This research article explores several questions about assessing the impacts of fathers' parental leave take up and gender equality. We ask: How does the conceptual and…
This research article explores several questions about assessing the impacts of fathers' parental leave take up and gender equality. We ask: How does the conceptual and contextual specificity of care and equality shape what we focus on, and how, when we study parental leave policies and their impacts? What and how are we measuring?
The article is based on a longitudinal qualitative research study on families with fathers who had taken parental leave in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Québec), which included interviews with 26 couples in the first stage (25 mother/father couples and one father/father couple) and with nine couples a decade later. Guided by Margaret Somers' historical sociology of concept formation, we explore the concepts of care and equality (and their histories, networks, and narratives) and how they are taken up in parental leave research. We also draw on insights from three feminist scholars who have made major contributions to theoretical intersections between care, work, equality, social protection policies, and care deficits: Nancy Fraser, Joan Williams, and Martha Fineman.
The relationship between fathers' leave-taking and gender equality impacts is a complex, non-linear entanglement shaped by the specificities of state and employment policies and by how these structure parental eligibility for leave benefits, financial dimensions of leave-taking (including wage replacement rates for benefits), childcare possibilities/limitations and related financial dimensions for families, masculine work norms in workplaces, and intersections of gender and social class. Overall, we found that maximizing both parental leave time and family income in order to sustain good care for their children (through paid and unpaid leave time, followed by limited and expensive childcare services) was articulated as a more immediate concern to parents than were issues of gender equality. Our research supports the need to draw closer connections between parental leave, childcare, and workplace policies to better understand how these all shape parental leave decisions and practices and possible gender equality outcomes.
The article is based on a small and fairly homogenous Canadian research sample and thus calls for more research to be done on diverse families, with attention to possible conceptual diversity arising from these sites.
This research calls for greater attention to: the genealogies of, and relations between, the concepts of care, equality, and subjectivity that guide parental leave research and policy; to the historical specificity of models like the Universal Caregiver model; and to the need for new models and conceptual configurations that can guide research on care, equality, and parental leave policies in current global contexts of neoliberal capitalism.
We call for a move toward thinking about care, not only as care time, but as responsibilities, which can be partly assessed through the stories people tell about how they negotiate and navigate care, domestic work, and paid work responsibilities in specific contexts and conditions across time. We also advocate for gender equality concepts that attend to how families navigate restrictive parental leave and childcare policies and how broader socio-economic inequalities arise partly from state policies underpinned by a concept of liberal autonomous subjects rather than relational subjects who face moments of vulnerability and inter-dependence across the life course.
Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace…
Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace discrimination remains a persistent problem in organizations. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of contemporary theory and evidence on the nature, causes, and consequences of discrimination before synthesizing potential methods for its reduction. We note the strengths and weaknesses of this scholarship and highlight meaningful future directions. In so doing, we hope to both inform and inspire organizational and scholarly efforts to understand and eliminate workplace discrimination.
To critically consider the role that environmental sustainability plays in Sport for Development and Peace's (SDP) conceptualization of development in Indigenous…
To critically consider the role that environmental sustainability plays in Sport for Development and Peace's (SDP) conceptualization of development in Indigenous communities in Canada. To do this, the chapter presents a critical analysis of one of the most prominent SDP organizations in Canada, Right To Play (RTP), and its relationship with extractives companies that support RTP initiatives.
In the first part of the chapter, we discuss the role of environmental sustainability in SDP approaches around the globe. In the second part, a textual analysis of RTP's documents is conducted to consider how environmental sustainability plays a role in its promotion of development in Indigenous communities throughout Canada.
Key findings of the research are presented and critically analyzed. The textual analysis of RTP documents shows that there is currently little consideration of environmental sustainability in the promotion and description of RTP's programs that operate in Indigenous communities in Canada. In addition, RTP's connections to extractives companies raise questions about the potential future directions.
The limitations of a textual analysis approach are discussed and the need for future research in this area is outlined with specific reference to how SDP programs might promote environmental sustainability.
Young children under the age of five are particularly overrepresented in traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to accidents and falls. To remediate the problems, confronting…
Young children under the age of five are particularly overrepresented in traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to accidents and falls. To remediate the problems, confronting young children with TBI, is critical that they are introduced to opportunities to be placed in general education classrooms at the earliest possible point. The purposes of this chapter are to (1) describe causes, symptoms, and challenges following TBI (e.g., physical, emotional, and cognitive difficulties), (2) distinguish mild TBI (MTBI) from other mild categories of disability, (3) identify classroom interventions and strategies, and (4) identify parenting strategies that may provide essential support for them in adjusting to and managing their young child’s difficulties.
High school completion is one of the strongest predictors of health and well-being. There is increased public attention on the challenges faced by young people of color…
High school completion is one of the strongest predictors of health and well-being. There is increased public attention on the challenges faced by young people of color and educational achievement. In particular, young men of color must navigate myriad stressors which often undermine their mental health, as well as their academic performance, including likelihood of graduation from high school that fare worse in academic outcomes than their female counterparts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of Step-Up, a positive youth development and mental health promotion program, created in collaboration with young people of color on their high school achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA).
This exploratory pre-post study employed multivariate analysis of data drawn from a sample of 212 youth of color to examine student’s GPA before their involvement in Step-Up and the number of Step-Up groups they attend in the first year could improve their high school achievement.
Results revealed an association between students participation in Step-Up, specifically having at least ten life skills group contacts, and significant increases in GPA.
High school achievement is measured by GPA, which might not be a clear indication of achievement since grades are not truly comparable across schools. The exploratory pre-post research design of this study, and the lack of control group, limits any references to causality but the descriptive changes in GPA demonstrate a statistical significance of Step-Up group participation and improved high school achievement. A potential next step is to design an experimental study that includes psychosocial and developmental mechanisms while examining the treatment effect of Step-Up vs students receiving standard of care.
Programs that aid young people of color in increasing their GPA should acknowledge the multitude of stressors that youth in urban environments encounter by creating interventions targeting multiple ecological contexts. These preliminary analyses suggest how programmatic supports that are collaboratively designed with youth, such as Step-Up, may yield promising results in improving young people of color high school achievement.
To better serve adolescents experiencing serious academic and behavioral health challenges, there needs to be programs that offer intensive, short-term mental health support in school settings. Given the widespread risk factors that adolescents and particularly young men of color are facing, Step-Up is informed by both the developmental assets framework and the social development model and aims to provide youth with opportunities for prosocial interactions and additional resources to combat multiple stressors. Since successful completion of high school is associated with better outcomes as young people transition to adulthood, programs that are developmentally timed to allow for an optimal protective factor during the high school years is necessary.
This research contributes to the knowledge base of the importance of providing mental health supports in school settings and may contribute to studies examining the academic achievement of young people of color in school settings.
Under the doctrine of judicial review established by Marbury v. Madison (1803) and the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), courts retain the power and authority to review legislative and executive actions and rule on their constitutionality or legality. Courts may also review actions of judges and lower court decisions. This is an important and necessary action to maintain the checks and balances and separation of powers in the United States (U.S.) political system. It is also critical for providing legal oversight and accountability. This chapter will first look at judicial review historically including relevant statutes and cases, actions by the executive branch, and efforts by Congress.
Additionally, the chapter will examine the relationship between judicial review and public policy. Through laws passed by Congress or regulations enacted by federal agencies, these branches of government draft policies with the expectation the judicial branch will enforce them. The courts, however, are to uphold the Constitution first and foremost, and rule on the constitutionality of the laws and regulations. Judicial opinions can have the effect of creating policy, which is a different purpose than the Founding Fathers intended. After reviewing the court system, the chapter will examine several issue areas where the court has been shaped by and in turn influenced public policy.
MAY is an early month for a conference. Blackpool in May has perhaps not the ideal climatic conditions that might be hoped for, if not always realized, at Torquay. But we are so glad to have a chance of reunion after the war that we are grateful there is a town which can take us in May if at no other time. If any are found ready to complain of time or place let them consult their own personal difficulty in finding somewhere to spend a holiday this summer; that difficulty, multiplied a thousand‐fold is the dilemma of any association that seeks to confer in body in the genial months. May, then, which in spite of the poets is a bleak if sometimes sunny month, will be accepted and made the best of.