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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

MICHAEL P. BENNETT and JEFFREY KOSC

This is a primer on software licensing, which is a pressing issue for industry practitioners who are confronted with many agreements involving trading systems. This…

Abstract

This is a primer on software licensing, which is a pressing issue for industry practitioners who are confronted with many agreements involving trading systems. This article deals with the practical “how‐tos” for licensing as well as with certain intellectual property concerns.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Marshall S. Jiang and Bulent Menguc

The purpose of this paper is to study brand embedded licensing (technology licensing and brand licensing combined) and its theoretical difference from standard licensing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study brand embedded licensing (technology licensing and brand licensing combined) and its theoretical difference from standard licensing (technology licensing only). The following research questions are asked: What makes embedded licensing theoretically different from standard licensing, and what determines a licensor's decision to select brand embedded licensing over standard licensing?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares brand embedded licensing to standard licensing and argues that brand embedded licensing is a quasi‐hierarchical organizational structure, while standard licensing is a market‐based structure. Brand embeddedness in licensing serves as a credible commitment from the licensor and induces the licensee to invest sufficiently in complementary assets. Drawing on the transaction cost perspective, the determinants of embedded licensing are examined.

Findings

Embedded licensing is determined by both the licensee's characteristics and the licensor's brand characteristics. The licensor is more likely to utilize embedded licensing or the licensee is more willing to demand embedded licensing when: the licensee's specific complementary investment is high; the licensee's complementary capacity is high; the market entry is at a late stage; the licensor uses separate branding; the extent of product differentiation is high; and the stage of brand globalization is advanced. A strong intellectual property rights regime and a fast pace of technology change enhance the effects of these six determining factors on the licensor's selection of embedded licensing.

Originality/value

This paper challenges the classical view that licensing is a market‐based relationship by revealing that embedded licensing is a quasi‐hierarchical organizational structure.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Pete Canalichio

Abstract

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Expand, Grow, Thrive
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-782-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Newt Fowler

Here's a guide to valuing, pricing, and negotiating payment arrangements for software—whether you're the licensor or licensee.

Abstract

Here's a guide to valuing, pricing, and negotiating payment arrangements for software—whether you're the licensor or licensee.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

A.W. Elias

The challenges of technological developments in information distribution and management are traced through their relationships with concepts of ownership. A historical…

Abstract

The challenges of technological developments in information distribution and management are traced through their relationships with concepts of ownership. A historical overview of the copyright concept forms the background for a detailed analysis of the licensing elements used for protection. Finally, the current gateway explosion is examined in these contexts.

Details

Online Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

A.F. Millman

“Know‐how is a sleeping asset — it lies hidden in people's heads, their desk drawers and filing cabinets — a potential source of income waiting to be packaged.” “Licensing…

Abstract

“Know‐how is a sleeping asset — it lies hidden in people's heads, their desk drawers and filing cabinets — a potential source of income waiting to be packaged.” “Licensing know‐how effectively means selling your birthright and setting up future competitors.”

Details

Management Decision, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Harun Emre Yildiz

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality-performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and curvilinear…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality-performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and curvilinear relationships have been theorized and confirmed empirically. This study aims to reconcile earlier mixed findings by incorporating the role of entry mode choice as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Extensive literature survey is conducted in order to provide an explanation for the different performance patterns of internationalization via licensing, joint venture and wholly owned subsidiary.

Findings

Based on the assumptions of Transaction Cost Economics and Organizational Capability perspectives, several research propositions about the multinationality-performance relationship are formulated, which provide a more fine-tuned approach to the performance implications of multinationality.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to multinationality-performance debate by showing that the impact of multinationality depends on the firm-level strategies implemented while going international; to be more precise, the net benefits from multinationality are likely to vary for different modes of foreign market entry.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Ashish Arora, Andrea Fosfuri and Alfonso Gambardella

Firms have typically tried to profit from their technical innovations by selling them indirectly, embedded in goods and services. Markets for technology, in which…

Abstract

Firms have typically tried to profit from their technical innovations by selling them indirectly, embedded in goods and services. Markets for technology, in which innovations are sold or licensed, have been much rarer. Yet, trade in technology has grown systematically over the past 20 years, as reflected in the growth of arrangements such as licensing agreements, R&D joint ventures, and contract R&D. Recent estimates indicate that royalties received by American corporations for industrial processes may amount to about a quarter of total U.S. R&D. A number of supporting institutions that facilitate effective dissemination of information, standardization, and contracting are vital to the rise and functioning of markets for technology. Intellectual property rights, and in particular patents, are one such institution. The main objectives of this survey are to review critically the literature on the relationship between trade in technology and patent protection, and to assess the contribution of stricter and better-defined patent protection to the emergence of technology markets. We start our survey by providing a tentative taxonomy of markets for technology and some recent evidence on their extent and evolution. We then explore several reasons why firms would be willing to act as suppliers in the market for technology. The core of the survey revolves around the idea that patents facilitate the development of markets for technology in several ways: They enhance the ability of the licensor to extract rents from its innovation; they reduce costs in technology trade by forcing an increased codification of knowledge; they reduce information asymmetries, opportunistic behaviors, and transaction costs. However, the literature also points to some potential costs of stronger patents, including litigation costs and the problem of “anti-commons.” Finally, we explore the implications of patents and markets for technology for entry, competition and industry dynamics.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

YoungJun Kim

– This paper aims to study the validity of potential factors that might affect US information and communication technology (ICT) holders' choice of foreign licensing partners.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the validity of potential factors that might affect US information and communication technology (ICT) holders' choice of foreign licensing partners.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focuses on ICT industry. The sample firms for this study are drawn from the SDC by Thomson Financial and this sample was used to construct a data in which a unit of observation is the unique US licensor – foreign licensee pair, or a dyad. The hypotheses are tested using the random-effects logit model.

Findings

The important explanatory factors relate to the knowledge appropriability and the level of economics freedom of a licensee's country, and familiarity between partners through prior licensing agreements. Market similarity between partners, however, appears to be an insignificant factor.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that transaction cost, competition, and national absorb capacity considerations weigh in heavily in explaining firms' choice of foreign licensing partners.

Originality/value

The paper makes an important contribution to licensing literature as the understanding of what drives partner choice is still sparse. Especially, the paper makes a uniqueness of dealing with international technology licensing.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 113 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Kwaku Atuahene‐Gima

Investigates the relative effects of organizational and managerialfactors on the firm′s propensity to acquire new technology throughlicensing from foreign non‐affiliated…

Abstract

Investigates the relative effects of organizational and managerial factors on the firm′s propensity to acquire new technology through licensing from foreign non‐affiliated companies. Aims to contribute to the literature on the role of international licensing in the firm′s technology strategy by examining both licensee and non‐licensee firms. Finds that the two sets of factors make different but complementary contributions to the firm′s propensity to licence‐in foreign technology, with the managerial factors having far greater impact than the organizational factors. In addition, the individual factors have significantly different effects on the propensity to adopt licensing by licensee and non‐licensee firms in the sample. The results suggest that international licensors who look at both sets of factors in screening and selecting prospective licensees are more likely to be successful than those who look at one set of factors alone.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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