To look at the role of local decision-making and control in the face of a trend towards unified national and transnational disaster protocols. To look at the implications…
To look at the role of local decision-making and control in the face of a trend towards unified national and transnational disaster protocols. To look at the implications of a shifting rhetoric – from sustainability to resilience – for this issue.
This chapter draws upon the author’s case studies of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in New York City and Hurricane Sandy (2013) in New York City, as well as studies of Hurricane Katrina (2006) in New Orleans, to discuss governance issues.
Empirical studies confirm the importance of locally based decision-making and control. There are tensions between national disaster protocols and local decision-making; urban governance matters given differences in political culture, leadership, and community participation.
We need a resilient social infrastructure as well as a resilient physical environment. Strong social institutions are an essential part of this process but communities must be given material, not only symbolic benefits.
Originality/value of chapter
The conclusion that the threat of natural disasters requires more rather than less autonomy in decision-making for the locality.
Furthermore, that the shift in objectives, from sustainability to resilience (mandating redundancy and sophisticated data retrieval) requires what we might call a more empowered city.
This case study suggests that tourism as a mode of revitalization for Harlem is not just a strategy put forward by the local business community or adopted by the Empowerment Zone, nor is it a new phenomenon. Tourism emerged at a time of economic restructuring; it was shaped by global trends, and it has continuity with an earlier period of internationalization. Now, as in the past, Harlem's chief attraction is its cultural capital, based in part on difference or cultural “otherness“ and mediated by the popular culture and entertainment industries.But unlike the past, Harlem's present attraction is also its aggregate buying power. This interacts synergistically with the developing tourism industry. The the combination of globalization and saturated suburbia, together with the shift from standardized mass markets to flexible specialization and niche marketing—the hallmarks of post-Fordism, signal the penetration of areas bypassed and thus marginalized by corporate capital at an earlier industrial phase. Although this raises the question of wether we are talking about development or tourism, in reality both residents and tourist use facilities such as movies, shopping centers, and retaurants, and the power of tourism derives, in part, from the difficulty of disentangling the two uses.14The question of “whose Harlem” still remains. One hypothesis is that tourism may be a leveling force, helping to rebalance or reverse the type of uneven spatial development that Harlem symbolizes, and leading to a new industrial geography. But local control is clearly limited by the nature of the forces involved. Where local critics may see “conspiracy,” Deborah Wright, former head of the Empowerment Zone, sees capitalism and says: “One of the basic tenets of capitalism is that you can't control it” (Johnson 1998).
In this chapter, we explore the importance of morality in groups. We draw from decades of research from multiple perspectives, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and organizational science, to illustrate the range of ways that morality influences social attitudes and group behavior. After synthesizing the literature, we identify promising directions for business ethics scholars to pursue. We specifically call for greater research on morality at the meso, or group, level of analysis and encourage studies examining the complex relationship between moral emotions and the social environment. We ultimately hope that this work will provide new insights for managing moral behavior in groups and society.
Researchers have called for the synthesis of divergent perspectives and the development of a theoretical model that examines individuals’ donation behavior in charitable…
Researchers have called for the synthesis of divergent perspectives and the development of a theoretical model that examines individuals’ donation behavior in charitable crowdfunding. To fill this research gap, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize the literature pertaining to the determinants of donation behavior in charitable crowdfunding. Then, drawing on the stimulus-organism-response framework, the authors develop and test a model that explains individuals’ intention to donate to charitable crowdfunding.
This paper follows a quantitative research approach. An online survey was distributed to collect data from individuals who had experienced charitable crowdfunding. In total, 205 valid responses were received and analyzed.
First, this study finds that individuals’ empathy and the perceived credibility of a charitable crowdfunding project are key determinants for their intention to donate in charitable crowdfunding. Second, the study finds that website quality, transaction convenience, and project content quality influence both empathy and perceived credibility in different ways. Third, it is noteworthy that initiator reputation is positively related to perceived credibility, while project popularity is positively associated with empathy.
This research advances the knowledge of individual donation behavior in charitable crowdfunding. The model can help researchers understand individuals’ philanthropic behavior by providing empirical explanations of the interplay between technological and project characteristics, emotional and cognitive states, and individuals’ donation behavior. For practitioners, the research suggests appropriate design, launch, and operation strategies to facilitate individuals’ donation behavior in charitable crowdfunding.
This article examines efforts of late nineteenth century educational reformers in Boston, Massachusetts (USA), to meet the pedagogical needs of an industrial age by…
This article examines efforts of late nineteenth century educational reformers in Boston, Massachusetts (USA), to meet the pedagogical needs of an industrial age by balancing manual work and intellectual activity. Led by Swedish educator Gustaf Larsson and Boston philanthropist Pauline Agassiz Shaw, they employed traditional Swedish wood handcrafts (slojd, or ‘sloyd’ in English) to teach theoretical academic subjects and foster individualised learning. The reformers hoped to create, for students in kindergarten through to twelfth grade, a progression of manual work to parallel intellectual activities in the curriculum. That task became difficult as tool work moved from wood to steel, machines replaced hand tools, and artistic handcraft fell victim to efficient production. The school failed to sustain itself following the deaths of Shaw and Larsson. Today sloyd is credited as being a forerunner of technology education as well as an important influence on arts education in the United States.