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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Em Pijl‐Zieber, Brad Hagen, Chris Armstrong‐Esther, Barry Hall, Lindsay Akins and Michael Stingl

Nurses and other professional caregivers are increasingly recognising the issue of moral distress and the deleterious effect it may have on professional work life, staff…

Abstract

Nurses and other professional caregivers are increasingly recognising the issue of moral distress and the deleterious effect it may have on professional work life, staff recruitment and staff retention. Although the nursing literature has begun to address the issue of moral distress and how to respond to it, much of this literature has typically focused on high acuity areas, such as intensive care nursing. However, with an ageing population and increasing demand for resources and services to meet the needs of older people, it is likely that nurses in long‐term care are going to be increasingly affected by moral distress in their work. This paper briefly reviews the literature pertaining to the concept of moral distress, explores the causes and effects of moral distress within the nursing profession and argues that many nurses and other healthcare professionals working with older persons may need to become increasingly proactive to safeguard against the possibility of moral distress.

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Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2015

Matthias D. Mahlendorf, Utz Schäffer and Oliver Skiba

Participative budgeting is one of the most intensively researched budgeting variables in management accounting. Research has stalled, however. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Participative budgeting is one of the most intensively researched budgeting variables in management accounting. Research has stalled, however. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate further research by providing an overview of antecedents of participative budgeting and suggesting ways to build upon extant research.

Methodology/approach

We assess 22 studies published prior to 2011 that offer statistical insights into why organizations use participative budgeting by theorizing and modeling it as a dependent variable.

Findings

This work answers two research questions regarding why organizations use participative budgeting: (a) Which antecedents of participative budgeting have been analyzed so far? (b) Which causal-model forms are used in extant research regarding the antecedents of participative budgeting?

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed overview of empirical studies and respective findings aiming to explain why organizations use participative budgeting. Many prior studies have measured the association between contextual antecedents and participative budgeting. However, from a theoretical perspective, objectives of employees and supervisors are often used to explain the relation. Based on our literature review, we propose that all objectives identified so far intervene in the relationship between context and use of participative budgeting and also further detail these objectives. Consequently, our review analyzes the status quo of research on why organizations use participative budgeting and adds additional suggestions of underlying causal processes that can be tested in future studies.

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-650-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Leam A. Craig, Ian Stringer and Cheryl E. Sanders

This study summarises the results of a cognitive‐behavioural treatment group for sexual offenders (n=14) with intellectual limitations in the community.

Abstract

Purpose

This study summarises the results of a cognitive‐behavioural treatment group for sexual offenders (n=14) with intellectual limitations in the community.

Design/methodology/approach

All participants were convicted sex offenders serving probation orders or prison licences who attended a 14‐month treatment programme designed for sex offenders with intellectual limitations. The programme comprised of five main components: sex education; cognitive distortions; offending cycle; victim empathy; and relapse prevention. All participants completed psychometric measures specifically designed for people with intellectual limitations before and immediately after completing the treatment programme. The four core measures include: Victim Empathy; Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge Assessment (SAK); Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offenders (QACSO); and Sex Offences Self‐Appraisal Scale (SOSAS).

Findings

Post assessment results reveal significant improvements in sexual offence related attitudes; reductions in attitudes relating to cognitive distortions and pro‐sexual assault beliefs; and significant improvements in victim empathy.

Research limitations/implications

Although none of the participants have been reconvicted for committing new sexual offences during the follow‐up period, given that the follow‐up was restricted to 12 months post‐treatment, it is not possible to conclude this intervention was successful in reducing risk of sexual recidivism.

Originality/value

The results from this study support the use of cognitive‐behavioural approaches in demonstrating positive cognitive shift (reconstructing cognitive distortions and attitudes to victim empathy) for sexual offenders with intellectual limitations.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Catherine Compton-Lilly, Shuning Liu, Maria Padrós Cuxart, Lindsay Pettit and Yanli Timm

This conceptual paper aims to explore biases in reading textbooks that have been used to teach generations of Americans, including children in urban communities. While…

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper aims to explore biases in reading textbooks that have been used to teach generations of Americans, including children in urban communities. While these texts are no longer used, the images they present and the ideas embedded in these texts unfortunately contribute to who we are as a nation.

Design/methodology/approach

These texts were identified by Catherine Compton-Lilly as she trolled the historical archives of a major university.

Findings

In addition to an analysis of historic texts, more recent attempts to create culturally responsive texts often designed to serve children in urban communities are examined, and the learnings from these attempts are being explored.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper points to the need for systematic analyses of biases operating in textbooks that are currently used in schools.

Originality/value

This work reveals and explores one way in which historical bias has historically infected the early learning experiences of young children in the USA.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Ngat-Chin Lim

The purpose of this paper is to showcase that the integration of academic assessment with workplace performance appraisal practices can help to address the gap between…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to showcase that the integration of academic assessment with workplace performance appraisal practices can help to address the gap between graduate employability skills and employers’ requirements. Employability refers to learning of transferable skills.

Design/methodology/approach

The integrated assessment criteria grid by which the quality of the assignments may be judged was developed and discussed with the students. Grades achieved by each assessment criterion are analysed and inferred as to whether students have learned the desired transferable skills.

Findings

Such integration strengthens the theoretical argument on the importance of formative assessment as a way to nurture students’ learning. The transferable skills that students appeared to have learnt include “use of relevant data, meticulous, attention to details, structure & systems thinking, critical thinking and writing skill”.

Research limitations/implications

Only one cohort of students is involved and their participation in the discussion is on a voluntary basis. The paper was not able to address students who did not appear to have learnt the transferable skills.

Practical implications

Employers are more cognisant of the quality of the management students graduating from this university. The learning of transferable skills reflects creativity development, and this contributes to the theory of knowledge which emphasises the importance of developing creativity through education.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new form of formative assessment as a way to nurture students’ learning of transferable skills within a coursework assignment setting.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Christopher Richardson

This paper aims to investigate the expatriate adjustment experiences of “biculturals”, defined here as individuals who have internalised at least two cultural profiles, in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the expatriate adjustment experiences of “biculturals”, defined here as individuals who have internalised at least two cultural profiles, in a host-country setting that is itself also culturally diverse.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a small number of bicultural expatriates working in Malaysia.

Findings

The findings here echo previous studies in demonstrating bicultural expatriates’ ability (and tendency) to switch cultural frames as part of their adjustment. Despite this, however, their professional and social networks appear to still be shaped by cultural factors, with expatriates drawn towards networks whose members mainly comprise certain ethnic groups whose values and norms are perceived as being more closely aligned with those of the expatriate.

Originality/value

Though the literature on bicultural expatriates continues to grow, little emphasis has been given to a host-country setting that is itself culturally diverse. The findings here suggest that in such a setting, professional and social networks serve as an aid in the adjustment. Importantly, however, these networks, rather than being culturally impartial, as it were, may primarily comprise certain ethnic groups who are considered culturally “closer” to the expatriate in question.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2015

Mairi Maclean, Charles Harvey and Gerhard Kling

Bourdieu’s construct of the field of power has received relatively little attention despite its novelty and theoretical potential. This paper explores the meaning and…

Abstract

Bourdieu’s construct of the field of power has received relatively little attention despite its novelty and theoretical potential. This paper explores the meaning and implications of the construct, and integrates it into a wider conception of the formation and functioning of elites at the highest level in society. Drawing on an extensive dataset profiling the careers of members of the French business elite, it compares and contrasts those who enter the field of power with those who fail to qualify for membership, exploring why some succeed as hyper-agents while others do not. The alliance of social origin and educational attainment, class and meritocracy, emerges as particularly compelling. The field of power is shown to be relatively variegated and fluid, connecting agents from different life worlds. Methodologically, this paper connects biographical data of top French directors with the field of power in France in a novel way, while presenting an operationalization of Bourdieu’s concept of the field of power as applied to the French elite.

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Verity Chester, Anthony Scott Brown, John Devapriam, Sharon Axby, Claire Hargreaves and Rohit Shankar

There is increasing emphasis on caring for people with intellectual disabilities in the least restrictive, ideally community settings. Therefore, the purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

There is increasing emphasis on caring for people with intellectual disabilities in the least restrictive, ideally community settings. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the risk factors considered by clinicians involved in discharging people from secure services.

Design/methodology/approach

The views of five senior clinicians were sought in semi structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically.

Findings

Themes related to risk assessment, risk management, and multidisciplinary and multiagency working. Illustrative quotes are used to evidence themes.

Practical implications

This study described the risk assessment and management factors considered during the discharge of patients from secure to community services, which are of direct relevance to multiple stakeholders post-Winterbourne.

Originality/value

Challenges when facilitating discharge were highlighted, such as ongoing risk management issues, or unexpected discharge from tribunals, and how these were addressed, via the development of extensive risk assessment and management processes, and interdisciplinary and interagency working.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Lindsay A. Sewall and Mark E. Olver

The purpose of this paper is to examine sexual offender treatment responses as a function of psychopathy subtype.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine sexual offender treatment responses as a function of psychopathy subtype.

Design/methodology/approach

Measures of sexual violence risk, treatment change and outcome variables were coded retrospectively on a sample of 86 high Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scoring sexual offenders. Psychopathy subtypes were identified through cluster analysis of PCL-R facet scores.

Findings

Two subtypes were identified labeled classic and aggressive. They were comparable in their level of risk and need and did not differ in rates of treatment completion or change. The aggressive subtype had higher rates of violent and general recidivism and higher frequencies of major mental disorder and cognitive disability. Results of Cox regression survival analysis demonstrated that treatment-related changes in risk were associated with reductions in violent recidivism for the aggressive, but not classic, psychopathy variant.

Practical implications

Psychopathy is a heterogeneous syndrome. Moreover, psychopathic offenders can demonstrate risk relevant treatment changes. PCL-R facet profiles have important responsivity implications. However, not all psychopathic offenders fare poorly in treatment.

Originality/value

This is one of very few studies to examine treatment response and links to outcome among psychopathic offenders, particularly as this relates to subtype.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1936

The Report of the Food Investigation Board (the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research) for the year 1934 is, as were its predecessors, a document of first‐rate…

Abstract

The Report of the Food Investigation Board (the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research) for the year 1934 is, as were its predecessors, a document of first‐rate interest and importance. The Board was established in 1917, and under its terms of reference it has “ to submit an annual programme of research and an annual report.” The revised terms of reference clearly indicate the wide interests, both scientific and industrial, with which the Board is concerned. Its duties are “ to advise generally on the conduct of research on the properties and behaviour of foodstuffs on the scientific problems, including physical and engineering problems, involved in their storage and transport.” The duties of the Board are obviously as far reaching as they could well be. By no means the least interesting feature of these reports taken as a whole is the close connection they show to exist between the laboratory and the market place. This fact alone—which emerges quite naturally as the work which has been done, or is being done, or that which it is proposed to do, is described — gives to these reports a claim on public interest which is almost unique in the annals of Government publications. The people of this country are, whether they generally realise it or not, more affected in their daily life by problems connected with the transport and preservation of foodstuffs than those of any other country. We are far from being self‐supporting. Half the meat we eat comes from overseas. Argentina supplies us with a very large proportion of our chilled beef. Australia and New Zealand have plenty of cattle that would furnish us with good beef, but the difficulty has been to ship it in a chilled as distinct from a frozen state to these shores, On the 18th July, 1933, a first consignment of chilled beef from New Zealand reached the London market. This beef had been stowed on board in an atmosphere containing 10 per cent. of carbon dioxide. It arrived in good condition. This preliminary consignment of chilled beef from the antipodes is very rightly referred to by the Board as “ an event which may well prove historic.” In 1934 four thousand four hundred tons of meat in gas (CO2) storage were sent from Australia and from New Zealand to this country. Thus a new and important chapter in Imperial economic relations has been opened, not inferior in importance to the original introduction of cold transport and of cold storage some fifty years ago. “ Given careful handling the use of gas storage eliminates mould and bacterial slime.” Slime is a thick growth of organisms of the Achromobacter group. It appears more quickly on meat which has a high initial bacterial count at the time of shipment, and the truth of this statement is borne out by the figures given in the Report. Achromobacter growth is inhibited at 0° C in the presence of carbon dioxide ; while Proteus and aerobacter are not thus inhibited, but their optima is 37° C. So that a low temperature and at atmosphere containing 10 per cent. of carbon dioxide suffices to eliminate these troublesome groups of micro organisms from meat during transport. The term “ careful handling ” may perhaps be extended to include good sanitary conditions in the slaughter houses. The Report for 1932 dwells on the need for a plentiful supply of hot water. The older method somewhat neglected this essential, and one bucket of water sufficed for several carcases. A bacterial count of the bacterial content of water which had been used for this purpose showed that with an insufficient supply of water the number of organisms per cubic centimetre varied from two to twenty‐five millions, with five thousand B. coli per ten cubic centimetres. With an abundant supply of water the corresponding figures were fifteen thousand and five ! As the life of meat in store depends on its freedom from bacteria the need for extreme cleanliness in the treatment of meat before it leaves the slaughter house need not be insisted on. The matter has of course received adequate attention in Australia and in New Zealand where beef is being prepared for shipment under the new conditions. Other problems still remain to be considered such as the best methods of stowage to prevent chafing ; degree of humidity in the hold during transport ; air circulation to ensure uniformity in the atmosphere of the hold ; and the maintenance of the correct temperature. If these conditions are complied with the “ bloom,” that is, the natural appearance of the meat, is retained. Otherwise the oxidation of hæmoglobin to methæmoglobin ensues and the “ bloom ” of the meat is lost. “ Bloom,” it is stated, does not affect the nutritive value of the meat, but the absence of “ bloom ” would presumably affect the price of the meat on the wholesale market as it ceases to be a factor when the meat has been cut up into joints. The successful transport of a cargo of chilled beef from Australia and New Zealand therefore depends on its being landed not only in a wholesome condition, but also in a condition that will enable it to compete on at least equal terms with its foreign competitors. This evidently implies the close and effective co‐operation of everybody concerned from the stockbreeder in Australia or in New Zealand to the retailer in London.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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