery systems, ocean liners were able to deliver service successfully to customer classes with widely varying expectations.

Practical implications

Service management on ocean liners occupied a range of levels and intensity not found in current organizational contexts. The context provides modern practitioners pure consideration of complexities and service management implications.

Originality/value

The novel and isolated organizational aspects of transatlantic ocean liners is unique among organizations. Examination of service management in this context provides information of original value not available from examination of other kinds of organizations.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2018

Hang Fa Tong and Hong Yan

This paper examines the possible cooperation options in terms of empty container repositioning across alliances for shipping lines based in the Greater China Region…

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1616

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the possible cooperation options in terms of empty container repositioning across alliances for shipping lines based in the Greater China Region (China, Taiwan and Hong Kong SAR), after the three global shipping alliances reformed in April 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a comprehensive review to the latest shipping alliances and introduces a new cooperative dimension among shipping lines based in the Greater China Region which are member of different shipping alliances.

Findings

Cooperation among shipping lines in the Greater China Region in terms of empty container handling is possible in terms of resource sharing among shipping lines across alliances that fosters mega shipping line formation in the future.

Practical implications

Shipping lines should review their current empty container repositioning strategies and explore cooperation among non-alliance members having headquarters in proximity for quick responsiveness in empty container repositioning plan and execution.

Originality/value

This is a research directly analyzing the empty repositioning plan of the major shipping lines and their major service routes, fleet and containers.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Kum Fai Yuen and Vinh Van Thai

– This paper aims to identify the dimensions of service quality (SQ) in liner shipping and examine their effects on customer satisfaction.

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9802

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the dimensions of service quality (SQ) in liner shipping and examine their effects on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The indicators of SQ in liner shipping were identified from reviewing the literature and interviewing six qualified industry practitioners. An online survey was then administered to 183 liner shippers in Singapore. Subsequently, exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis were conducted.

Findings

SQ in liner shipping can be represented by four key quality dimensions. In descending order of their impact on customer satisfaction, they are reliability, speed, responsiveness and value. Service differentiation by time-related attributes results in greater customer satisfaction than practising cost leadership in liner shipping.

Research limitations/implications

Allocation of resources to develop SQ in liner shipping should mirror the priorities established in this research. In addition, the developed measurement model for SQ can serve as a reference for liner shipping firms to assess the quality of their services.

Originality/value

A parsimonious and updated set of variables can now be used to represent SQ in the liner shipping sector. The paper also identifies the key drivers of customer satisfaction in liner shipping.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 7 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Rong-Her Chiu

The first well-known liner shipping conference was created for the UK/Calcutta trade in 1875. However, the European Union (EU) decided to abolish repeal the liner

Abstract

Purpose

The first well-known liner shipping conference was created for the UK/Calcutta trade in 1875. However, the European Union (EU) decided to abolish repeal the liner conferences system with effect from October 18 2008. This paper aims to study the governing regulations on shipping conferences in Taiwan along with investigating the impact on the EU to repeal conferences. The regulation on liner conferences in the USA is also briefly referred.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review and questionnaire survey are used to conduct the study. This paper reviews important literature relating to the EU to repeal the conferences system and its impact on liner market competition to/from European trade routes, with discussions on the US and Taiwan regulations on shipping conferences. Questionnaire survey data, collected from published report and this research present shippers’ and carriers’ responses on the changes of regulations on liner conferences.

Findings

Shippers are strongly supporting the repeal of the conferences system. Academic research results basically reveal that the liner market will be more competitive in the trades to/from the USA and the EU after the repeal of the conferences. For Taiwan, its regulations are rather simple and loosely control over the liner conferences; therefore, if the shipping administration intends to enhance the inspection of the agreements of conferences and strategic alliances, more detailed regulations should be prepared, and the provisions of the EU or USA would be a good reference.

Practical implications

Through the discussions on the legal treatments of shipping conferences from the USA, the EU and Taiwan perspectives, this paper provides shipping researchers with not only a clear evolution of the liner conferences but also a deep understanding of the impact to repeal the conferences on liner market competition.

Originality/value

This paper reviews important literature and related legislations on liner conferences including the USA, the EU and Taiwan. The different responses on the EU to repeal the conferences system from shippers and carriers are discussed. The impact on liner market competition is presented.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Rajiv Dandotiya and Jan Lundberg

Wear life of mill liners is an important parameter concerning maintenance decision for mill liners. Variations in process parameters such as different ore properties due…

Abstract

Purpose

Wear life of mill liners is an important parameter concerning maintenance decision for mill liners. Variations in process parameters such as different ore properties due to the use of multiple ore types influence the wear life of mill liners whereas random order of processing, processing time and monetary value of different ore types leads to variation in mill profitability. The purpose of the present paper is to develop an economic decision model considering the variations in process parameters and maintenance parameters for making more cost‐effective maintenance decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Correlation studies, experimental results and experience of industry experts are used for wear life modeling whereas simulation is used for maximizing mill profit to develop economic decision model. The weighting approach and simulation have been considered to emphasize the contribution of parameters such as ore value and processing time of a specific ore type to a final result.

Findings

A model for estimating lifetime of mill liners has been developed based on ore properties. The lifetime model is combined with a replacement interval model to determine the optimum replacement interval for the mill liners which considers process parameters of multiple ore types. The finding of the combined model results leads to a significant improvement in mill profit. The proposed combined model also shows that an optimum maintenance policy can not only reduce the downtime costs, but also affect the process performance, which leads to significant improvement in the savings of the ore dressing mill.

Practical implications

The proposed economic decision model is practically feasible and can be implemented within the ore dressing mill industries. Using the model, the cost‐effective maintenance decision can increase the profit of the organization significantly.

Originality/value

The novelty is that the new combined model is applicable and useful in replacement decision making for grinding mill liners, in complex environment, e.g. processing multiple ore types, different monetary value of the ore type and random order of ore processing.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Robert Mason and Rawindaran Nair

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which supply side flexibility tactics are deployed by operators in the container liner shipping sector in 2009/200 to…

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2456

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which supply side flexibility tactics are deployed by operators in the container liner shipping sector in 2009/200 to restrict supply in a market which is characterised by over‐supply (as well as under demand).

Design/methodology/approach

Taking a case study approach using the Far East‐Europe trade lane, secondary data are reviewed for each type of internal flexibility capability. This is supplemented by a qualitative Delphi‐based research method so that findings are iteratively verified with leading practitioner personnel.

Findings

In 2009, directly after the severe imbalance between demand and supply emerged, liner shipping providing companies were only partially able to exploit the flexibility tactics that were available to them. This improved in 2010 and contributed to an upturn in performance.

Research limitations/implications

Ocean freight logistics provides a vital foundation for contemporary international commerce. However, the viable provision of this service has become significantly more challenging and this research examines why this is the case and what supply side responses are being deployed. Taking a case study approach focussing on 2009/2010 restricts the generalisability of the research that could now be examined on a longer time scale across the whole sector.

Originality/value

This research is novel as there has been no previous research which has looked at the deployment of supply side flexibility tactics in the container liner shipping sector. The findings have considerable bearing on how the industry is run and understood by its providers, customers and regulators.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Maxim A. Dulebenets

Emissions produced by oceangoing vessels not only negatively affect the environment but also may deteriorate health of living organisms. Several regulations were released…

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6350

Abstract

Purpose

Emissions produced by oceangoing vessels not only negatively affect the environment but also may deteriorate health of living organisms. Several regulations were released by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to alleviate negative externalities from maritime transportation. Certain polluted areas were designated as “Emission Control Areas” (ECAs). However, IMO did not enforce any restrictions on the actual quantity of emissions that could be produced within ECAs. This paper aims to perform a comprehensive assessment of advantages and disadvantages from introducing restrictions on the emissions produced within ECAs. Two mixed-integer non-linear mathematical programs are presented to model the existing IMO regulations and an alternative policy, which along with the established IMO requirements also enforces restrictions on the quantity of emissions produced within ECAs. A set of linearization techniques are applied to linearize both models, which are further solved using the dynamic secant approximation procedure. Numerical experiments demonstrate that introduction of emission restrictions within ECAs can significantly reduce pollution levels but may incur increasing route service cost for the liner shipping company.

Design/methodology/approach

Two mixed-integer non-linear mathematical programs are presented to model the existing IMO regulations and an alternative policy, which along with the established IMO requirements also enforces restrictions on the quantity of emissions produced within ECAs. A set of linearization techniques are applied to linearize both models, which are further solved using the dynamic secant approximation procedure.

Findings

Numerical experiments were conducted for the French Asia Line 3 route, served by CMA CGM liner shipping company and passing through ECAs with sulfur oxide control. It was found that introduction of emission restrictions reduced the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions produced by 40.4 per cent. In the meantime, emission restrictions required the liner shipping company to decrease the vessel sailing speed not only at voyage legs within ECAs but also at the adjacent voyage legs, which increased the total vessel turnaround time and in turn increased the total route service cost by 7.8 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not capture uncertainty in liner shipping operations.

Practical implications

The developed mathematical model can serve as an efficient practical tool for liner shipping companies in developing green vessel schedules, enhancing energy efficiency and improving environmental sustainability.

Originality/value

Researchers and practitioners seek for new mathematical models and environmental policies that may alleviate pollution from oceangoing vessels and improve energy efficiency. This study proposes two novel mathematical models for the green vessel scheduling problem in a liner shipping route with ECAs. The first model is based on the existing IMO regulations, whereas the second one along with the established IMO requirements enforces emission restrictions within ECAs. Extensive numerical experiments are performed to assess advantages and disadvantages from introducing emission restrictions within ECAs.

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