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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2024

Lina Zhong, Xiaonan Li, Sunny Sun, Rob Law and Mengyao Zhu

Existing tourism review articles have limited review topics and cover a relatively short period. This review paper aims to extend the coverage of the previous literature and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Existing tourism review articles have limited review topics and cover a relatively short period. This review paper aims to extend the coverage of the previous literature and enhances the completeness of tourism-related studies to provide comprehensive tourism-related literature from 1945 (World War II onward) to 2022. Specifically, this paper reveals the major research themes present in published tourism research during this time period and highlights the evolution of tourism research from the preliminary phase, the transversal phase, to the growth phase.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study visualizes tourism research through networks of coauthors and their countries and regions, cocitation analysis of keywords and explores the thematic evolution of tourism research after the World War II (i.e., 1945–2022) from Web of Science and Google Scholar through bibliometric analysis.

Findings

Findings reveal that the themes of tourism research in the past years can be divided into seven major research themes. The tourism research evolution from World War II to 2022 can be categorized into three stages: preliminary (1945–1970), transversal (1971–2004) and growth (2005–2022). In addition, the research themes of tourism are not static but evolve according to the dynamics of the society and the industry, and that seven main research themes have been formed, namely, “heritage tourism,” “medical tourism,” “adventure tourism,” “dark tourism,” “sustainable tourism,” “rural tourism” and “smart tourism.”

Originality/value

The present study expands and refines the comprehensive literature in tourism research, as well as reveals the trends and dynamics in tourism research through network analysis and thematic evolution research methods.

目的

现有的旅游评论文章在审查主题方面有限, 并且涵盖的时间相对较短。本综述文章扩展了先前文献的涵盖范围, 增强了与旅游相关研究的完整性, 提供了从1945年(第二次世界大战之后)到2022年的全面旅游相关文献。具体而言, 本文揭示了此期间发表的旅游研究中的主要研究主题, 并突出了旅游研究从初步阶段、横向阶段到增长阶段的演变。

设计/方法/途径

本研究通过共同作者及其国家的网络、关键词的共同引用分析, 将旅游研究可视化, 并探索二战后旅游研究的主题演变。本研究通过文献计量学分析, 将 Web of Science (WoS) 和 Google Scholar 中的旅游研究(即 1945–2022 年)可视化。

研究结果

研究结果显示, 过去几年的旅游研究主题可分为七大研究主题。从第二次世界大战到 2022 年的旅游研究演变可分为三个阶段:初步阶段(1945–1970 年)、横向阶段(1971–2004 年)和成长阶段2005–2022 年)。此外, 旅游的研究主题并不是静态的, 而是根据社会和行业的动态而演变, 形成了七个主要研究主题, 即“遗产旅游”、“医疗旅游”、“冒险旅游”、“黑暗旅游”、“可持续旅游”、“乡村旅游”和“智慧旅游”。

原创性

本研究通过网络分析和主题演变研究方法扩展和完善了旅游研究方面的综合文献, 并揭示了旅游研究的趋势和动态。

Objetivo

Los artículos de revisión existentes sobre turismo tienen temas de revisión limitados y cubren un periodo relativamente corto. Este artículo de revisión amplía la cobertura de la bibliografía anterior y mejora la exhaustividad de los estudios relacionados con el turismo para ofrecer una bibliografía exhaustiva sobre el turismo desde 1945 (Segunda Guerra Mundial en adelante) hasta 2022. En concreto, este documento revela los principales temas de investigación presentes en la investigación turística publicada durante este periodo de tiempo y destaca la evolución de la investigación turística desde la fase preliminar, la fase transversal, hasta la fase de crecimiento.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El presente estudio visualiza la investigación turística a través de redes de coautores y sus países y regiones, análisis de co-citación de palabras clave, y explora la evolución temática de la investigación turística después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial (es decir, 1945–2022) a partir de Web of Science y Google Scholar mediante análisis bibliométricos.

Resultados

Los resultados revelan que los temas de la investigación turística de los últimos años pueden dividirse en siete grandes temas de investigación. La evolución de la investigación turística desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta 2022 puede clasificarse en tres etapas: preliminar (1945–1970), transversal (1971–2004) y de crecimiento (2005–2022). Además, los temas de investigación del turismo no son estáticos, sino que evolucionan según la dinámica de la sociedad y de la industria, y que se han formado siete temas principales de investigación, a saber: “turismo patrimonial”, “turismo médico”, “turismo de aventura”, “turismo oscuro”, “turismo sostenible”, “turismo rural” y “turismo inteligente”.

Originalidad/valor

El presente estudio amplía y perfecciona la amplia bibliografía existente en el campo de la investigación turística, además de revelar las tendencias y la dinámica de la investigación turística mediante el análisis de redes y los métodos de investigación de evolución temática.

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2022

Lina Zhong, Sunny Sun, Rob Law, Xiaonan Li and Baolin Deng

The purpose of this study is to systematically analyze the evolution of health tourism development, identify relevant themes and segments of health tourism research and offer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to systematically analyze the evolution of health tourism development, identify relevant themes and segments of health tourism research and offer future research directions and practical implications for academic researchers and tourism practitioners worldwide using China as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a bibliometric analysis, the present study comprehensively analyzes the theme, segments and the evolution of health tourism research over the past 40 years in China.

Findings

Major findings show that health tourism research in China could be divided into four stages with different characteristics, and three segments, including wellness tourism, health and wellness tourism and medical tourism. Findings also reveal the trend of health tourism development tends to be industrialized, diversified and systematic under the guidance of recent policies. Theoretically, based on the theoretical framework developed by Hall (2011), the present study contributes to the establishment and extension of the framework for health tourism within the context of China. Practically, findings can provide health tourism-related policy implications for the future development of health or health sector-integrated tourism.

Research limitations/implications

The study proposes possible collaboration between government and academia in terms of health tourism-related policy formulation.

Originality/value

Through 40-year bibliometric analysis of health tourism evolution in China, the present study explores the main themes of health tourism development, identifies the segments of health tourism and analyzes the development stages of health tourism. Findings should be of use to international readers to better understand the uniqueness of health tourism development and find out possible future health tourism development research directions. As a result, major contributions of this paper are the comprehensive analysis of the evolution of health tourism research and the implications on other countries and regions to adopt a pragmatic approach to explore the trend and unique characteristics of health tourism for future development.

目的

本研究旨在系统地分析中国健康旅游的演变过程, 探索健康旅游研究的相关主题及细分领域, 并为全球学术研究人员及旅游从业者提供未来的研究方向。

设计/研究方法

此研究通过文献计量学的研究方法, 全面分析了中国近40年健康旅游研究的主题、细分以及演变。

结果

中国健康旅游研究根据其发展特点可以分为四个阶段及三个细分主题:分别是养生旅游, 康养旅游及医疗旅游。调查结果还表明, 在近期政策的引导下, 健康旅游发展趋于产业化、多元化和系统化。从理论意义来说, 本研究基于Hall (2011) 提出的理论框架, 构建了中国背景下的健康旅游框架。从实践意义来说, 研究结果可以为健康和旅游业相关部门提供政策建议。

启示

此研究还有助于促进政府和学术界在健康旅游政策制定方面的合作。

原创性

此研究通过对中国近40年健康旅游的研究进行文献计量分析, 探索了健康旅游发展的主题, 分析了健康旅游的细分市场以及发展阶段。研究结果有助于学术界及旅游业更好地了解健康旅游发展的独特性及未来健康旅游的研究方向。因此, 本研究的主要贡献是全面地分析了健康旅游研究的演变, 并有助于其他国家/地区探索未来健康旅游的发展趋势和其独特特征。

Objetivo

El propósito del presente estudio es analizar sistemáticamente la evolución del desarrollo del turismo de salud, identificar temas y segmentos relevantes de la investigación en turismo de salud y ofrecer direcciones de investigación futuras e implicaciones prácticas para investigadores académicos y profesionales del turismo en todo el mundo utilizando a China como ejemplo.

Diseño/metodología/método

Mediante un análisis bibliométrico, el presente estudio analiza exhaustivamente la temática, los segmentos y la evolución de la investigación sobre turismo de salud en los últimos 40 años.

Resultados

Los principales hallazgos muestran que la investigación del turismo de salud en China podría dividirse en cuatro etapas con diferentes características y tres segmentos, incluido el turismo de bienestar, el turismo de salud y bienestar y el turismo médico. Los hallazgos también revelan que la tendencia del desarrollo del turismo de salud tiende a ser industrializado, diversificado y sistemático bajo la guía de políticas recientes. El presente estudio hace aportes tanto teóricos como prácticos. Teóricamente, basado en el marco teórico desarrollado por Hall (2011), el presente estudio contribuye al establecimiento y extensión del marco para el turismo de salud en el contexto de China. En la práctica, los hallazgos pueden proporcionar implicaciones políticas relacionadas con el turismo de salud para el desarrollo futuro de la salud o el turismo integrado en el sector de la salud.

Implicaciones

El estudio también propone una posible colaboración entre el gobierno y la academia en términos de formulación de políticas relacionadas con el turismo de salud.

Originalidad/valor

A través del análisis bibliométrico de 40 años de la evolución del turismo de salud, el presente estudio explora los temas principales del desarrollo del turismo de salud, identifica los segmentos del turismo de salud y analiza las etapas de desarrollo del turismo de salud. Los hallazgos deberían ser de utilidad para los lectores internacionales para comprender mejor la singularidad del desarrollo del turismo de salud y descubrir posibles direcciones futuras de investigación sobre el desarrollo del turismo de salud. Como resultado, las principales contribuciones de este documento son el análisis exhaustivo de la evolución de la investigación en turismo de salud y las implicaciones en otros países y regiones para adoptar un enfoque pragmático para explorar la tendencia y las características únicas del turismo de salud para el desarrollo futuro.

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2024

Lina Zhong, Mengyao Zhu, Xiaonan Li, Alastair M. Morrison and Mark Anthony Camilleri

The purpose of this research paper was to determine which needs for incentives influence positive word-of-mouth (PWOM) among international tourists and how these needs differ…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper was to determine which needs for incentives influence positive word-of-mouth (PWOM) among international tourists and how these needs differ based on the cultural orientation toward individualism and collectivism.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used online surveys to gather data from 959 Australian, US, UK, Japanese and Korean respondents who had visited Beijing. A random sampling method was used, and data were analyzed using SmartPLS 4.0. By adopting the existence relatedness growth theory, the findings explain how cultural orientation affects the impact of needs for incentives in generating PWOM.

Findings

Three hypothesized relationships were significant for Australia/UK/USA and Japan/Korea – the effect of needs for incentives on motivation, the effect of motivation on PWOM and the effects of needs for incentives on PWOM were significant and positive for Australia/UK/USA and Japan/Korea. The effect of needs for incentive type on motivation varied across national populations, and the intensity of the effects of needs for incentive type on PWOM was also different. For Australian, UK and the US tourists, the honorary title was the most influential need to stimulate word-of-mouth motivation. The need for cultural learning was the most influential for Japanese and Korean tourists.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature by exploring and comparing the needs for incentives that influence PWOM among tourists from the perspective of individualism and collectivism. The results also increase the understanding of the relationships among needs for incentives, motivation and PWOM.

研究目的

本研究旨在确定哪些激励需求会影响国际旅游者的积极口碑(PWOM), 以及这些激励方式的影响在个人主义和集体主义文化取向的群体中有何不同。

设计/方法/途径

本研究通过在线调查收集了 959 名曾到访北京的澳大利亚、美国、英国、日本和韩国的国际游客数据。研究采用了随机抽样的方法, 使用 SmartPLS 4.0 对数据进行了分析。基于ERG理论, 本研究解释了文化如何影响激励类型对积极口碑的影响。

研究结论

研究结果显示, 三个假设关系在澳大利亚/英国/美国和日本/韩国两个群组中均显著, 即激励需求对动机的影响、动机对积极口碑的影响、以及激励需求对积极口碑的影响在澳大利亚/英国/美国和日本/韩国群组中都是显著和正向的。激励需求类型对动机和积极口碑的影响在不同国家群体中存在差异。对于澳大利亚、英国和美国的国际游客, 满足名誉需求的激励对产生积极口碑动机的影响更大。对于日本和韩国的国际游客, 满足文化学习需求的激励对产生积极口碑动机的影响更大。

原创性

本研究从个人主义和集体主义的角度, 探讨比较了影响国际旅游者积极口碑的激励需求, 为相关领域研究做出了贡献。研究结果加深了对激励需求、动机和积极口碑之间关系的理解。

Objetivo

El objetivo de esta investigación era determinar qué necesidades de incentivación influyen en el boca a boca positivo (PWOM por sus siglas en inglés) entre los turistas internacionales y cómo difieren estas necesidades en función de la orientación cultural hacia el individualismo y el colectivismo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Esta investigación utilizó encuestas en línea para recopilar datos de 959 encuestados australianos, estadounidenses, británicos, japoneses y coreanos que habían visitado Pekín. Se empleó un método de muestreo aleatorio y los datos se analizaron con SmartPLS 4.0. Adoptando la teoría del Crecimiento de la Relación con la Existencia (ERG por sus siglas en inglés), los resultados explican cómo afecta la orientación cultural al impacto de las necesidades de incentivos en la generación del PWOM.

Resultados

Tres relaciones hipotetizadas resultaron significativas en los dos grupos de Australia/Reino Unido/Estados Unidos y Japón/Corea: el efecto de las necesidades de incentivación en la motivación, el efecto de la motivación en la PWOM y los efectos de las necesidades de incentivación en la PWOM fueron significativos y positivos para Australia/Reino Unido/Estados Unidos y Japón/Corea. El efecto del tipo de necesidad de incentivación sobre la motivación varió entre las poblaciones nacionales, y la intensidad de los efectos del tipo de necesidad de incentivos sobre la PWOM también fue diferente. Para los turistas australianos, británicos y estadounidenses, el título honorífico fue la necesidad más influyente para estimular la motivación WOM. La necesidad de aprendizaje cultural fue la más influyente para los turistas japoneses y coreanos.

Originalidad/valor

Esta investigación contribuye a la bibliografía al explorar y comparar las necesidades de incentivación que influyen en la motivación boca a boca entre los turistas desde la perspectiva del individualismo y el colectivismo. Los resultados también aumentan la comprensión de las relaciones entre las necesidades de incentivación, la motivación y el PWOM.

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2023

Lina Zhong and Yingchao Dong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the changes of the scale of urban tourists in mainland China under the impact of COVID-19 and, specifically, the following questions: how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the changes of the scale of urban tourists in mainland China under the impact of COVID-19 and, specifically, the following questions: how did the scale of domestic tourists change nationwide and in the seven geographic regions? What are the differences in the changes among the seven geographic regions? What are the changes in the hot spot areas and spatial clustering of domestic tourists across the country?

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data of domestic tourist arrivals in 337 cities in mainland China from 2018 to 2021, this research analyzes the absolute differences and relative differences in the scale of domestic tourists nationwide and in seven geographic divisions with the help of indicators such as range analysis, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and Herfindahl–Hirschman Index and explores the changes in the hot spot areas and spatial concentration degree of the spatial scale of domestic tourists nationwide under the influence of the epidemic using kernel density analysis and spatial auto-correlation analysis.

Findings

The absolute differences in all seven geographical divisions continue to increase during 2018–2021. The domestic tourism in southwest China is extremely uneven. Absolute differences in the northwest and northeast regions are relatively small, and the development in attracting domestic tourists is more balanced. Relative differences in southwest China are comparatively large, with the trend of uneven development being obvious. The northeast, northwest and eastern regions of China are small, and the development is more balanced. The popularity of domestic tourism in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, as well as the Yangtze River Delta region, continues to decline and then pick up in 2021. The inland southwest region became a new domestic tourism hot spot in 2021. The size of domestic tourists from 2018 to 2021 in mainland China cities shows a significant positive spatial correlation, and there is a spatial agglomeration phenomenon, but some regional agglomeration types change from 2018 to 2021.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of the epidemic on the number and spatial scale of domestic tourism in China has been clarified, which makes up for the comparison of domestic tourism changes before and after the epidemic. A clear understanding of the changes in the number and spatial scale of domestic tourists in different regions after the epidemic is conducive to the development of domestic tourism revitalization strategies in accordance with the actual situation of each province and promotes the internal circulation of Chinese tourism.

Practical implications

This paper tries to clarify the quantitative scale of domestic tourism in different regions after the epidemic, which is conducive to the development of domestic tourism revitalization strategies in cities in different regions according to regional characteristics and the actual situation of each province and to promote the healthy operation of the internal circulation of tourism in China. This paper also tries to show the changes of domestic tourism market hot spots, agglomeration conditions changes before and after the outbreak and the clarity of tourists’ preference space changes.

Originality/value

Scale of domestic tourists; Absolute difference; Relative difference; Spatial hot spot distribution; Spatial agglomeration change

目的

本文旨在探寻疫情影响下中国大陆城市游客规模演化规律, 具体而言, 疫情影响下, 全国及七大地理分区的国内游客量规模变化如何?七大地理地区的变化有何差异?以及疫情影响下, 全国国内游客空间规模的热点区域和空间集聚程度有何变化?

研究设计与方法

利用2018-2021年中国大陆337各城市的国内游客量数据, 借助极差、标准差、变异系数、赫芬达尔指等指标分析全国及七大地理分区国内游客规模的绝对差异和相对差异; 借助核密度分析、空间自相关分析等ArcGIS分析工具, 探寻疫情影响下全国国内游客空间规模的热点区域和空间集聚程度的变化情况。

研究发现

①绝对差异方面, 七大地理分区的绝对差异均持续增大。西南地区的游客量的绝对差异巨大, 国内游发展极不均衡。西北地区、东北地区绝对差异相对较小, 在吸引国内游客方面发展较为均衡。②相对差异方面, 西南地区的国内游发展相对差异较大, 发展不均衡趋势明显; 东北地区、西北地区、华东地区的国内游发展相对差异较小, 发展较为均衡。③热点区域变化方面, 京津冀地区、长三角地区的国内旅游热度持续下降, 在2021年有所回升; 内陆西南地区在2021年成为新的国内游热点区域。④2018年至2021年城市国内游客量规模均呈现出显著的空间正相关的关系, 存在着空间集聚现象, 但部分区域集聚类型在2018到2021年间发生变化。

研究价值

①理论意义:明晰了疫情对中国国内旅游人次的数量规模和空间规模的影响, 弥补了当前疫情前后国内旅游业变化对比的研究; 阐明了疫情前后中国城市国内游客空间格局的变化, 拓展了研究情景, 丰富了中国旅游业时空变化的相关研究。②实践意义:明晰了疫后不同地区国内旅游人次的数量规模和空间规模变化情况, 以及国内旅游市场热点变化和游客空间偏好变化, 有利于各地区城市对症下药, 制定符合各省份实际情况的国内旅游业振兴策略, 促进中国旅游业内循环。

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2023

Lina Zhong, Alastair M. Morrison, Chengjun Zheng and Xiaonan Li

This study aims to use a bottom-up, inductive approach to derive destination image attributes from large quantities of online consumer narratives and establish a destination…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a bottom-up, inductive approach to derive destination image attributes from large quantities of online consumer narratives and establish a destination classification system based on relationships among attributes and places.

Design/methodology/approach

Content and social network analyses were used to explore the consumer image structure for destinations based on online narratives. Cluster analysis was then used to group destinations by attributes, and ANOVA provided comparisons.

Findings

Twenty-two attributes were identified and combined into three groups (core, expected, latent). Destinations were classified into three clusters (comprehensive urban, scenic and lifestyle) based on their network centralities. Using data on Chinese tourism, the most mentioned (core) attributes were determined to be landscape, traffic within the destination, food and beverages and resource-based attractions. Social life was meaningful in consumer narratives but often overlooked by researchers.

Practical implications

Destinations should determine into which category they belong and then appeal to the real needs of tourists. Destination management organizations should provide the essential attributes while paying greater attention to highlighting the destinations’ social life atmosphere.

Originality/value

This research produced empirical work on Chinese tourism by combining a bottom-up, inductive research design with big data. It divided the 49 destinations into three categories and established a new system based on rich data to classify travel destinations.

目的

本研究旨在使用自下而上的归纳方法从大量的在线消费者的叙述中总结出目的地形象的属性, 并根据目的地形象的属性和地点之间的关系建立一个目的地分类系统。

设计/方法/方法

首先通过内容分析方法和社会网络分析方法分析在线消费者的叙述数据得出目的地的消费者形象结构, 然后采用聚类分析方法按照属性对目的地形象进行分组, 并通过方差分析进行比较。

结果

结果显示总结出22种属性, 并将其组合为三组(核心、预期和潜在)。目的地根据其网络中心度被分为三个集群(综合城市、风景和生活方式)。最常被提及的(核心)属性是景观、目的地的交通、食品和饮料以及资源型景点。在消费者的叙述数据中表明社会生活是有意义的, 但常常被研究人员忽视。

原创性/价值

首先本研究通过将自下而上的归纳研究设计与大数据相结合对中国旅游业进行了实证研究。其次通过将49个旅游目的地分为三类以及基于大数据建立了一个新的旅游目的地分类系统。

实际意义

旅游目的地应该明确自己属于哪一类目的地类型然后迎合游客的真正需求。DMOs应该提供旅游目的地的基本属性, 注重提升旅游目的地的社会生活氛围。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se realizó un análisis de contenido en redes sociales para explorar la estructura de la imagen de los destinos por parte de los consumidores basándose en las descripciones en línea. A continuación, se empleó el análisis de clusters para agrupar los destinos por atributos, estableciendo comparaciones mediante el análisis ANOVA.

Propósito

Los propósitos de esta investigación eran utilizar un enfoque ascendente e inductivo para obtener atributos de imagen de los destinos a partir de grandes cantidades de descripciones de consumidores en línea, y establecer un sistema de clasificación de destinos basado en las relaciones entre atributos y lugares.

Resultados

Se identificaron 22 atributos que luego se agruparon en tres grupos (principales, esperados, latentes). Los destinos se clasificaron en tres grupos (urbano integral, paisajístico y de estilo de vida) en función de sus centralidades de red. Utilizando datos sobre el turismo chino, se determinó que los atributos (centrales) más mencionados eran el paisaje, el tráfico dentro del destino, la comida y las bebidas, y las atracciones basadas en los recursos. La vida social era importante en los comentarios de los consumidores, pero a menudo los investigadores la pasaban por alto.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los destinos deberían determinar a qué categoría pertenecen y luego apelar a las necesidades reales de los turistas. Los DMO deberían proporcionar los atributos esenciales prestando mayor atención a resaltar el entorno de vida social de los destinos.

Originalidad/valor

Esta investigación elaboró un trabajo empírico sobre el turismo chino combinando un diseño de investigación inductiva ascendente con big data. Dividió los 49 destinos en tres categorías y estableció un nuevo sistema basado en los grandes datos para clasificar los destinos turísticos.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Lina Zhong, J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak, Alastair M. Morrison, Liyu Yang and Baolin Deng

This study aims to investigate the consumer acceptance of robots in hotels before and after COVID-19, with a specific emphasis on whether COVID-19 had a significant effect on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the consumer acceptance of robots in hotels before and after COVID-19, with a specific emphasis on whether COVID-19 had a significant effect on the acceptance of robots by hotel guests and whether guests had higher levels of acceptance of hotel robots since the initial COVID-19 outbreak was brought under control in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample for this research included Chinese hotel guests before and after COVID-19, with 247 responses obtained before its outbreak and a further 601 responses gathered after. Several hypotheses were developed and tested in a pseudo-experimental design.

Findings

The results showed that COVID-19 increased hotel guest acceptance of robots. After COVID-19, the perceived importance of the usefulness, social influence, attitude and value of robots increased, while the perceived importance of the ease of use and anthropomorphism of robots decreased. As a contactless service, the usefulness of robots was more valued by customers. This led customers to lower their requirements for the ease of use of robots. In addition, people were more concerned about the social influences on robot use.

Research limitations/implications

Hotel guest attitudes and behavioral intentions toward robots and the services they can provide are changing. However, whether this change is purely ephemeral and motivated by a pragmatic stance triggered by COVID-19 remains to be established.

Practical implications

The hospitality industry is encouraged to create a new profile of guests in terms of their favorable or unfavorable disposition toward being served by robots. Hotels should consider the deployment of robots according to the demographic characteristics of customers (e.g. according to guest age levels).

Originality/value

This research demonstrated that major crises affect customer attitudes and behaviors toward new technologies. COVID-19 resulted in guests paying more attention to the advantages of services offered by hotel robots as a means of reducing the probability of contagion.

疫情前后酒店机器人非接触式服务的技术接受度对比研究

摘要

目的

本研究调查了新冠疫情爆发前后酒店顾客对机器人接受程度的变化, 重点研究了新冠疫情是否对机器人的潜在接受程度有显著影响, 以及自疫情在中国得到控制以来, 顾客对酒店机器人的接受程度是否有所提高。

设计/方法

本研究的样本主要是新冠疫情爆发前后的中国酒店顾客, 在疫情爆发前收集了217份样本, 在疫情爆发后收集了601份样本。研究提出了若干假设, 并采用伪实验设计进行了检验。

结果

结果显示, 新冠疫情的爆发提高了酒店顾客对机器人的潜在接受度。新冠疫情后, 机器人的有用性, 社会影响, 态度和价值的影响增加了, 而机器人的易用性和拟人化的影响降低了。由于机器人的无接触服务, 使得顾客更加关注有用性。这导致顾客对易用性的关注降低。此外, 顾客更加关注使用机器人的社会影响。

研究局限/启示

酒店顾客对机器人服务的态度和行为意图正在发生变化。然而, 这一变化是否是短暂的, 只是由新冠疫情驱动的, 仍有待确定。

实践意义

我们鼓励酒店业根据客人对机器人的接受/不接受程度来创建一个新的客户档案。酒店也可以根据顾客的人口统计学特征(比如年龄)来部署机器人。

创意/价值

这项研究表明, 重大灾难会影响顾客对新技术的态度和行为。 COVID-19的爆发导致客人更加关注酒店机器人的服务优势(降低传染概率)。

Aceptación de la tecnología antes y después de la pandemia del COVID-19: Servicios ofrecidos por robots en hoteles

Resumen

Propósito

Esta investigación analiza la aceptación por parte de clientes del uso de robots en hoteles antes y después del comienzo de la pandemia del COVID-19, prestando una atención especial a si dicha pandemia ha tenido un efecto significativo sobre los niveles de aceptación de robots por parte de clientes en hoteles en China a raíz de la pandemia del COVID-19.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La muestra de este estudio incluye clientes de hoteles en China encuestados antes y después del brote de COVID-19, con 247 cuestionarios recogidos antes del brote y otros 601 después del mismo. Este estudio incluye una serie de hipótesis puestas a prueba adoptando un diseño de investigación de carácter pseudo-experimental.

Hallazgos

Los resultados de este estudio apuntan a que el brote de COVID en China conllevó un incremento en la proporción de los clientes de hoteles propensos a aceptar el uso de robots en este contexto. Después de la pandemia, hubo un incremento en la percepción de la importancia de su utilidad, influencia social, actitud y valor de los robots en este contexto, mientras que descendió la percepción de la importancia de la facilidad del use de robots y antropomorfismo descendió. Como servicio sin necesidad de contacto físico, la utilidad de los robots en hoteles fue más valorada por los clientes Esto produjo una disminución en los requisitos de los usuarios en lo referente a la facilidad del uso de robots en hoteles. Además, los participantes en esta encuesta se mostraron más propensos a valorar la influencia sobre la sociedad del uso de robots.

Restricciones e implicaciones del estudio

La actitud de clientes de hoteles y su aceptación del uso de robots en este contexto, así como los servicios que éstos proveen están cambiando rápidamente. No obstante, aún no se sabe con certeza hasta que punto estos cambios son meramente efímeros y motivados por una actitud pragmática hacia la crisis creada por la pandemia del COVID-19.

Implicaciones prácticas

El sector de la hostelería debería intentar desarrollar un perfil de clientes nuevo en lo referente a su grado de aceptación de los robots como parte de los servicios ofrecidos. Los hoteles deberían considerar el uso de robots en los servicios ofrecidos dependiendo de las características demográficas de sus clientes (ejem. Nivel de estudios y formación).

Originalidad del estudio

Este estudio demuestra que las crisis de gran magnitud, como lo es la pandemia actual de COVID-19, pueden afectar las actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor en lo referente al uso de nuevas tecnologías. La pandemia del COVID-19 ha llevado a muchos clientes de hoteles a prestar una mayor atención a las ventajas de los servicios ofrecidos por robots como forma de reducir las posibilidades de contagio.

Article
Publication date: 26 December 2023

Lina Zhong, Zongqi Xu, Alastair M. Morrison, Yunpeng Li and Mengyao Zhu

This study aims to examine the use of the metaverse in tourism and hospitality to comprehend better how the technology might shape customer journey management, especially relative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the use of the metaverse in tourism and hospitality to comprehend better how the technology might shape customer journey management, especially relative to information provision, experiences and customer benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

This explanatory research used a two-stage approach of media analysis and practitioner interviews to analyse the interactions among tourism information provision, customer experiences and customer benefits in the metaverse. It conceptualized and mapped the consumer journey of the emerging metaverse experience, focusing on the ideas and practices of metaverse design pioneers in tourism and hospitality.

Findings

Based on the media analysis and interviews with 27 designers, the metaverse – information – experiences – benefits (MIEB) model was proposed, containing three parts (information characteristics, customer experiences and customer benefits) and 31 supporting items grouped into nine components.

Originality/value

One of the unique contributions of this research is the MIEB model for applying the metaverse in customer journey management (pre-, during- and post-trip). The findings contribute to the current literature with this model based on the practical perspectives of metaverse designers and provide insights on how to incorporate the MIEB model in applying the metaverse in tourism and hospitality management. The findings also address existing literature gaps of insufficient research on metaverse management and design through all stages of the customer travel journey and by paying attention to stakeholders’ viewpoints, including the media and designers of metaverse applications. Engaging in semi-structured interviews with pioneers of the metaverse to gain insights into the design of tourism experiences was also different from other metaverse tourism research, although this is not claimed as a significant point of innovation.

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2023

Lina Zhong, Jiating Liu, Alastair M. Morrison, Yingchao Dong, Mengyao Zhu and Lei Li

Based on text content analysis using big data, this study aims to explore differences in guest perceptions of peer-to-peer accommodations before and after COVID-19 to provide…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on text content analysis using big data, this study aims to explore differences in guest perceptions of peer-to-peer accommodations before and after COVID-19 to provide suggestions for the development of these properties in China postpandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

A guest perception dictionary was established by collecting Ctrip customer reviews of peer-to-peer accommodations. After data cleaning, thematic word analysis and semantic association network analysis were used to explore perceptions and thematic differences before and after COVID-19.

Findings

This research constructed a multidimensional framework of guest-perceived values for peer-to-peer accommodation in the context of COVID-19. The findings showed that the emphasis on functionality in peer-to-peer accommodation changed; perceived emotional values associated with peer-to-peer stays were more complex; perceived social values decreased, host–guest interactions were reduced and online communication became a stronger trend; tourist preferences for types of experiences changed, and people changed their destination selections; perceived conditional value was reflected in perceived risks, and the perceptions of environmental health, service and physical risks increased.

Research limitations/implications

This research has constructed a multidimensional framework of tourist perceived value on the basis of peer-to-peer accommodation context and epidemic background and has thus shown the changes in tourist perceived value of peer-to-peer accommodation before and after COVID-19.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this research constitutes the first attempt to explore the perceptual differences for peer-to-peer accommodations before and after COVID-19 based on an extensive data set of online reviews from multiple provinces of China.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Lina Zhong, Xiaoya Zhang, Jia Rong, Hing Kai Chan, Jinyu Xiao and Haoyu Kong

Robots, as the crystallization of new artificial intelligence, are being applied in various fields, especially the hotel industry. They are seizing the opportunities, using…

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Abstract

Purpose

Robots, as the crystallization of new artificial intelligence, are being applied in various fields, especially the hotel industry. They are seizing the opportunities, using technology to improve the overall quality and comprehensive competitiveness. However, they also cause many problems due to practical limitations. The purpose of this paper is to study customers' recognition and acceptance of hotel service robots to guide the successful promotion of this technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposed a comprehensive model based on the theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model and then the perceived value-based acceptance model. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, grouped regression analysis and path analysis was adopted to validate the impacts of each variable to obtain the final reliable model using data collected from hotel guests using a self-designed questionnaire.

Findings

The empirical research based on the theoretical model shows that the constructed conceptual model can thoroughly explain the influencing factors of hotel robot acceptance, enrich the acceptance theory and provide academic support for the use and popularization of hotel service robots. Among all variables, attitude, usefulness and perceived value are the factors that have the greatest impact on acceptance. They have significant differences in the effects of adjustment variables such as gender, educational level, whether hotel robots have been used, and whether other robot services have been experienced on different paths in the model.

Practical implications

This paper explored the customer acceptance of service robots in hotels, helped to understand the process of decision-making on service robot selection and contributed to the theoretical extension of the hospitality industry. The work guides hotel management to promote better-personalized products and services of robot technology in the hospitality industries.

Originality/value

The acceptance study on hotel service robots provides insight into the hotel industry to understand customers' attitudes and acceptance of emerging technology.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Ulrike Gretzel, Lina Zhong and Chulmo Koo

17392

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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