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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Joshua Fogel and Marcelle Kim Setton

A number of types of scarcity messages are often used in Internet advertisements, but all these types have not been directly compared to each other.

Abstract

Purpose

A number of types of scarcity messages are often used in Internet advertisements, but all these types have not been directly compared to each other.

Design/methodology/approach

College students (n = 789) were surveyed about five advertising choices for luxury skin-care products consisting of scarcity messages of high-demand, low-stock, limited-time, countdown timer and regular advertising without any scarcity message. Outcomes were product classification attitudes of functional and symbolic and psychological attitudes of persuasion knowledge and advertising skepticism.

Findings

The study found that high-demand message had greater functional attitudes and greater symbolic attitudes than regular advertising. Limited-time message had greater symbolic attitudes than regular advertising. High-demand message had lower advertising skepticism attitudes than regular advertising.

Practical implications

The authors recommend that when a luxury skin-care product is in high demand, that marketers should use high-demand messages in their advertising. Marketers of luxury skin-care products may also benefit from using limited-time message advertisements.

Originality/value

This is the first study to directly compare the scarcity message advertising types of high-demand, low-stock, limited-time, countdown timer with regular advertising without any scarcity message.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

James Devlin, Christine Ennew, Sally McKechnie and Andrew Smith

This paper seeks to provide a detailed study of the impact of offers incorporating a timelimit restriction on consumers in the context of price promotions. Time limited

3743

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide a detailed study of the impact of offers incorporating a timelimit restriction on consumers in the context of price promotions. Time limited offers are those where a pricing offer is only available for a specified, normally relatively short, period of time. Although price promotions have been the subject of much previous research, a detailed study of the effects of time limit restrictions on consumer behavior is warranted.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporates an experimental approach whereby the impact of timelimited and non timelimited offers on consumers' assessments of value and search and purchase intentions are isolated.

Findings

Findings show that the presence of a time limit does not impact directly on perceptions of value or search and purchase behavior. A marginally significant interaction effect between time limit and discount size is present, impacting in particular on search behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The research was carried out in the context of a consumer durable good (TV) and it is recommended that the study is replicated in other contexts, such as services and packaged goods, to ensure that the results reported here are generalisable.

Practical implications

The results suggest that policy makers should not assign significant time and resources to investigating influences of alleged false time limit promotion, as the findings would lead to the conclusion that such resources would be better used controlling other forms of misleading advertising and promotion. Marketing managers should note that time limited offers have no significant impact on consumer perceptions or purchase intentions.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to both the policy making community and practitioners and provides important and original insights into the minimal impact of time limit restrictions on consumers' evaluation of price promotion offers and subsequent behavioral intentions.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Elia Marzal

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process…

2651

Abstract

Purpose

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process of conferral of protection.

Design/methodology/approach

One main dimension is selected and discussed: the case law of the national courts. The study focuses on the legal status of immigrants resulting from the intervention of these national courts.

Findings

The research shows that although the courts have conferred an increasing protection on immigrants, this has not challenged the fundamental principle of the sovereignty of the states to decide, according to their discretionary prerogatives, which immigrants are allowed to enter and stay in their territories. Notwithstanding the differences in the general constitutional and legal structures, the research also shows that the courts of the three countries considered – France, Germany and Spain – have progressively moved towards converging solutions in protecting immigrants.

Originality/value

The research contributes to a better understanding of the different legal orders analysed.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Michelle Childs and Byoungho Ellie Jin

Many fashion brands employ growth strategies that involve strategically aligning with a retailer to offer exclusive co-brands that vary in duration and perceived fit…

1788

Abstract

Purpose

Many fashion brands employ growth strategies that involve strategically aligning with a retailer to offer exclusive co-brands that vary in duration and perceived fit. While growth and publicity are enticing, pursuing collaboration may change consumers' evaluation of the brand. Utilising commodity and categorisation theory, this research tests how a brand may successfully approach a co-brand with a retailer.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies manipulate and test the effect of co-brand duration (limited edition vs ongoing) (Study 1), the degree of brand-retailer fit (high vs low) (Study 2), and its combined effect (Study 3) on changes in consumers' brand evaluation.

Findings

Results reveal that consumers' evaluations of brands become more favourable when: (1) brand-retailer co-brand make products available on a limited edition (vs ongoing) basis (Study 1), (2) consumers perceive a high (vs low) degree of brand-retailer fit (Study 2) and (3) both conditions are true (Study 3).

Research limitations/implications

In light of commodity and categorisation theory, this study helps to understand the effectiveness of a brand-retailer co-branding strategy.

Practical implications

To increase brand evaluations, brands should engage in a limited edition strategy, rather than ongoing when collaborating with retailers. It is also important to select an appropriately fitting retailer for a strategic partnership when creating a co-brand.

Originality/value

While previous studies highlight the importance of perceived fit upon extension, perceived fit between brand and retailer co-brand had yet to be investigated. Additionally, this research investigates changes in brand evaluations to more accurately understand how co-branding strategies impact the brand.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Jungkun Park, Dongyoup Kim and Hyowon Hyun

The purpose of this study is to investigate the evaluation of desirability/feasibility and adoption intention for the self-service technology of “older” consumers. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the evaluation of desirability/feasibility and adoption intention for the self-service technology of “older” consumers. This study also aims to show that the evaluation of desirability/feasibility and adoption intention varies depending on the type of customer value provided by self-service technology. Moreover, the authors improve the understanding of “older” consumers by comparing the adoption behavior through three proxies that express consumer aging: chronological age, subjective age and future time perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was performed as an experimental design by manipulating advertisement messages of self-service technology for online grocery shopping according to customer values. There are two analytic methods applied in this study. First, the current study compares the effects of chronological age, subjective age and the future time perspective on the evaluation and adoption intention of self-service technology by using structural equation modeling. Second, this study examines the moderation effect of customer values by conducting a multi-group analysis.

Findings

The results of current research indicate that the future time perspective explains participants’ evaluation and adoption intention of self-service technology compared to chronological age and subjective age. Specifically, participants who perceive their future time to be limited, rather than expansive, negatively assess the expected desirability and feasibility of self-service technology. In addition, the results of the moderation test show that the future time perspective affects more significantly the evaluation and adoption intention of self-service technology when the functional value is emphasized rather than emotional or social value.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study showed that the effect of future time perspective on expected desirability and feasibility was almost significant in each sub-dimension, but there were relatively few factors influencing trial intention. In this respect, it is necessary to look into the impact of the details of desirability and feasibility along with other variables known to influence the adoption of self-service technology related to aging. It would be meaningful to find and operationalize items that are valid for older consumers, rather than the desirability and feasibility elements typically applied to self-service technology.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the extension of the socioemotional selectivity theory that has been suggested to interpret older consumers’ behaviors. This research applies the concept of future time perspective to the assessment of desirability and feasibility and adoption intention. At the same time, for the marketing managers, the comparison between proxies that represent aging proposes the ways to attract “older” consumers with appropriate emphasis on customer values.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

James Espey

A case study is given of International Distillers & Vintners(UK) Limited (IDV (UK)) and an assessment made of the viability oftranslating theory into practice in the real…

1315

Abstract

A case study is given of International Distillers & Vintners (UK) Limited (IDV (UK)) and an assessment made of the viability of translating theory into practice in the real world – the importance of having a strategy, of strategic planning, and having a success factor as a key component of an organisation′s competitive advantage. Following the appointment of a new managing director at IDV (UK) in 1982, three goals were established: (1) to more than double profits within five years; (2) to increase return on capital employed by almost 50 per cent within five years; and (3) to be the outstanding wine and spirit company in the UK. A sound strategy was required to achieve these goals. The historic background of the organisation is given and the strategic position of IDV (UK) in relation to its competitors and market share is described. A review of the state of the market is given and possible areas for expansion discussed. The quality and pedigree of certain brands and the quality and strength of leadership are proposed as the success factors upon which IDV (UK) could build. Details are given of how the organisation built upon these factors to achieve strategic success; the lessons learned; and the level of achievement and success in the marketplace.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is…

Abstract

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is in continual movement. All death is birth in a new form, all birth the death of the previous form. The seasons come and go. The myth of our own John Barleycorn, buried in the ground, yet resurrected in the Spring, has close parallels with the fertility rites of Greece and the Near East such as those of Hyacinthas, Hylas, Adonis and Dionysus, of Osiris the Egyptian deity, and Mondamin the Red Indian maize‐god. Indeed, the ritual and myth of Attis, born of a virgin, killed and resurrected on the third day, undoubtedly had a strong influence on Christianity.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Tser Yieth Chen, Tsai Lien Yeh and Ya Jou Wang

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the…

1268

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model and to enhance insights for practical applications, this study modifies the causal relationship among two types of scarcity, three types of expansiveness and desirability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 400 Taipei city residents who had purchase experience with luxury brands products in Taiwan. The study employed structural equation modeling as empirical analysis.

Findings

The empirical results show that limited-quantity scarcity main influences perceived social status and then affects desirability. The second path is that limited-quantity scarcity influences perceived uniqueness and then affects desirability. Therefore, perceived social status and perceived uniqueness dominate the majority of effects on desirability because they are the recognition of the individual compared to others, especially when applied to luxury goods.

Practical implications

Because limited-quantity scarcity has a greater impact on desirability than limited-time scarcity in the empirical results, marketers can adopt limited-quantity scarcity messages that are better than limited-time scarcity, to increase consumers’ desire to purchase luxury goods.

Originality/value

The first novelty of this study is dividing scarcity marketing into limited-quantity and limited-time scarcity in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model. This study extends expensiveness in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model with a complete demonstration, that is, perceived social status, perceived uniqueness and perceived value, which is the second novelty of this study.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Fredrik von Corswant

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization…

Abstract

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization, increased innovation, and possibilities to perform development activities in parallel. However, the differentiation of product development among a number of firms also implies that various dependencies need to be dealt with across firm boundaries. How dependencies may be dealt with across firms is related to how product development is organized. The purpose of the paper is to explore dependencies and how interactive product development may be organized with regard to these dependencies.

The analytical framework is based on the industrial network approach, and deals with the development of products in terms of adaptation and combination of heterogeneous resources. There are dependencies between resources, that is, they are embedded, implying that no resource can be developed in isolation. The characteristics of and dependencies related to four main categories of resources (products, production facilities, business units and business relationships) provide a basis for analyzing the organizing of interactive product development.

Three in-depth case studies are used to explore the organizing of interactive product development with regard to dependencies. The first two cases are based on the development of the electrical system and the seats for Volvo’s large car platform (P2), performed in interaction with Delphi and Lear respectively. The third case is based on the interaction between Scania and Dayco/DFC Tech for the development of various pipes and hoses for a new truck model.

The analysis is focused on what different dependencies the firms considered and dealt with, and how product development was organized with regard to these dependencies. It is concluded that there is a complex and dynamic pattern of dependencies that reaches far beyond the developed product as well as beyond individual business units. To deal with these dependencies, development may be organized in teams where several business units are represented. This enables interaction between different business units’ resource collections, which is important for resource adaptation as well as for innovation. The delimiting and relating functions of the team boundary are elaborated upon and it is argued that also teams may be regarded as actors. It is also concluded that a modular product structure may entail a modular organization with regard to the teams, though, interaction between business units and teams is needed. A strong connection between the technical structure and the organizational structure is identified and it is concluded that policies regarding the technical structure (e.g. concerning “carry-over”) cannot be separated from the management of the organizational structure (e.g. the supplier structure). The organizing of product development is in itself a complex and dynamic task that needs to be subject to interaction between business units.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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