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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Siddharth Kulkarni, David John Edwards, Craig Chapman, M. Reza Hosseini and De-Graft Owusu-Manu

Road passenger transportation faces a global challenge of reducing environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions because of the vehicle weight increases needed to…

Abstract

Purpose

Road passenger transportation faces a global challenge of reducing environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions because of the vehicle weight increases needed to enhance passenger safety and comfort. This paper aims to present a preliminary mechanical design evaluation of the Wikispeed Car (with a focus on body bending, body torsion and body crash) to assess light-weighting implications and improve the vehicle’s environmental performance without compromising safety.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to examine the Wikispeed chassis for light-weighting opportunities in three key aspects of the vehicle’s design, namely, for body bending the rockers (or longitudinal tubes), for body torsion (again on the rockers but also the chassis as a whole) and for crash safety – on the frontal crash structure. A two-phase approach was adopted, namely, in phase one, a 3D CAD geometry was generated and in phase, two FEA was generated. The combination of analysis results was used to develop the virtual model using FEA tools, and the model was updated based on the correlation process.

Findings

The research revealed that changing the specified material Aluminium Alloy 6061-T651 to Magnesium EN-MB10020 allows vehicle mass to be reduced by an estimated 110 kg, thus producing a concomitant 10 per cent improvement in fuel economy. The initial results imply that the current beam design made from magnesium would perform worst during a crash as the force required to buckle the beam is the lowest (between 95.2 kN and 134 kN). Steel has the largest bandwidth of force required for buckling and also requires the largest force for buckling (between 317 kN and 540 kN).

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to compare and contrast between material substitution and its impact upon Wikispeed car safety and performance.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Da-Wei Zhang and He Yang

The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic loading state in local loading forming process of large-sized complicated rib-web component, which is important for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the basic loading state in local loading forming process of large-sized complicated rib-web component, which is important for understanding process characteristic, controlling metal flow and designing preformed geometry of the local loading forming process. Moreover the analytical models for different loading states are established to quickly predict the metal flow.

Design/methodology/approach

Through analysis of geometric characteristic of large-sized complicated rib-web component and the deformation characteristic on planes of metal flow by local loading method, a representative cross-section is put forward and designed, which could reflect the local loading forming characteristics of large-sized complicated rib-web component. Finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the stress and metal flow, and the analytical models of metal flow are established by using slab method (SM).

Findings

Three local loading states and one whole loading state are found in the local loading forming process of representative cross-section. Further, four loading states also exist in local loading forming process of large-sized complicated rib-web components. With the metal distribution in the process, some local loading states may turn into whole loading state. For the representative cross-section, the relative error of metal distribution between SM and FEM results is less than 15 per cent, and the relative error of metal in the rib cavity between SM and FEM results is less than 10 per cent.

Originality/value

Metal flow can be controlled by adjusting the loading states in the process. According to the metal flow laws in different loading states, a simple unequal-thickness billet can be designed to achieve initial metal distribution, and then, the secondary metal distribution can be achieved in the process.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 87 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1961

DESPITE the fact that the number of new aircraft appearing at Farnborough is an unreliable yard‐stick with which to measure the progress of the British aerospace industry…

Abstract

DESPITE the fact that the number of new aircraft appearing at Farnborough is an unreliable yard‐stick with which to measure the progress of the British aerospace industry, it is nevertheless true that these new aircraft give a valuable indication of emphasis within the industry and as pieces of finished ’hardware' they obviously deserve pride of place in any report on this year's S.B.A.C. Show.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1992

AEM will be exhibiting in Hall 4, Stand G1. The exhibit will illustrate AEM's comprehensive range of accessory repair and overhaul services for electrical, hydraulic…

Abstract

AEM will be exhibiting in Hall 4, Stand G1. The exhibit will illustrate AEM's comprehensive range of accessory repair and overhaul services for electrical, hydraulic, avionic and safety equipment. Farnborough will also be used as the official launch of AEM's Boeing 737 Landing Gear Total Support Pro‐gramme, which encompasses a complete exchange and overhaul service. Copies of Aviation Accessory News will be available on the stand.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 64 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1955

The combination of rigidity, light weight, and thorough stabilization of the skins which is achieved by the use of a honeycomb core in sandwich structural components has…

Abstract

The combination of rigidity, light weight, and thorough stabilization of the skins which is achieved by the use of a honeycomb core in sandwich structural components has made it a popular material, and its use is likely to increase. In the case of metal honey‐comb the main limitations are imposed by the difficulty of achieving a good bond between core and skin. To this end an adaptation of the now familiar Redux process has been announced by Aero Research Ltd., of Duxford, Cambridge, who first introduced the original process in 1942. The new variant involves the same materials as the normal process, but the powder is supplied in film form, in rolls, with a protective covering. In application the film is first consolidated on to the pickled skin sheet by heat and vacuum pressure. No priming of the metal surfaces is needed. Pressure can be applied by a rubber blanket, aluminium foil being used to separate it from the film, to prevent adhesion to the rubber. This operation is carried out at 145 deg. C. for ten minutes. The foil is then stripped off, and liquid Redux 120 applied by brush to the film and the honeycomb core. The liquid is dried for 30–60 minutes at 80 deg. C, and the component assembled. The whole is then cured at 145 deg. C. under vacuum pressure. Curing times vary with the proportions of the component, but are of the order of one hour.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

M. Grujicic, J.S. Snipes, S. Ramaswami, R. Yavari, C.-F. Yen and B.A. Cheeseman

The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of substitution of steel with fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite in military-vehicle hull-floors, and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of substitution of steel with fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composite in military-vehicle hull-floors, and identifies and quantifies the associated main benefits and shortcomings.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is investigated using a combined finite-element/discrete-particle computational analysis. Within this analysis, soil (in which a landmine is buried), gaseous detonation products and air are modeled as assemblies of discrete, interacting particles while the hull-floor is treated as a Lagrangian-type continuum structure. Considerable effort has been invested in deriving the discrete-material properties from the available experimental data. Special attention has been given to the derivation of the contact properties since these, in the cases involving discrete particles, contain a majority of the information pertaining to the constitutive response of the associated materials. The potential ramifications associated with the aforementioned material substitution are investigated under a large number of mine-detonation scenarios involving physically realistic ranges of the landmine mass, its depth of burial in the soil, and the soil-surface/floor-plate distances.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed both the benefits and the shortcomings associated with the examined material substitution, suggesting that they should be properly weighted in each specific case of hull-floor design.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first public-domain report of the findings concerning the complexity of steel substitution with composite-material in military-vehicle hull-floors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Mohammed Fahad and Bavanish B.

Aviation field requires a material with greater tribological characteristics to withstand the critical climate conditions. Hence, it is of paramount importance to enhance…

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Abstract

Purpose

Aviation field requires a material with greater tribological characteristics to withstand the critical climate conditions. Hence, it is of paramount importance to enhance the wear resistance of material. AZ91D magnesium alloy is a light weight material used in the aviation field for the construction work. The purpose of this study is to augment the wear properties of AZ91D alloy by reinforcing with hard particles such as tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon dioxide (SiO2).

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, three types of composites were fabricated, namely, AZ91D – WC, AZ91D – SiO2 and AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) by ball milling method, and the tribological properties were analyzed using pin-on-disc apparatus.

Findings

Results showed that the hardness of AZ91D alloy was greatly improved due to the reinforcing effects of WC and SiO2 particles. Wear study showed that wear rate of AZ91D alloy and its composites increased with the increase of applied load due to ploughing effect and decreased with the increase of sliding speed owing to the formation of lubricating tribolayer. Further, the AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) composite exhibited the lower wear rate of 0.0017 mm3/m and minimum coefficient of friction of 0.33 at a load of 10 N and a sliding speed of 150 mm/s due to the inclusion of hybrid WC and SiO2 particles. Hence, the proposed AZ91D – (WC + SiO2) composite could be a suitable candidate to be used in the aviation applications.

Originality/value

This work is original which deals with the effect of hybrid particles, i.e. WC and SiO2 on the wear performance of the AZ91D magnesium alloy composites. The literature review showed that none of the studies focused on the reinforcement of AZ91D alloy by the combination of carbide and metal oxide particles as used in this investigation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

M. Grujicic, G. Arakere, V. Sellappan, J.C. Ziegert and D. Schmueser

Among various efforts pursued to produce fuel efficient vehicles, light weight engineering (i.e. the use of low‐density structurally‐efficient materials, the application…

Abstract

Among various efforts pursued to produce fuel efficient vehicles, light weight engineering (i.e. the use of low‐density structurally‐efficient materials, the application of advanced manufacturing and joining technologies and the design of highly‐integrated, multi‐functional components/sub‐assemblies) plays a prominent role. In the present work, a multi‐disciplinary design optimization methodology has been presented and subsequently applied to the development of a light composite vehicle door (more specifically, to an inner door panel). The door design has been optimized with respect to its weight while meeting the requirements /constraints pertaining to the structural and NVH performances, crashworthiness, durability and manufacturability. In the optimization procedure, the number and orientation of the composite plies, the local laminate thickness and the shape of different door panel segments (each characterized by a given composite‐lay‐up architecture and uniform ply thicknesses) are used as design variables. The methodology developed in the present work is subsequently used to carry out weight optimization of the front door on Ford Taurus, model year 2001. The emphasis in the present work is placed on highlighting the scientific and engineering issues accompanying multidisciplinary design optimization and less on the outcome of the optimization analysis and the computational resources/architecture needed to support such activity.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

K. Ch Appa Rao, Anil Kumar Birru, Praveen Kumar Bannaravuri and E. Daniel Francis

Nowadays, ample industries are fascinated to look for high strength and light weight materials for the development of robust parts. Because of light weight and high…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, ample industries are fascinated to look for high strength and light weight materials for the development of robust parts. Because of light weight and high stiffness to weight ratio; usage of aluminum parts is growing rapidly, especially in automotive engineering. Process improvement of Al alloys and their grain structure refinement is the current area of interest in casting companies. In this research work, an investigation has been carried out to enhance the process improvement of die casting by optimization of various significant parameters and their refinement of grains by the effect of Nb-C novel grain refiner.

Design/methodology/approach

L27 orthogonal array (OA) has been considered to optimize the preferred casting input parameters such as molten metal temperature (°C), die temperature (°C), injection pressure (bar), Al-3.5Nb-1.5 C novel grain refiner and Ni alloying additions as key process parameters in order to increase the quality and efficiency of Al-9Si-3Cu aluminum alloy die casting by reducing the porosity formation.

Findings

It was observed that the porosity values have significantly decreased from 0.88% to 0.25% particularly at 0.1 wt.% of new grain refiner and 0.5 wt. % of Al-6Ni master alloy. As per the ANOVA results, it was observed that Al-3.5FeNb-1.5 C grain refiner (F value 2609.22), Al-6Ni alloying addition (F value 1329.13), molten metal temperature (F value 1002.43) and, injection pressure (F value 448.06) are the factors that significantly affects the porosity, whereas die temperature was found to be insignificant. The results show that new grain refiner is one the most significant factor among the other selected parameters. The contribution of the new grain refiner to the variation of mean casting porosity is around 57.74%. confidence interval (CI) has also been estimated as 0.013 for 95% consistency level to validate the predicted range of optimum casting porosity of aforesaid alloy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has been conducted in the past to investigate the combined effect of these die casting parameters and composition factors for the development of Al-Si robust cast parts. The paper represents original research and provides new information for the fabrication of die casting parts.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Y. Chen, N. Jiang, L. Sun and I. Negulescu

The process of manufacturing an activated carbon nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated. The study was focused on cotton nonwoven formation, carbonization…

Abstract

The process of manufacturing an activated carbon nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated. The study was focused on cotton nonwoven formation, carbonization, activation, and characterization of the activated carbon nonwoven. Pyrolysis of the cotton carbonization was analyzed using TGA. There was a considerable decrease in weight loss in the region between 250°C to 400°C and the proper carbonized temperature was 400°C. The SEM examination indicated that the surface area of cotton fiber was increased significantly because the inside hollow of cotton fiber was widely opened and some small agglomerated particles were gasified after activation. Absorbability of the activated carbon nonwoven was evaluated using an instrument of inverse gas chromatography. Dispersive surface energy, specific free energy, and total surface energy all indicated this trend: Carbonized Cotton > Activated Cotton > Raw Cotton. The activated carbon nonwoven exhibited the potential for use as high adsorbent and absorbent materials. They are light weight and bulky, advantageous in protective clothing applications and other consumer and industrial applications.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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