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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Qiang Cao, Jianfeng Li and Mingjie Dong

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate three categories of four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton mechanisms from the perspective of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate three categories of four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton mechanisms from the perspective of relative movement offsets between the upper limb and the exoskeleton, so as to provide reference for the selection of exoskeleton mechanism configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the configuration synthesis and optimum principles of 4-DOFs upper limb exoskeleton mechanisms, three categories of exoskeletons compatible with upper limb were proposed. From the perspective of human exoskeleton closed chain, through reasonable decomposition and kinematic characteristics analysis of passive connective joints, the kinematic equations of three categories exoskeletons were established and inverse position solution method were addressed. Subsequently, three indexes, which can represent the relative movement offsets of human–exoskeleton were defined.

Findings

Based on the presented position solution and evaluation indexes, the joint displacements and relative movement offsets of the three exoskeletons during eating movement were compared, on which the kinematic characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the second category of exoskeleton was more suitable for upper limb rehabilitation than the other two categories.

Originality/value

This paper has a certain reference value for the selection of the 4-DOFs upper extremity rehabilitation exoskeleton mechanism configurations. The selected exoskeleton can ensure the safety and comfort of stroke patients with upper limb dyskinesia during rehabilitation training.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2020

Gaoxin Cheng, Linsen Xu, Jiajun Xu, Jinfu Liu, Jia Shi, Shouqi Chen, Lei Liu, Xingcan Liang and Yang Liu

This paper aims to develop a robotic mirror therapy system for lower limb rehabilitation, which is applicable for different patients with individual movement disability levels.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a robotic mirror therapy system for lower limb rehabilitation, which is applicable for different patients with individual movement disability levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper puts forward a novel system that includes a four-degree-of-freedom sitting/lying lower limb rehabilitation robot and a wireless motion data acquisition system based on mirror therapy principle. The magnetorheological (MR) actuators are designed and manufactured, whose characteristics are detected theoretically and experimentally. The passive training control strategy is proposed, and the trajectory tracking experiments verify its feasibility. Also, the active training controller that is adapt to the human motor ability is designed and evaluated by the comparison experiments.

Findings

The MR actuators produce continuously variable and compliant torque for robotic joints by adjusting excitation current. The reference limb joint position data collected by the wireless motion data acquisition system can be used as the motion trajectory of the robot to drive the affected limb. The passive training strategy based on proportional-integral control proves to have great trajectory tracking performance through experiments. In the active training mode, by comparing the real-time parameters adjustment in two phases, it is certified that the proposed fuzzy-based regulated impedance controller can adjust assistance torque according to the motor ability of the affected limb.

Originality/value

The system developed in this paper fulfills the needs of robot-assisted mirror therapy for hemiplegic patients.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Longhan Xie and Ledeng Huang

The purpose of this paper is to design a lower limb exoskeleton to enhance hemiplegic patient’s muscle strength and help the affected side return to normal gait after a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a lower limb exoskeleton to enhance hemiplegic patient’s muscle strength and help the affected side return to normal gait after a long period of training.

Design/methodology/approach

A wire rope-driven exoskeleton that combines rigid bracket and flexible driven method was presented to assist the patients with rehabilitative walking training. By using three noncontact cameras, the patient’s gait was captured and the target trajectory of the affected side was analyzed. Meanwhile, a controlling strategy of the affected side, which mimics the gait of the healthy side, was developed to help hemiplegic patients with varying degrees of hemiplegic gait obtain personalized walking rehabilitation training.

Findings

The results show that the hemiplegic gait of hip excessive abduction and strephenopodia was prevented. After wearing the exoskeleton, the movement trajectories of both sides of the lower limb were approximately identical. Based on the controlling strategy, the exoskeleton can correct the impaired gait and provide assistance for patients during walking. The exoskeleton has great benefits in walking rehabilitation training for hemiplegic patients.

Originality/value

This work improves the efficiency of the patient’s individualized training in the room. The presented exoskeleton provides great benefits in walking rehabilitation training for hemiplegic patients.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Muhammad Yahya, Jawad Ali Shah, Kushsairy Abdul Kadir, Zulkhairi M. Yusof, Sheroz Khan and Arif Warsi

Motion capture system (MoCap) has been used in measuring the human body segments in several applications including film special effects, health care, outer-space and…

Abstract

Purpose

Motion capture system (MoCap) has been used in measuring the human body segments in several applications including film special effects, health care, outer-space and under-water navigation systems, sea-water exploration pursuits, human machine interaction and learning software to help teachers of sign language. The purpose of this paper is to help the researchers to select specific MoCap system for various applications and the development of new algorithms related to upper limb motion.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of different sensors used in MoCap and techniques used for estimating human upper limb motion.

Findings

The existing MoCaps suffer from several issues depending on the type of MoCap used. These issues include drifting and placement of Inertial sensors, occlusion and jitters in Kinect, noise in electromyography signals and the requirement of a well-structured, calibrated environment and time-consuming task of placing markers in multiple camera systems.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the issues and challenges in MoCaps for measuring human upper limb motion and provides an overview on the techniques to overcome these issues and challenges.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Matjaž Dolinar, Drago Dolinar, Gorazd Štumberger and Boštjan Polajžer

The majority of three‐phase dynamic transformer models used in commercially available electric power system transient simulation programs offer only saturated three‐phase…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of three‐phase dynamic transformer models used in commercially available electric power system transient simulation programs offer only saturated three‐phase transformer models built from three single‐phase transformer models. This paper sets out to deal with the modelling and transient analysis of a saturated three‐limb core‐type transformer.

Design/methodology/approach

Three iron core models I‐III are given by the current‐dependent characteristics of flux linkages. In the first model, these characteristics are given by a set of piecewise linear functions, which include saturation. In the second model, the piecewise linear functions are replaced by the measured nonlinear characteristic. The more complex third model is given by a set of measured flux linkage characteristics.

Findings

The behaviour of transformers used in electric power applications depends considerably on the properties of magnetically nonlinear iron core. The best agreement between the calculated and measured results is obtained by use of the most complex iron core model III, which takes into account magnetic cross‐couplings between different limbs, caused by saturation.

Research limitations/implications

Measurement of the current‐dependent flux linkage characteristics of the 0.4 kV, 3.5 kVA laboratory transformer requires corresponding excitation of windings by three independent linear amplifiers. Current‐dependent flux linkage characteristics of the larger power transformer can be determined either by similar measurement with linear amplifiers of an appropriate power or by extracting them from the calculated magnetic field, which is done by the finite element method.

Practical implications

A three‐phase dynamic transformer model with the obtained iron core model III is suitable for the numerical analysis of nonsymmetric transient states in power systems.

Originality/value

This paper presents a three‐phase dynamic transformer model with an original iron core model III, which accounts for magnetic cross‐couplings between different limbs, caused by saturation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 August 2021

Luca Gabriele De Vivo Nicoloso, Joshua Pelz, Herb Barrack and Falko Kuester

There are over 40 million amputees globally with more than 185,000 Americans losing their limbs every year. For most of the world, prosthetic devices remain too expensive…

Abstract

Purpose

There are over 40 million amputees globally with more than 185,000 Americans losing their limbs every year. For most of the world, prosthetic devices remain too expensive and uncomfortable. This paper aims to outline advancements made by a multidisciplinary research group, interested in advancing the restoration of human motion through accessible lower limb prostheses.

Design/methodology/approach

Customization, comfort and functionality are the most important metrics reported by prosthetists and patients. The work of this paper presents the design and manufacturing of a custom made, cost-effective and functional three-dimensional (3D) printed transtibial prosthesis monocoque design. The design of the prosthesis integrates 3D imaging, modelling and optimization techniques coupled with additive manufacturing.

Findings

The successful fabrication of a functional monocoque prosthesis through 3D printing indicates the workflow may be a solution to the worldwide accessibility crisis. The digital workflow developed in this work offers great potential for providing prosthetic devices to rural communities, which lack access to skilled prosthetic physicians. The authors found that using the workflow together with 3D printing, this study can create custom monocoque prostheses (Figure 16). These prostheses are comfortable, functional and properly aligned. In comparison with traditional prosthetic devices, the authors slowered the average cost, weight and time of production by 95%, 55% and 95%, respectively.

Social implications

This novel digital design and manufacturing workflow has the potential to democratize and globally proliferate access to prosthetic devices, which restore the patient’s mobility, quality of life and health. LIMBER’s toolbox can reach places where proper prosthetic and orthotic care is not available. The digital workflow reduces the cost of making custom devices by an order of magnitude, enabling broader reach, faster access and improved comfort. This is particularly important for children who grow quickly and need new devices every few months or years, timely access is both physically and psychologically important.

Originality/value

In this manuscript, the authors show the application of digital design techniques for fabricating prosthetic devices. The proposed workflow implements several advantageous changes and, most importantly, digitally blends the three components of a transtibial prosthesis into a single, 3D printable monocoque device. The development of a novel unibody transtibial device that is properly aligned and adjusted digitally, greatly reduces the number of visits an amputee must make to a clinic to have a certified prosthetist adjust and modify their prosthesis. The authors believe this novel workflow has the potential to ease the worldwide accessibility crisis for prostheses.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Yassine Bouteraa, Ismail Ben Abdallah and Ahmed Elmogy

The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a new robotic device for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs. The authors are focusing on a new symmetrical robot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a new robotic device for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs. The authors are focusing on a new symmetrical robot which can be used to rehabilitate the right upper limb and the left upper limb. The robotic arm can be automatically extended or reduced depending on the measurements of the patient's arm. The main idea is to integrate electrical stimulation into motor rehabilitation by robot. The goal is to provide automatic electrical stimulation based on muscle status during the rehabilitation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed robotic arm can be automatically extended or reduced depending on the measurements of the patient's arm. The system merges two rehabilitation strategies: motor rehabilitation and electrical stimulation. The goal is to take the advantages of both approaches. Electrical stimulation is often used for building muscle through endurance, resistance and strength exercises. However, in the proposed approach the electrical stimulation is used for recovery, relaxation and pain relief. In addition, the device includes an electromyography (EMG) muscle sensor that records muscle activity in real time. The control architecture provides the ability to automatically activate the appropriate stimulation mode based on the acquired EMG signal. The system software provides two modes for stimulation activation: the manual preset mode and the EMG driven mode. The program ensures traceability and provides the ability to issue a patient status monitoring report.

Findings

The developed robotic device is symmetrical and reconfigurable. The presented rehabilitation system includes a muscle stimulator associated with the robot to improve the quality of the rehabilitation process. The integration of neuromuscular electrical stimulation into the physical rehabilitation process offers effective rehabilitation sessions for neuromuscular recovery of the upper limb. A laboratory-made stimulator is developed to generate three modes of stimulation: pain relief, massage and relaxation. Through the control software interface, the physiotherapist can set the exercise movement parameters, define the stimulation mode and record the patient training in real time.

Research limitations/implications

There are certain constraints when applying the proposed method, such as the sensitivity of the acquired EMG signals. This involves the use of professional equipment and mainly the implementation of sophisticated algorithms for signal extraction.

Practical implications

Functional electrical stimulation and robot-based motor rehabilitation are the most important technologies applied in post-stroke rehabilitation. The main objective of integrating robots into the rehabilitation process is to compensate for the functions lost in people with physical disabilities. The stimulation technique can be used for recovery, relaxation and drainage and pain relief. In this context, the idea is to integrate electrical stimulation into motor rehabilitation based on a robot to obtain the advantages of the two approaches to further improve the rehabilitation process. The introduction of this type of robot also makes it possible to develop new exciting assistance devices.

Originality/value

The proposed design is symmetrical, reconfigurable and light, covering all the joints of the upper limbs and their movements. In addition, the developed platform is inexpensive and a portable solution based on open source hardware platforms which opens the way to more extensions and developments. Electrical stimulation is often used to improve motor function and restore loss of function. However, the main objective behind the proposed stimulation in this paper is to recover after effort. The novelty of the proposed solution is to integrate the electrical stimulation powered by EMG in robotic rehabilitation.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Rohollah Hasanzadeh Fereydooni, Hassan Siahkali, Heidar Ali Shayanfar and Amir Houshang Mazinan

This paper aims to propose an innovative adaptive control method for lower-limb rehabilitation robots.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an innovative adaptive control method for lower-limb rehabilitation robots.

Design/methodology/approach

Despite carrying out various studies on the subject of rehabilitation robots, the flexibility and stability of the closed-loop control system is still a challenging problem. In the proposed method, surface electromyography (sEMG) and human force-based dual closed-loop control strategy is designed to adaptively control the rehabilitation robots. A motion analysis of human lower limbs is performed by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to obtain the desired trajectory of patients. In the outer loop, the reference trajectory of the robot is modified by a variable impedance controller (VIC) on the basis of the sEMG and human force. Thenceforward, in the inner loop, a model reference adaptive controller with parameter updating laws based on the Lyapunov stability theory forces the rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory.

Findings

The experiment results confirm that the trajectory tracking error is efficiently decreased by the VIC and adaptively correct the reference trajectory synchronizing with the patients’ motion intention; the model reference controller is able to outstandingly force the rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory. The method proposed in this paper can better the functioning of the rehabilitation robot system and is expandable to other applications of the rehabilitation field.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is interesting for the design of an intelligent control of rehabilitation robots. The main contributions of this paper are: using a WNN to obtain the desired trajectory of patients based on sEMG signal, modifying the reference trajectory by the VIC and using model reference control to force rehabilitation robot to track the reference trajectory.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Myagmarbayar Nergui, Yuki Yoshida, Nevrez Imamoglu, Jose Gonzalez, Masashi Sekine and Wenwei Yu

The aim of this paper is to develop autonomous mobile home healthcare robots, which are capable of observing patients’ motions, recognizing the patients’ behaviours based…

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1703

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to develop autonomous mobile home healthcare robots, which are capable of observing patients’ motions, recognizing the patients’ behaviours based on observation data, and providing automatically calling for medical personnel in emergency situations. The robots to be developed will bring about cost‐effective, safe and easier at‐home rehabilitation to most motor‐function impaired patients (MIPs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has developed following programs/control algorithms: control algorithms for a mobile robot to track and follow human motions, to measure human joint trajectories, and to calculate angles of lower limb joints; and algorithms for recognizing human gait behaviours based on the calculated joints angle data.

Findings

A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based human gait behaviour recognition taking lower limb joint angles and body angle as input was proposed. The proposed HMM based gait behaviour recognition is compared with the Nearest Neighbour (NN) classification methods. Experimental results showed that a human gait behaviour recognition using HMM can be achieved from the lower limb joint trajectory with higher accuracy than compared classification methods.

Originality/value

The research addresses human motion tracking and recognition by a mobile robot. Human gait behaviour recognition is HMM based lower limb joints and body angle data from extracted from kinect sensor at the mobile robot.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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