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This paper uses a representative sample of U.S. workers to examine how self-employment may reduce work-life conflict. We find that self-employment prevents work from…
This paper uses a representative sample of U.S. workers to examine how self-employment may reduce work-life conflict. We find that self-employment prevents work from interfering with life (WIL), especially among women, but it heightens the tendency for life to interfere with work (LIW). We show that self-employment is connected to WIL and LIW by different causal mechanisms. The self-employed experience less WIL because they have more autonomy and control over the duration and timing of work. Working at home is the most important reason the self-employed experience more LIW than wage and salary workers.
Nearly a century ago, Max Weber studied Chinese lineage system and argued that the power of the patriarchal sib impeded the emergence of industrial capitalism in China…
Nearly a century ago, Max Weber studied Chinese lineage system and argued that the power of the patriarchal sib impeded the emergence of industrial capitalism in China. Recently, Martin Whyte re-evaluated Weber's thesis on the basis of development studies and argued that, rather than an obstacle, Chinese family pattern and lineage ties may have facilitated the economic growth in China since the 1980s. This paper empirically tests the competing hypotheses by focusing on the relationship between lineage networks and the development of rural enterprises. Analyses of village-level data show that lineage networks, measured by proportion of most common surnames, have large positive effects on the count of entrepreneurs and total workforce size of private enterprises in rural China.
The chapters in Part I highlight some of the central reasons for studying entrepreneurship at the aggregate, family, and individual levels. Lippmann, Davis, and Aldrich develop society level propositions about the relationship between inequality and entrepreneurship. They define entrepreneurship for both individuals and societies, and they argue that factors such as development, state policies, sector shifts, and changing labor market conditions affect levels of inequality and also increase incentives for entrepreneurship. The authors distinguish entrepreneurship undertaken out of necessity and entrepreneurship that takes advantage of market opportunities, and they propose that changing social and economic conditions affect entry into each type of entrepreneurship. The arguments presented in this chapter are well-grounded in previous theoretical and empirical research, but they ask about the relationship between entrepreneurship and inequality in a fresh, new way. Not only does this chapter clarify the factors that lead to entrepreneurship, but it also identifies new relationships between business start-ups and stratification that have not been explored previously.
The following is an annotated list of materials dealing with information literacy including instruction in the use of information resources, research, and computer skills related to retrieving, using, and evaluating information. This review, the nineteenth to be published in Reference Services Review, includes items in English published in 1992. A few are not annotated because the compiler could not obtain copies of them for this review.
Digital applications and thus new digital intervention possibilities such as gamification have made their way into our everyday lives. This paper aims to examine to what…
Digital applications and thus new digital intervention possibilities such as gamification have made their way into our everyday lives. This paper aims to examine to what extent social norm information (SNI) in a game element feedback may increase eco-friendly food choices.
The effect of social norm-based feedback (SNBF), provided by a “GreenMeter”, was investigated experimentally. The SNI was integrated into the feedback by comparing the subject’s GreenMeter rating with either an injunctive, descriptive or combined SNI.
Injunctive SNBF was found to be effective in encouraging people to make an eco-friendly food purchasing decision. Combining injunctive with descriptive SNBF or simply providing descriptive SNBF was also found to be better than no intervention at all.
To take further advantage of social norms to make gamification more effective, additional studies are needed in which long-term effects on behavior are investigated, as well as other game elements and target groups are taken into account.
Many people want to choose food that is more eco-friendly but often struggle because of deeply ingrained habits or strong social influences. Consequently, their intentions do not translate into changes in their behavior. Alternative motivational, gamification approaches, like SNBF, may be considered when designing Web-based applications.
The study provides insights into the effectiveness of SNI going beyond text-based interventions. Considering SNI in a specific design of gamification (“GreenMeter”) provided insights into how they could be integrated into dynamic, digital, behavioral change techniques to increase eco-friendly food choices.