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Article

Kerry J. Kennedy, Lijuan Joanna Li and Hoi Yu Ng

The recent mobilization of many Hong Kong youth to engage in what are regarded as radical political activities is not a new area of investigation. Much has been discussed…

Abstract

Purpose

The recent mobilization of many Hong Kong youth to engage in what are regarded as radical political activities is not a new area of investigation. Much has been discussed about this growing political activism and localism often giving an impression that Hong Kong youth are radical and disengaged from China as a nation. Yet little is known about the possible antecedents of such disengagement. The purpose of this paper is to identify whether there is empirical evidence of growth or decline in civic trust and national attitudes amongst Hong Kong young adolescents over the ten-year period from 1999 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study latent profile analyses were used to classify cohorts of Hong Kong secondary students according to the levels of their self-reported trust in civic institutions and attitudes toward the nation. The cohorts were separated by a ten-year gap. Comparisons were made across groups and across the ten-year time span, in order to trace changes in civic attitudes of young adolescents following the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997.

Findings

Three distinct groups were identified in both cohorts – Activists, who had negative attitudes to trust and toward the nation, Nationalists who had positive attitudes toward trust and the nation and Moderates who endorsed average responses to the, two variables. The gaps between the groups tended to be greater in the 2009 group compared to the 1999 groups suggesting greater polarization amongst adolescents on these measures.

Originality/value

Young adolescents cannot be assumed to be politically neutral or lacking social values. Citizenship education needs to take this into account so that values can be clarified and major issues can be discussed in a safe and supportive environment.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article

Lijuan Li, Magdalena Mo Ching Mok and Weidong Wu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the writing development of Hong Kong kindergarten students over 12 months. They attended 18 kindergartens territory-wide and were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the writing development of Hong Kong kindergarten students over 12 months. They attended 18 kindergartens territory-wide and were followed from June 2002 to June 2003 for the collection of three waves of teacher-rated data at six-month intervals.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the construct validity of the translated and culturally adapted version of Morrow’s (2012) checklist which assesses writing development was confirmed, considering that the students attended Hong Kong kindergartens who wrote in the Chinese language. The multilevel analysis, which employed corrected measures captured through Wolfe and Chiu’s (1999a, 1999b) five-step Rasch scaling method for a common frame of reference, estimated the effects of the factors, namely, student age, gender, class level and schools.

Findings

The children’s progress over the second six months was also apparently much smaller than the first SIX months for this cohort. The dramatic slow-down in the second six-month period for both cohorts might be partly attributed to the peculiar arrangement of schooling at that time.

Research limitations/implications

The recommendation from this study is that random sampling and student test scores on writing need to be taken for the identification of the general trend of young children’s writing development in Hong Kong, as well as other Chinese communities alike.

Originality/value

The profile of the student’s emergent writing development at each six-month follow-up and over the 12 months was explored. Differences between the groups based on age, gender, class level and school in terms of student writing development on average were statistically significant.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article

Lijuan Li, Philip Hallinger and James Ko

Over the past decade, studies of school leadership effects have increasingly aimed at identifying and validating the paths through which principal leadership impacts key…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, studies of school leadership effects have increasingly aimed at identifying and validating the paths through which principal leadership impacts key teaching and learning processes in schools. A recent meta-analysis by Robinson and colleagues identified principal practices that shape teacher professional development experiences in schools as the highest impact path used by instructional leaders. The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between principal leadership, dimensions of school capacity, and teacher professional learning in 32 Hong Kong primary schools.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a cross-sectional research design and quantitative methods to analyze teacher perceptions of principal leadership and key school conditions. The research employed hierarchical linear regression analysis to explore survey data collected from a sample of 970 teachers. The surveys covered a range of principal leadership and school capacity dimensions, as well as a measure of teacher professional learning.

Findings

Results indicated that multiple dimensions of principal leadership made significant contributions to both school capacity and teacher professional learning. The presence of cooperation, trust, communication, support for students, and alignment, coherence, and structure in schools also affected teacher professional learning.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the global discourse on leadership for learning. The study addresses the need established by multiple scholars (e.g. Leithwood, Hallinger, Heck, Robinson, Witziers) for research that further illuminates “paths” and “intermediate targets” through which leadership impacts teaching and learning. The findings elaborate on the means by which leadership can enhance school capacities that directly impact teacher classroom practice and student learning. Consistent with other scholarly research (e.g. Bryk and Schneider, Louis and colleagues, Sahphier and King) the findings also point toward the importance of establishing selected workplace conditions (e.g. trust, cooperation, communication) as a foundation for fostering teacher professional learning.

Practical implications

The study reinforces the finding from other studies that it is productive for principals to foster an environment aimed at enhancing teacher professionalism. The study also highlights the potentially dysfunctional consequences that can arise from competing system-level initiatives aimed at increasing monitoring and teacher accountability and fostering teacher professionalism.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a small but growing body of leadership effects research conducted in non-Western societies. As such the study offers insights with relevance for understanding leadership processes in other Asian and non-Western cultures.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article

Lijuan Li , Kerry John Kennedy and Magdalena Mo Ching Mok

The purpose of this paper is to establish and compare multilevel models that significantly predict school effects on adding value to their students regarding English…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish and compare multilevel models that significantly predict school effects on adding value to their students regarding English reading from Secondary One to Secondary Six.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 3,993 students within 66 schools in 2006 by the Educational Bureau of Hong Kong.

Findings

When entering Secondary One, the students’ English reading ability was tested then again at Secondary Six. A range of value-added models were fitted to the data. The comparison across these models suggests that student individual scores at intake are the most powerful indicators of value-added. The intake aptitude test scores, aggregated to school level, and gender made no significant difference. At the individual level, student band was the significant predictor. School level effects were largely non-significant. Specific findings on value-added across the schools are visualized as evidence of the parsimony of the selected model.

Research limitations/implications

Secondary data such as this while collected at one point in time nevertheless can still shed light on current policies and practices. It is particularly the case considering that the value-added effects system is still working in Hong Kong over decades but less examined academically.

Originality/value

This study has produced some insights for stakeholders to identify influences on the value-added patterns.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article

C. Swami, S. Saini and V.B. Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and kinetics along with diffusion properties of a new source of natural dye obtained from leaves and fine stems of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and kinetics along with diffusion properties of a new source of natural dye obtained from leaves and fine stems of the Sesbania aculeata plant, using metallic mordants for cotton dyeing.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach followed in this work is to conduct experiments with the application of the natural dye obtained from Sesbania aculeata plant and to study the kinetics, dye uptake and the diffusion properties of this dye.

Findings

Sesbania aculeata with simultaneous mordanting with different metal mordants imparted shades which varied from cream to light brown to dark brown in case of aqueous extract. The different mordants used not only changed the hue colour and K/S values but also L* and brightness index values. The results of fastness properties of the dyes were found to vary from fair to good. The percentage dye exhaustion values varied with different mordants. The dye uptake value increased with time and reached its saturation limit after 4 hours of dyeing. In the absence of mordants, the diffusion coefficient values increased with increase in the temperature. In the presence of mordants, the diffusion process appears to slow down, which could be attributed to the binding effects of mordants.

Research limitations/implications

The extraction and dyeing process of Sesbania aculeata plant is less tedious and time consuming compared to the other sources of natural dyes.

Practical implications

Sesbania aculeata is relatively easier to grow and does not require much tending operations. Thus, it promises to be an affordable source of natural dye. If this dye is commercialised, it will help to generate sustainable employment and income for the farmers in rural and sub-urban areas. This could be both for dyeing and for non-food crop farming.

Originality/value

An advantageous feature of this plant, in contrast to the other natural dyes based on vegetable and fruit sources, is that its usage in making the natural dye does not result in any wastage of an otherwise highly commercial product. The current experimental study on a new source of natural dye would be a significant contribution to the existing database of knowledge regarding the kinetics and diffusion properties of natural dyes. There are several reported studies in the literature pertaining to the application of natural colourants and evaluation of their dyeing properties on various fibers. However, relatively fewer studies exist on the kinetic and exhaustion aspects. Thus, the current study would help to develop a set of predictable settings for application of natural dyes on various textiles.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Fangfang Liu, Jingfan Wang, Lijuan Chen, Ruijun Li, Haojie Xia and Liandong Yu

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) probe for true three-dimensional coordinate measurement, in which a specific mechanical structure with several FBG sensors was developed to provide the probe with sensitivity to loading in all directions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system based on an improved matched filter design and the time division multiplexing technique that helps solve the problem of multiplex FBG-signals conflicts. In addition, the application of the dynamic mode of the probe system effectively solves the problem presented by the surface interaction forces.

Findings

Consequently, this FBG-based vibrating probe system has increased sensitivity to strain, while maintaining smaller contact force. The experiments for testing probe performance show that the prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Research limitations/implications

The force tests in the horizontal directions are difficult to conduct because both the probe and the dynamometer are only adaptable to vertical use.

Practical implications

Development of the FBG-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe will achieve a new and inexpensive method for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures, such as micro-electromechanical systems, micro-fluidic chips, inkjet and diesel engine injector nozzles that are in overall dimensions within the micrometer scale.

Originality/value

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system for the vibrating nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe based on FBG sensors. The prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Zhiyuan Li, Lijuan Zheng, Chengyong Wang, Xin Huang and Jiechi Xie

The flexible printed circuit (FPC) board with the characteristic of light and thin strengthened confronted the growing miniaturization requirements of the electronic…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexible printed circuit (FPC) board with the characteristic of light and thin strengthened confronted the growing miniaturization requirements of the electronic product and the popularity of wearable devices. The reliability of circuit could be influenced by the hole quality of FPC, such as burrs, which is one of the major problem in FPC.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, micro-drill with a diameter of 0.1 mm was used to drill the double-sided flexible copper clad laminate. The thrust force, the burr and tool wear were investigated. The influencing factors of the height of the burrs were studied. The relationship between the thrust force and the height of the burrs was also explored. Finally, the formation mechanism of burrs was analyzed.

Findings

The entrance burrs were usually less than the exit burrs. The burr height increased with the feed per rotation. The height of the burr increased with the increase of the thrust force for the plastic deformation of the copper foil was dominant. The abrasion of the drill gave rise to increase the height of burr. In micro-hole drilling, the growth of burrs can be suppressed effectively by reducing the clearance between the FPC and the backup plate. The thrust force would be controlled in a certain range to reduce the burr with specific drilling parameters. There existed a certain relationship of Gaussian distribution between the height of the burrs and the thrust force of FPC.

Originality/value

The reliability of the integrated circuit was directly affected by the burrs of the FPC. This research on the formation mechanism of FPC burrs and forecast of burr height provided a firm foundation for further work in the area of improvement of the micro-hole quality.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article

Zhenrong Zheng, Wei Zhi, Kezhu Mao, Qian Zhang and Lijuan Luo

The purpose of this paper is to study the ablative behavior of the silicone resin-coated carbon fabric (coated fabric) that will swell significantly during ablation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the ablative behavior of the silicone resin-coated carbon fabric (coated fabric) that will swell significantly during ablation.

Design/methodology/approach

The ablation experiments of three coated fabrics were conducted by quartz lamp radiant. Based on the experimental analysis, a numerical model was proposed for the coated fabrics to study the ablative process in term of the energy balance, mass conservation and thermal decomposition equations.

Findings

Results showed that the average relative errors between the simulated temperatures and experimental values of back surfaces of coated fabric 1, 2 and 3 were 10.01, 7.53 and 7.32%, respectively. The average density of silicone resin of coated fabric 1 was reduced by 47.96%, and the closer the distance from the heated surface was, the more the density decreased. The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of silicone resin of coated fabric 1 increased with time. Before 50 s, each decomposition rate curve showed an inflection point, at which the silicone resin decomposed most intensely.

Research limitations/implications

Based on experimental observations, the ablative behavior of the material with fixed expansion layer was simulated. In the further research, the moving expansion layer could be considered.

Originality/value

This paper provides the theoretical basis to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal protection materials that will swell during ablation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Lijuan Cao, Tianxiang Li, Rongbo Wang and Jing Zhu

The outbreak of the novel COVID-19 virus has spread throughout the world, causing unprecedented disruption to not only China's agricultural trade but also the world's…

Abstract

Purpose

The outbreak of the novel COVID-19 virus has spread throughout the world, causing unprecedented disruption to not only China's agricultural trade but also the world's agricultural trade at large. This paper attempts to provide a preliminary analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on China's agricultural importing and exporting from both short- and long-term perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

This study seeks to analyze how the outbreak of COVID-19 could potentially impact China's agricultural trade. With respect to exports, the authors have pinpointed major disruptive factors arising from the pandemic which have affected China's agricultural exports in both the short and long term; in doing so, we employ scenario analysis which simulates potential long-term effects. With regard to imports, possible impacts of the pandemic regarding the prospects of food availability in the world market are investigated. Using scenario analysis, the authors estimate the potential change in China's food market—especially meat import growth—in light of the implementation of the newly signed Sino-US Economic and Trade Agreement (SUETA).

Findings

The results show that China's agricultural exports have been negatively impacted in the short-term, mostly due to the disruption of the supply chain. In the long term, dampened external demand and potential imposition of non-tariff trade barriers (NTBs) will exert more profound and lasting negative effects on China's agricultural export trade. On the other hand, despite panic buying and embargoing policies from some exporting and importing countries, the world food availability and China's food import demand are still optimistic. The simulation results indicate that China's import of pork products, in light of COVID-19 and the implementation of SUETA, would most likely see a sizable climb in quantity, but a lesser climb in terms of value.

Originality/value

Agricultural trade in China has been a focal-point of attention in recent years, with new challenges slowing exports and increasing dependence on imports for food security. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic adds significant uncertainty to agricultural trade, giving rise to serious concerns regarding its potential impact. By exploring the impact of the unprecedented pandemic on China's agricultural trade, this study should contribute to a better understanding of the still-evolving pandemic and shed light on pertinent policy implications.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article

Zehong Li, Yong Liu, Lijuan Wu, Li Yi, Bo Zhang and Zhaoji Li

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel n‐buried‐PSOI sandwiched radio frequencies (RF) power lateral diffused metal‐oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) and analyze its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel n‐buried‐PSOI sandwiched radio frequencies (RF) power lateral diffused metal‐oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) and analyze its output characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The small‐signal equivalent circuit for RF power LDMOS method is used to analyze the proposed structure and the simulation and optimization are done using the computer‐aided design tools.

Findings

This improved structure is clearly decreasing drain‐substrate parasitic capacitance. At 1 dB compression point, its output power, the power‐added efficiency and the breakdown voltage are higher than that of the conventional LDMOS.

Originality/value

This paper puts forward a novel n‐buried‐PSOI sandwiched structure of RF power LDMOS. The analysis indicates that the output characteristics of this device are a great improvement on the conventional LDMOS and the n‐buried‐PSOI, RF power LDMOS proposed by earlier authors.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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