Search results

1 – 10 of 10
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Kevin M. Taaffe, Robert William Allen and Lindsey Grigg

Performance measurements or metrics are that which measure a company's performance and behavior, and are used to help an organization achieve and maintain success. Without…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance measurements or metrics are that which measure a company's performance and behavior, and are used to help an organization achieve and maintain success. Without the use of performance metrics, it is difficult to know whether or not the firm is meeting requirements or making desired improvements. During the course of this study with Lockheed Martin, the research team was tasked with determining the effectiveness of the site's existing performance metrics that are used to help an organization achieve and maintain success. Without the use of performance metrics, it is difficult to know whether or not the firm is meeting requirements or making desired improvements. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Research indicates that there are five key elements that influence the success of a performance metric. A standardized method of determining whether or not a metric has the right mix of these elements was created in the form of a metrics scorecard.

Findings

The scorecard survey was successful in revealing good metric use, as well as problematic metrics. In the quality department, the Document Rejects metric has been reworked and is no longer within the executive's metric deck. It was also recommended to add root cause analysis, and to quantify and track the cost of non-conformance and the overall cost of quality. In total, the number of site wide metrics has decreased from 75 to 50 metrics. The 50 remaining metrics are undergoing a continuous improvement process in conjunction with the use of the metric scorecard tool developed in this research.

Research limitations/implications

The metrics scorecard should be used site-wide for an assessment of all metrics. The focus of this paper is on the metrics within the quality department.

Practical implications

Putting a quick and efficient metrics assessment technique in place was critical. With the leadership and participation of Lockheed Martin, this goal was accomplished.

Originality/value

This paper presents the process of metrics evaluation and the issues that were encountered during the process, including insights that would not have been easily documented without this mechanism. Lockheed Martin Company has used results from this research. Other industries could also apply the methods proposed here.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Frank J. Cavico and Bahaudin Mujtaba

While the words diversity, disparate impact, and discrimination are commonly read and heard by working adults and professionals, they can at times be confusing and fearful…

Abstract

Purpose

While the words diversity, disparate impact, and discrimination are commonly read and heard by working adults and professionals, they can at times be confusing and fearful to some managers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a specific aspect of US civil rights laws – the disparate impact theory. The authors provide an analysis based on the statute, case law interpreting, and applying the statute, administrative guidelines from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as well as legal and management commentary. The paper illustrates the requirements of a plaintiff employee’s initial case based on the disparate impact theory. The challenging causation component which requires some degree of statistical evidence is given particular attention. Limitations to the paper are stated at the beginning; and recommendations to managers are explored and provided toward the end of the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a legal paper which covers all the laws related to discrimination based on disparate impact and disparate treatment theories. Actual court cases up until this month and Americans laws related to this concept are reviewed and critically discussed.

Findings

The salient feature of disparate impact is that this legal theory allows a plaintiff job applicant or employee to sustain a case of illegal discrimination without providing any evidence of a discriminatory motive. As opposed to the disparate treatment liability is imposed based on disproportionate adverse results and not discriminatory intent.

Research limitations/implications

This paper deals with the disparate impact theory pursuant to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. However, it must be pointed out that the disparate impact theory is also applicable to claims arising under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Since the focus of this paper is Title VII federal and state constitutional issues, such as the applicability of the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection clause that may arise in disparate impact cases involving government entities will not be addressed.

Practical implications

Managers and employees can protect themselves in the workplace from illegal discriminatory practices. Initially, employers and managers must be aware of the distinction between a disparate impact case and a disparate treatment case with the latter requiring evidence of intentional discrimination. Evidence, of course, can be direct or circumstantial or inferential. Whereas in a disparate impact case there is no intentional discrimination; and as such proof of discriminatory intent is not required. Rather, the employee has to present evidence that the employer’s neutral on-its-face employment policy or practice caused an adverse disproportionate impact on the employee as a member of a protected class.

Social implications

Human resources professionals and managers must become educated in diversity laws in order to provide an inclusive workplace for all employees and candidates. Employers have legitimate areas of concern in hiring and promoting employees; and the courts are cognizant of employer responsibilities; and thus the employers must be able to show how specific knowledge, skills, education, training, backgrounds, as well as height, weight, strength, and dexterity are legitimate qualifications that directly relate to successful job performance.

Originality/value

This is an original paper by the authors.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2017

Angela Hall, Stacy Hickox, Jennifer Kuan and Connie Sung

Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify…

Abstract

Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify their workplaces, it is incumbent upon the management field to offer insights that address obstacles to work. Although barriers to employment have been addressed in various fields such as psychology and economics, management scholars have addressed this issue in a piecemeal fashion. As such, our review will offer a comprehensive, integrative model of barriers to employment that addresses both individual and organizational perspectives. We will also address societal-level concerns involving these barriers. An integrative perspective is necessary for research to progress in this area because many individuals with barriers to employment face multiple challenges that prevent them from obtaining and maintaining full employment. While the additive, or possibly multiplicative, effect of employment barriers have been acknowledged in related fields like rehabilitation counseling and vocational psychology, the Human Resource Management (HRM) literature has virtually ignored this issue. We discuss suggestions for the reduction or elimination of barriers to employment. We also provide an integrative model of employment barriers that addresses the mutable (amenable to change) nature of some barriers, while acknowledging the less mutable nature of others.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-709-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Mary L. Walshok and Josh D. Shapiro

Since the 1980s, US universities have greatly increased attention given to innovation and entrepreneurship out of a genuine commitment to enhancing American…

Abstract

Since the 1980s, US universities have greatly increased attention given to innovation and entrepreneurship out of a genuine commitment to enhancing American competitiveness. Although regional innovation and entrepreneurship can be enhanced by universities in multiple ways, the primary metrics of “success” remain patenting, licensing rates, and university spin-outs. While these metrics can be a useful proxy for the entrepreneurial university they tend to understate the many important contributions universities, including non-research intensive universities, make to their regional economies. In this chapter, we introduce a framework of capabilities that are essential to nurturing ecosystems of innovation and entrepreneurship at the regional level. We then describe the varied ways in which universities can support the development of these capabilities. Finally, we provide a framework of metrics, which can more comprehensively capture the value that universities represent to innovation and entrepreneurship in their regions.

Details

Academic Entrepreneurship: Creating an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-984-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

SDG14 – Life Below Water: Towards Sustainable Management of Our Oceans
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-651-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Maxim Vlasov, Karl Johan Bonnedahl and Zsuzsanna Vincze

This paper aims to contribute to the emerging entrepreneurship research that deals with resilience by examining how embeddedness in place and in trans-local grassroots…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the emerging entrepreneurship research that deals with resilience by examining how embeddedness in place and in trans-local grassroots networks influences proactive entrepreneurship for local resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

Three theoretical propositions are developed on the basis of the existing literature. These propositions are assisted with brief empirical illustrations of grassroots innovations from the context of agri-food systems.

Findings

Embeddedness in place and in trans-local grassroots networks enables proactive entrepreneurship for local resilience. Social-cultural embeddedness in place facilitates access to local resources and legitimacy, and creation of social value in the community. Ecological embeddedness in place facilitates spotting and leveraging of environmental feedbacks and creation of ecological value. Embeddedness in trans-local grassroots networks provides entrepreneurs with unique resources, including globally transferable knowledge about sustainability challenges and practical solutions to these challenges. As result, entrepreneurship for resilience is explained as an embedding process. Embedding means attuning of practices to local places, as well as making global resources, including knowledge obtained in grassroots networks, work in local settings.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers should continue developing the emerging domain of entrepreneurship for resilience.

Practical implications

The objective of resilience and due respect to local environment may entail a need to consider appropriate resourcing practices and organisational models.

Social implications

The critical roles of place-based practices for resilience deserve more recognition in today’s globalised world.

Originality/value

The specific importance of the ecological dimension of embeddedness in place is emphasised. Moreover, by combining entrepreneurship and grassroots innovation literatures, which have talked past each other to date, this paper shows how local and global resources are leveraged throughout the embedding process. Thereby, it opens unexplored research avenues within the emerging domain of entrepreneurship for resilience.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1950

When a small schoolboy I became acquainted with the proverb Fames optimum condimentum. Nevertheless, millions of human beings, perhaps because they have little experience…

Abstract

When a small schoolboy I became acquainted with the proverb Fames optimum condimentum. Nevertheless, millions of human beings, perhaps because they have little experience of famishment, persist in taking other condimenta with their food two or three times a day. Some of them, having satisfied their hunger, slake their thirst with products of a brewery—most of the commoner condiments not being even remotely associated with brewing. I have spent many years in efforts to secure that foods are called by their proper names. Egg powder, Devonshire hake, tonic cocktails, queer liquors containing isopropyl alcohol or even methyl alcohol, phoney blended whiskey—how would food lawyers have lived if these and other wrongly described goods had never come on the market ? Though a rose by any other name may smell as sweet, a dandelion called a rose does not. And those who administer the food laws have come across many examples of articles labelled on the principle of lucus a non lucendo. How these old tags stick in one's memory.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 52 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Anna Marie Johnson, Amber Willenborg, Christopher Heckman, Joshua Whitacre, Latisha Reynolds, Elizabeth Alison Sterner, Lindsay Harmon, Syann Lunsford and Sarah Drerup

This paper aims to present recently published resources on information literacy and library instruction through an extensive annotated bibliography of publications…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present recently published resources on information literacy and library instruction through an extensive annotated bibliography of publications covering all library types.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper annotates English-language periodical articles, monographs, dissertations and other materials on library instruction and information literacy published in 2017 in over 200 journals, magazines, books and other sources.

Findings

The paper provides a brief description for all 590 sources.

Originality/value

The information may be used by librarians and interested parties as a quick reference to literature on library instruction and information literacy.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Shaofeng Yuan, Chunhui Huo and Tariq H. Malik

The purpose of this paper is to examine a possible negative spillover effect in sports sponsorship to answer whether the sponsored team’s poor performance will have a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a possible negative spillover effect in sports sponsorship to answer whether the sponsored team’s poor performance will have a negative effect on audiences’ trust in its sponsor’s brand. The authors further analysed whether the audience’s attitude towards the team plays a mediating role and whether the audience’s personality type (active vs passive) plays a moderating role in this negative spillover effect.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted with 380 Chinese undergraduates and MBA student participants over two years. The authors designed the experiment as a computer-mediated intervention in which good, poor and neutral performance groups were compared. After the respondents were exposed to the intervention, we asked them to answer questions using a computer terminal. We analysed the data from the three experiments through analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis and a bootstrap.

Findings

The audiences who were exposed to a team’s poor performance condition reported less trust in the sponsor’s brand relative to those exposed to a good performance condition, and the brand trust was even lower than for those who were exposed to a control condition (no performance information). Further, the audience’s negative attitude towards the sports team mediated the negative effect of the team’s poor performance on its sponsor’s brand trust. The negative effect was more obvious for individuals with Type A personalities (active) than for those with Type B personalities (passive).

Originality/value

The prior literature has neglected a possible negative effect of a sports team’s performance on its sponsor’s brand trust. In particular, questions of whether, how and when this negative effect occurs are critical for sponsors, teams, and audiences. Since sports team sponsorship is burgeoning in China, the negative implications are unclear in this new context. Thus, the revelation that the negative spillover effects of a team’s poor performance on audiences’ trust in the sponsor’s brand provides two original contributions. First, the negative effect reveals value for multiple sponsorship stakeholders. Second, the Chinese context in this study adds value for future research and practice regarding both Chinese-foreign and domestic Chinese decisions.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Rick L. Edgeman and Zhaohui Wu

Enterprise activities are often harmful to the natural environment or societal fabric, yet approaches that are environmentally constructive or socially responsible can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprise activities are often harmful to the natural environment or societal fabric, yet approaches that are environmentally constructive or socially responsible can be challenging and may not be rewarded by the marketplace. Enterprises that are not sufficiently financially successful perish. The purpose of this paper is to present a model and methodology referred to as sustainable enterprise excellence, resilience and robustness (SEER2) that provides enterprises with a means of balancing financial, social, and environmental considerations. These considerations form the classic elements of the triple bottom line and are central formation of enterprise responses to climate change and social strain.

Design/methodology/approach

A model referred to as the Springboard to SEER2 is introduced. SEER2 explicitly considers societal and environmental performance and impacts that are driven by strategy and implemented through processes. As such criteria associated with the Springboard that address strategy, processes, performance, and impact are also introduced.

Findings

Humanity is at individual, enterprise, and societal levels partially or wholly responsible for many critical and time-sensitive social and environmental challenges. Due to their vast collective resource consumption and resource base, enterprises should also contribute to solving such challenges. The presented Springboard to SEER2 model and associated criteria provide a rigorous, yet defined path for enterprises that have the determination to confront such challenges.

Originality/value

This is among the first explorations of enterprise self-assessment in general and SEER2 in particular that explicitly consider strategies, processes and activities important to mitigation of climate change and social strain.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

1 – 10 of 10