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Article

Muzaffer Metin, Arif Ulu, Ozgur Demir and Aytac Arikoglu

In this study, a railway superstructure is modeled with a new approach called locally continuous supporting, and its behavior under the effect of moving load is analyzed…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a railway superstructure is modeled with a new approach called locally continuous supporting, and its behavior under the effect of moving load is analyzed by using analytical and numerical techniques. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the success of the new modeling technique.

Design/methodology/approach

In the railway superstructure, the support zones are not modeled with discrete spring-damping elements. Instead of this, it is considered to be a continuous viscoelastic structure in the local areas. To model this approach, the governing partial differential equations are derived by Hamilton’s principle and spatially discretized by the Galerkin’s method, and the time integration of the resulting ordinary differential equation system is carried out by the Newmark–Beta method.

Findings

Both the proposed model and the solution technique are verified against conventional one-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models for a specific case, and a very good agreement between the results is observed. The effects of geometric, structural, and loading parameters such as rail-pad length, rail-pad stiffness, rail-pad damping ratio, the gap between rail pads and vehicle speed on the dynamic response of railway superstructure are investigated in detail.

Originality/value

There are mainly two approaches to the modeling of rail pads. The first approach considers them as a single spring-damper connected in parallel located at the centroid of the rail pad. The second one divides the rail pad into several parts, with each of part represented by an equivalent spring-damper system. To obtain realistic results with minimum CPU time for the dynamic response of railway superstructure, the rail pads are modeled as continuous linearly viscoelastic local supports. The mechanical model of viscoelastic material is considered as a spring and damper connected in parallel.

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Article

Shalini Saha, Amares Chattopadhyay and Abhishek Kumar Singh

The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical (finite-difference) model exploring phase and group velocities of SH-wave propagation in initially stressed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical (finite-difference) model exploring phase and group velocities of SH-wave propagation in initially stressed transversely isotropic poroelastic multi-layered composite structures and initially stressed viscoelastic-dry-sandy multi-layered composite structures in two distinct cases.

Design/methodology/approach

With the aid of relevant constitutive relations, the non-vanishing equations of motions for the propagation SH-wave in the considered composite structures have been derived. Haskell matrix method and finite-difference scheme are adopted to deduce velocity equation for both the cases. Stability analysis for the adopted finite-difference scheme has been carried out and the expressions for phase as well as group velocity in terms of dispersion-parameter and stability-ratio have been deduced.

Findings

Velocity equations are derived for the propagation of SH-wave in both the composite structures. The obtained results are matched with the classical results for the case of double and triple-layered composite structure along with comparative analysis. Stability analysis have been carried out to develop expressions of phase as well as group velocity in terms of dispersion-parameter and stability-ratio. The effect of wavenumber, dispersion parameter along with initial-stress, porosity, sandiness, viscoelasticity, stability ratio, associated with the said composite structures on phase, damped and group velocities of SH-wave has been unveiled.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, numerical modelling and analysis of propagation characteristics of SH-wave in multi-layered initially stressed composite structures composed of transversely isotropic poroelastic materials and viscoelastic-dry-sandy materials remain unattempted inspite of its importance and relevance in many branches of science and engineering.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Muhammad Azim bin Azizi, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin bin Mohd Ihsan and Nik Abdullah bin Nik Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to establish a peridynamic method in predicting viscoelastic creep behaviour with recovery stage and to find the suitable numerical parameters…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish a peridynamic method in predicting viscoelastic creep behaviour with recovery stage and to find the suitable numerical parameters of peridynamic method.

Design/methodology/approach

A rheological viscoelastic creep constitutive equation including recovery and an elastic peridynamic equation (with integral basis) are examined and used. The elasticity equation within the peridynamic equation is replaced by the viscoelastic equation. A new peridynamic method with two time parameters, i.e. numerical time and viscoelastic real time is designed. The two parameters of peridynamic method, horizon radius and number of nodes per unit volume are studied to get their optimal values. In validating this peridynamic method, comparisons are made between numerical and analytical result and between numerical and experimental data.

Findings

The new peridynamic method for viscoelastic creep behaviour is approved by the good matching in numerical-analytical data comparison with difference of < 0.1 per cent and in numerical-experimental data comparison with difference of 4-6 per cent. It can be used for further creep test which may include non-linear viscoelastic behaviour and creep rupture. From this paper, the variation of constants in Burger’s viscoelastic model is also studied and groups of constants values that can simulate solid, fluid and solid-fluid viscoelastic behaviours were obtained. In addition, the numerical peridynamic parameters were also manipulated and examined to achieve the optimal values of the parameters.

Research limitations/implications

The peridynamic model of viscoelastic creep behaviour preferably should have only one time parameter. This can only be done by solving the unstable fluctuation of dynamic results, which is not discussed in this paper. Another limitation is the tertiary region and creep rupture are not included in this paper.

Practical implications

The viscoelastic peridynamic model in this paper can serve as an alternative for conventional numerical simulations in viscoelastic area. This model also is the initial step of developing peridynamic model of viscoelastic creep rupture properties (crack initiation, crack propagation, crack branching, etc.), where this future model has high potential in predicting failure behaviours of any components, tools or structures, and hence increase safety and reduce loss.

Originality/value

The application of viscoelastic creep constitutive model on peridynamic formulation, effect of peridynamic parameters manipulation on numerical result, and optimization of constants of viscoelastic model in simulating three types of viscoelastic creep behaviours.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

W.X. Zhang, R.G. Liu and Y. Bai

For general quasi-static problems of viscoelastic functionally graded materials (VFGMs), the correspondence principle can be applied only for simple structures with a…

Abstract

Purpose

For general quasi-static problems of viscoelastic functionally graded materials (VFGMs), the correspondence principle can be applied only for simple structures with a closed form solution of the corresponding elastic problem exists. In this paper, a new symplectic approach, according to the correspondence principle between linearly elastic and viscoelastic solids, is proposed for quasi-static VFGMs.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, by employing the method of separation of variables, all the fundamental eigenvectors of the governing equations are obtained analytically. Then, the satisfactions of boundary conditions prescribed on the ends and laterals are discussed based on the variable substitution and the eigenvector expansion methods.

Findings

In the numerical examples, some boundary condition problems are given. The results show the local effects due to the displacement constraints.

Originality/value

The paper provides an innovative technique for quasi-static problems of VFG Ms. Its correctness and the efficiency are well suported by numerical results.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Seishiro Matsubara, Kenjiro Terada, Ryusei Maeda, Takaya Kobayashi, Masanobu Murata, Takuya Sumiyama, Kenji Furuichi and Chisato Nonomura

This study aims to propose a novel viscoelastic–viscoplastic combined constitutive model for glassy amorphous polymers within the framework of thermodynamics at finite…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a novel viscoelastic–viscoplastic combined constitutive model for glassy amorphous polymers within the framework of thermodynamics at finite strain that is capable of capturing their rate-dependent inelastic mechanical behavior in wide ranges of deformation rate and amount.

Design/methodology/approach

The rheology model whose viscoelastic and viscoplastic elements are connected in series is set in accordance with the multi-mechanism theory. Then, the constitutive functions are formulated on the basis of the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient implicated by the rheology model within the framework of thermodynamics. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and loading/unloading/no-load tests for polycarbonate (PC) are conducted to identify the material parameters and demonstrate the capability of the proposed model.

Findings

The performance was validated in comparison with the series of the test results with different rates and amounts of deformation before unloading together. It has been confirmed that the proposed model can accommodate various material behaviors empirically observed, such as rate-dependent elasticity, elastic hysteresis, strain softening, orientation hardening and strain recovery.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel rheological constitutive model in which the viscoelastic element connected in series with the viscoplastic one exclusively represents the elastic behavior, and each material response is formulated according to the multiplicatively decomposed deformation gradients. In particular, the yield strength followed by the isotropic hardening reflects the relaxation characteristics in the viscoelastic constitutive functions so that the glass transition temperature could be variant within the wide range of deformation rate. Consequently, the model enables us to properly represent the loading process up to large deformation regime followed by unloading and no-load processes.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Manisha Maity, Santimoy Kundu, Raju Kumhar and Shishir Gupta

This mathematical analysis has been accomplished for the purpose of understanding the propagation behaviour like phase velocity and attenuation of Love-type waves through…

Abstract

Purpose

This mathematical analysis has been accomplished for the purpose of understanding the propagation behaviour like phase velocity and attenuation of Love-type waves through visco-micropolar composite Earth’s structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The considered geometry of this problem involves a micropolar Voigt-type viscoelastic stratum imperfectly bonded to a heterogeneous Voigt-type viscoelastic substratum. With the aid of governing equations of motion of each individual medium and method of separation of variable, the components of micro-rotation and displacement have been obtained.

Findings

The boundary conditions of the presumed geometry at the free surface and at the interface, together with the obtained components of micro-rotation, displacement and mechanical stresses give rise to the determinant form of the dispersion relation. Moreover, some noteworthy cases have also been extrapolated in detail. Graphical interpretation irradiating the impact of viscoelasticity, micropolarity, heterogeneity and imperfectness on the phase velocity and attenuation of Love-type waves is the principal highlight of the present study.

Practical implications

In this study, the influence of the considered parameters such as micropolarity, viscoelasticity, heterogeneity, and imperfectness has been elucidated graphically on the phase velocity and attenuation of Love-type waves. It has been noticed from the graphs that with the rising magnitude of micropolarity and heterogeneity, the attenuation curves shift upwards, that is the loss of energy of these waves takes place in a rapid way. Hence, from the outcomes of the present analysis, it can be concluded that heterogeneous micropolar stratified media can serve as a helpful tool in increasing the attenuation or in other words, loss of energy of Love-type waves, thus reducing the devastating behaviour of these waves.

Originality/value

Till date, the mathematical modelling as well as vibrational analysis of Love-type waves in a viscoelastic substrate overloaded by visco-micropolar composite Earth’s structure with mechanical interfacial imperfection remain unattempted by researchers round the globe. The current analysis is an approach for studying the traversal traits of surface waves (here, Love-type waves) in a realistic stratified model of the Earth’s crust and may thus, serves as a dynamic paraphernalia in various domains like earthquake and geotechnical engineering; exploration geology and soil mechanics and many more, both in a conceptual as well as pragmatic manner.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Hossein Sepiani, Maria Anna Polak and Alexander Penlidis

The purpose of this study is to present a finite element (FE) implementation of phenomenological three-dimensional viscoelastic and viscoplastic constitutive models for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a finite element (FE) implementation of phenomenological three-dimensional viscoelastic and viscoplastic constitutive models for long term behaviour prediction of polymers.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on the small strain assumption but is extended to large deformation for materials in which the stress-strain relation is nonlinear and the concept of incompressibility is governing. An empirical approach is used for determining material parameters in the constitutive equations, based on measured material properties. The modelling process uses a spring and dash-pot and a power-law approximation function method for viscoelastic and viscoplastic nonlinear behaviour, respectively. The model improvement for long term behaviour prediction is done by modifying the material parameters in such a way that they account for the current test time. The determination of material properties is based on the non-separable type of relations for nonlinear materials in which the material properties change with stress coupled with time.

Findings

The proposed viscoelastic and viscoplastic models are implemented in a user material algorithm of the FE general-purpose program ABAQUS and the validity of the models is assessed by comparisons with experimental observations from tests on high-density polyethylene samples in one-dimensional tensile loading. Comparisons show that the proposed constitutive model can satisfactorily represent the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of polymers even for long term predictions.

Originality/value

The study provides a new approach in long term investigation of material behaviour using FE analysis.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes, Subrahmanian Ramaswami, Rohan Galgalikar, James Runt and James Tarter

Polyurea is an elastomeric two-phase co-polymer consisting of nanometer-sized discrete hard (i.e. high glass transition temperature) domains distributed randomly within a…

Abstract

Purpose

Polyurea is an elastomeric two-phase co-polymer consisting of nanometer-sized discrete hard (i.e. high glass transition temperature) domains distributed randomly within a soft (i.e. low glass transition temperature) matrix. A number of experimental investigations reported in the open literature clearly demonstrated that the use of polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can significantly increase blast survivability and ballistic penetration resistance of target structures, such as vehicles, buildings and field/laboratory test-plates. When designing blast/ballistic-threat survivable polyurea-coated structures, advanced computational methods and tools are being increasingly utilized. A critical aspect of this computational approach is the availability of physically based, high-fidelity polyurea material models. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, an attempt is made to develop a material model for polyurea which will include the effects of soft-matrix chain-segment molecular weight and the extent and morphology of hard-domain nano-segregation. Since these aspects of polyurea microstructure can be controlled through the selection of polyurea chemistry and synthesis conditions, and the present material model enables the prediction of polyurea blast-mitigation capacity and ballistic resistance, the model offers the potential for the “material-by-design” approach.

Findings

The model is validated by comparing its predictions with the corresponding experimental data.

Originality/value

The work clearly demonstrated that, in order to maximize shock-mitigation effects offered by polyurea, chemistry and processing/synthesis route of this material should be optimized.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article

R. Abghari, S. Shaikhzadeh Najar, M. Haghpanahi and M. Latifi

To investigate the relation of in‐plane fabric tensile properties with woven fabrics bagging behavior, a new test method was developed and a real time data acquisition and…

Abstract

To investigate the relation of in‐plane fabric tensile properties with woven fabrics bagging behavior, a new test method was developed and a real time data acquisition and strain gauge technique were used. The bagging procedure was carried out while the woven fabric tensile deformations along warp and weft directions were measured. The fabric bagging behavior was characterized by bagging resistance, bagging fatigue, residual bagging height and residual bagging hysteresis. The experimental results show that the bagging load, work, hysteresis, residual hysteresis and fatigue are highly linearly correlated with corresponding parameters in warp and weft directions. An empirical relationship obtained between residual bagging height and bagging fatigue and resistance (R2=0.83) suggests that the proposed new test method is able to evaluate bagging behavior of fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

A. Baloch, P.W. Grant and M.F. Webster

The numerical simulation of two‐dimensional incompressible complex flows of viscoelastic fluids is presented. The context is one, relevant to the food industry (dough…

Abstract

The numerical simulation of two‐dimensional incompressible complex flows of viscoelastic fluids is presented. The context is one, relevant to the food industry (dough kneading), of stirring within a cylindrical vessel, where stirrers are attached to the lid of the vessel. The motion is driven by the rotation of the outer vessel wall, with various stirrer locations. With a single stirrer, both a concentric and an eccentric configuration are considered. A double‐stirrer eccentric case, with two symmetrically arranged stirrers, is also contrasted against the above. A parallel numerical method is adopted, based on a finite element semi‐implicit time‐stepping Taylor‐Galerkin/pressure‐correction scheme. For viscoelastic fluids, constant viscosity Oldroyd‐B and two shear‐thinning Phan‐Thien/Tanner constitutive models are employed. Both linear and exponential models at two different material parameters are considered. This permits a comparison of various stress, shear and extensional properties and their respective influences upon the flow fields generated. Variation with increasing speed of vessel and change in mixer geometry are analysed with respect to the flow kinematics and stress fields produced. Optimal kneading scenarios are commended with asymmetrical stirrer positioning, one‐stirrer proving better than two. Then, models with enhanced strain‐hardening, amplify levels of localised maxima in rate‐of‐work done per unit power consumed. Simulations are conducted via distributed parallel processing, performed on work‐station clusters, employing a conventional message passing protocol (PVM). Parallel results are compared against those obtained on a single processor (sequential computation). Ideal linear speed‐up with the number of processors has been observed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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