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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2004

André A Nougaret, Thomas E Scruggs and Margo A Mastropieri

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research literature on teacher licensure and teacher competence. Since little research is available on teachers of students…

Abstract

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research literature on teacher licensure and teacher competence. Since little research is available on teachers of students with learning and behavioral disabilities, a review of the general education literature is undertaken to provide implications for research in special education. Finally, a review of a recent study of special education teachers is provided. Implications are drawn for both elementary and secondary teachers of students with learning and behavioral disabilities.

Details

Research in Secondary Schools
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-107-1

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Mitchell D. Chester and Raymond L. Pecheone

Aims to present a framework for licensing school principals in theUnited States, specifically the state of Connecticut. Contains threeelements that depart substantially…

87

Abstract

Aims to present a framework for licensing school principals in the United States, specifically the state of Connecticut. Contains three elements that depart substantially from other initiatives to reform preparation and licensure. (1) Pre‐service preparation of principals will focus on the knowledge base for teaching and learning. As currently conceived, it is possible for a candidate to qualify for initial certification without taking formal coursework in educational administration. (2) Study of educational administration will occur during the beginning years of administrative service. (3) Licensure will be performance‐based. Candidates for initial certification will need to demonstrate their knowledge of teaching and learning and their ability to evaluate and supervise teaching. Prior to professional certification, principals will be required to show that they fostered a school culture that focused on teaching and learning and where all students achieved. Begins with discussion of the role of licensing and recent calls for reform of principal preparation and licensure. Following a review of the literature that supports Connecticut′s reform strategy, presents five postulates it is believed will advance the revision of preparation and licensure. Follows a hypothetical candidate from pre‐service through to professional certification to explain how Connecticut′s proposal is implemented. Includes a consideration of licensing in countries other than the United States in the summary.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Thomas G. Calderon and Albert L. Nagy

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the academic research related to the certified public accountant (CPA) exam. Our review identifies several research streams…

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the academic research related to the certified public accountant (CPA) exam. Our review identifies several research streams in this area, including studies that examine the effects of educational requirements and institutional and candidate characteristics on CPA exam success. In addition, we describe the CPA licensure regulatory landscape and show a general trend of lessening educational requirements among the jurisdictions over the past two decades. In the meantime, the governing bodies of CPA licensure are beginning the CPA Evolution project, a project that entails evolving licensure requirements, including the CPA exam, to meet the demands of a constantly changing business environment. We call on the CPA licensure regulators to align their jurisdictions’ educational requirements to best serve the CPA Evolution project. Lastly, we provide suggestions for future research that would assist accounting regulators, academic administrators, and practitioners during this transformative period.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-236-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Margaret Terry Orr, Liz Hollingworth and Barbara Beaudin

The purpose of this paper is to compare two years of results for one state’s performance-based assessments for principal licensure Performance Assessment for Leaders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare two years of results for one state’s performance-based assessments for principal licensure Performance Assessment for Leaders (PAL). This includes the field trial (2014–2015) and first year of statewide implementation (2015–2016) when passing score requirements and fees were added. Survey results on candidates’ career aspirations provide concurrent validation.

Design/methodology/approach

Two years of PAL submissions (n=569 candidates) were scored by trained, certified scorers. Task and total score results were compared by year, preparation pathway and gender. Online feedback survey results on career aspirations for (n=146 candidates) were compared by year.

Findings

The results show that PAL assessments measure independent dimensions of leadership, differentiate candidates on leadership knowledge and skills, and confirm PAL’s internal validity. Implementation year scores were higher than field trial scores, and preparation program candidates scored better than non-program candidates did. Candidate career aspirations were stronger in the implementation year than during the field trial.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to one state’s candidates, but findings are generalizable based on the wide range among candidates’ districts (demographically and economically).

Practical implications

The results are promising for the leadership preparation and assessment field, demonstrating the effectiveness of performance assessment for authentic evaluation of leadership candidates’ knowledge and skill and overall readiness for initial leadership work.

Originality/value

This is the first large scale performance assessment for aspiring leaders designed for state licensure decisions. It is being replicated in another state and shown promise for both formative and summative leadership assessment.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2010

Thomas W. Zane, Janet W. Schnitz and Michael H. Abel

The Western Governors University (WGU) educational model departs from most other postsecondary education models in two principal respects – it operates entirely online and…

Abstract

The Western Governors University (WGU) educational model departs from most other postsecondary education models in two principal respects – it operates entirely online and is competency based. In fewer than 10 years, WGU has built a fully accredited (including National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accreditation) national teachers college offering 30 different programs to an enrollment of nearly 10,000 preservice candidates residing in all 50 states and several foreign countries. This chapter will describe how the WGU model differs from other institutions and how these differences both simplified and complicated the building of the teachers college, the accreditation process, and obtaining licensure for our students in different states.

Details

Tensions in Teacher Preparation: Accountability, Assessment, and Accreditation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-100-9

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Frank Perrone, Mary F. Rice, Erin A. Anderson and Sajjid Budhwani

Principal preparation program pedagogy and course delivery are critical to principal candidates' preparedness to lead. Research around online program delivery, however, is…

Abstract

Purpose

Principal preparation program pedagogy and course delivery are critical to principal candidates' preparedness to lead. Research around online program delivery, however, is relatively sparse. This study examined the extent to which university-based educational leadership programs offered fully online (FOL) pathways to the principalship, as well as program geographic locations and institutional characteristics most associated with FOL offerings.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through website reviews and coding checks, and then merged with national postsecondary data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, classification tree analysis, and geographic information system (GIS) mapping.

Findings

Roughly 43 percent of all reviewed programs offered an FOL pathway to licensure, which suggests substantial growth in FOL offerings over the last 10 years. While a number of factors were deemed important, geographic characteristics were most associated with FOL status. GIS mapping further illustrated findings with a visual landscape of program FOL offerings.

Research limitations/implications

This study considered only programs for which degrees or certificates could be earned without ever visiting campus in-person for classes. Hybrid programs were excluded from the analysis.

Practical implications

Findings make a clear call for more research into online principal preparation program design and course delivery.

Originality/value

This study provides the first overview of fully online university-based principal preparation programs in the United States while also offering a previously unavailable landscape of all programs specifically leading to licensure. It is also the only higher education study to map or investigate factors associated with FOL offerings and raises questions about prior FOL higher education research.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2000

Elizabeth Furlong and Marlene Wilken

Changes in the health care system are threatening the independence and professionalism of health care providers. One such proposed policy change related to professional…

Abstract

Changes in the health care system are threatening the independence and professionalism of health care providers. One such proposed policy change related to professional licensure is creating a specific challenge for the nursing profession. This article examines how the licensure challenge affects aspects of autonomy, independence, and integrity of the nursing profession with special emphasis on one group of nurses—that of nurse practitioners. The impact of the PEW Commission's study is analyzed as well as the concern for potential loss of individual licensure for nurses. Nursing groups have responded to the PEW Commission study to prevent such deregulation of the nursing profession.

Details

Health Care Providers, Institutions, and Patients: Changing Patterns of Care Provision and Care Delivery
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-644-2

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Norman W. Baylor

Before vaccines are marketed and used, they must be evaluated and approved by a national regulatory authority (NRA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the NRA in…

Abstract

Purpose

Before vaccines are marketed and used, they must be evaluated and approved by a national regulatory authority (NRA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the NRA in the USA responsible for overseeing and regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of vaccines. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Expert review.

Findings

Developed countries have established governmental regulatory agencies to review and determine the safety and effectiveness of vaccines to ensure that the manufacture, sale, and use of vaccines are adequately regulated. However, even today, many developing countries do not have established NRAs. Furthermore, despite similarities, there are still substantial differences in how regulatory authorities in different countries perform minimum functions required for effective regulation of pharmaceutical products, including vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO), although not a governmental NRA, uses a consultative approach involving its Expert Committee on Biological Standardization and Biologicals Unit to develop regulatory criteria and identify and consolidate current consensus opinions on key regulatory issues. It is through this approach that WHO informs NRAs on the necessary scientific background required to assess and advise on optimal regulatory approaches and methodologies. This paper will focus on the evolution of the US FDA and its role in regulation of vaccines to illustrate the function of a vaccine NRA.

Originality/value

Vaccines are an important resource for protecting people and communities from the mortality and morbidity associated with many infectious diseases. The assessment, licensure, control and surveillance of vaccines are the responsibilities of government regulatory authorities.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Tara Ramanathan

The purpose of this paper is to inform healthcare providers and healthcare facility leadership about the statutory, administrative, criminal, and tort law implications…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inform healthcare providers and healthcare facility leadership about the statutory, administrative, criminal, and tort law implications related to preventable harms from unsafe injection practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of legal theory and precedents.

Findings

The law can address disputes over unsafe injection practices in a variety of ways. Administrative agencies may hold a provider or facility responsible for preventable harms according to specific statutory and regulatory provisions governing licensure. State courts can compensate victims of certain actions or inactions based on tort law, where a breach of a legal duty caused damages. Prosecutors and the public can turn to criminal law to punish defendants and deter future actions that result in disability or death.

Research limitations/implications

The state law findings in this review are limited to legal provisions and court cases that are available on searchable databases. Due to the nature of this topic, many cases are settled out of court, and those records are sealed from the public and not available for review.

Practical implications

Preventable harm continues to occur from unsafe injection practices. These practices pose a significant risk of disease or even death for patients and could result in legal repercussions for healthcare providers and facility leadership.

Originality/value

This article reviews emerging law and potential legal implications for health care and public health related to unsafe medical practices related to needle, syringe, and vial use.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Angela K. Shen, Alice Y. Tsai and Guthrie S. Birkhead

The purpose of this paper is to outline the organization and governance of the US vaccine and immunization enterprise. It describes the major components of the US system…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the organization and governance of the US vaccine and immunization enterprise. It describes the major components of the US system including the various relationships between major federal government entities, stakeholders, and advisory committees that inform government policymaking at various points in the system.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors describe the complex interdependent network of partners that engage in a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, research, vaccine development, regulatory licensure, practice recommendations, financing, service delivery, communications, and post-licensure monitoring.

Findings

The US system of governance is highly participatory and focuses on a transparent and open engagement, with input from a wide range of partners to inform decision-making. This collaborative framework allows many inputs to be heard and helps support the US vaccine and immunization system as it evolves to meet the continued public health needs in the USA through the optimal use of safe and effective vaccines.

Originality/value

This is an invited article on the US vaccine and immunization enterprise. The development and availability of vaccines in the USA has had profound impact on mortality and morbidity and public health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The success of this enterprise is a result of a blended public and private sector system with partnerships at the federal, state, and local levels of government to optimize the use of safe and effective vaccines. Governance structures have been established to support the interaction and decision-making among the federal and non-federal actors toward the common goal of controlling and preventing infectious diseases.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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