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Article

Stuart Kirby and Laura Hewitt

A number of studies relating to the impact of the Licensing Act 2003 have been described as either inconclusive or lacking implementation detail. This study, five years…

Abstract

A number of studies relating to the impact of the Licensing Act 2003 have been described as either inconclusive or lacking implementation detail. This study, five years after the introduction of the Act, adds to this body of research by assessing the implications for Preston, England's newest city. Through interviews with police officers, licence holders and paramedics, it concentrates on how the Act was implemented and outlines the changes that have occurred. In essence, it shows how consumers are more likely to ‘pre‐load’ prior to leaving home, how drinking and associated crime patterns have been extended into the early hours of the morning, and how incidents of alcohol‐related crime have reduced.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article

Rick Brown and Emily Evans

This study examines changes to the night‐time economy of Hartlepool in the north east of England following the introduction of the Licensing Act 2003. It shows that later…

Abstract

This study examines changes to the night‐time economy of Hartlepool in the north east of England following the introduction of the Licensing Act 2003. It shows that later opening hours led to later drinking, which in turn led to later violence, criminal damage and antisocial behaviour. Over the period examined, violence against the person fell by 14% in the town centre between the hours of 8pm and 4.59am, while criminal damage fell by 15% and antisocial behaviour increased by 4%. Extending the licensing hours would appear to have contributed to a more moderate (4%) reduction in violence against the person, resulting from a reduction in violence between midnight and 1.59am (the previous closing time) and a smaller increase between 2am and 4.59am. Using the same approach, criminal damage and antisocial behaviour saw small net increases over the same period. Both licensees and partner agencies perceived that changes were detrimental to the town centre. Existing powers at the time of the research appeared to be insufficient to address these problems, which affected the whole of the night‐time economy area rather than individual premises. However, new proposals for extended early morning restriction orders would allow local authorities to revert to the opening hours in place prior to the Licensing Act 2003.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article

Andrew Newton

This paper will reflect on the impact of the Licensing Act 2003 (LA03). It will focus primarily on how the LA03 has been introduced to, and has influenced, the night‐time…

Abstract

This paper will reflect on the impact of the Licensing Act 2003 (LA03). It will focus primarily on how the LA03 has been introduced to, and has influenced, the night‐time economy (NTE). More specifically, it will examine the impact of the LA03 on alcohol‐related crime, disorder and harm to health, within an urban context. It will review the evidence base for the impact of the LA03, suggesting reasons why the UK experience of extended trading hours is not consistent with international evidence. It will examine the mixed findings from evaluations as to its success/failures/limited influence, and discuss its impact on a number of organisations involved in the promotion and safety of the NTE. It will highlight the continued struggles encountered within the NTE, between the promotion of an enjoyable and profitable NTE, and those who have responsibility for maintaining a safe NTE environment. It will also discuss potential extraneous factors that have superseded the LA03, before concluding by offering and discussing some possible avenues for future direction.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article

Linda Somerville, Betsy Thom and Rachel Herring

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of Public Health in licensing following The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act of 2011, which added ‘health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of Public Health in licensing following The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act of 2011, which added ‘health bodies’ as responsible authorities in licensing; in practice, Directors of Public Health undertook this role in England. Despite this legislation facilitating the inclusion of public health in partnerships around licensing, wide variations in involvement levels by public health professionals persist.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the findings from interviews that explored the experiences of public health professionals engaging with local established partnerships around alcohol licensing. Qualitative data were collected through 21 interviews in a purposeful sample of London boroughs. These data were combined with analyses of relevant area documentation and observations of 14 licensing sub-committee meetings in one London borough over a seven-month period. Thematic analysis of all data sources was conducted to identify emerging themes.

Findings

This study highlighted the importance of successful navigation of the “contested space” (Hunter and Perkins, 2014) surrounding both public health practice and licensing partnerships. In some instances, contested spaces were successfully negotiated and public health departments achieved an increased level of participation within the partnership. Ultimately, improvements in engagement levels of public health teams within licensing could be achieved.

Originality/value

The paper explores a neglected aspect of research around partnership working and highlights the issues arising when a new partner attempts to enter an existing partnership.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article

J.D. Pratten and C.J. Lovatt

The purpose of this paper is to study some of the business and legal problems experienced by the licensed trade and to explore the need for greater control for entry to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study some of the business and legal problems experienced by the licensed trade and to explore the need for greater control for entry to the industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken has been to use an overview of the function of professional and trade bodies together with a detailed analysis relevant to the licensed trade.

Findings

The findings are that the dangers of anti‐social behaviour resulting from alcohol consumption, coupled with the activities of some licensees, suggest that a more professional group of licensees could benefit employees and consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by being desk‐based.

Originality/value

The extra demands to gain a licence could be unpopular but, if the proposals led to fewer examples of business failure, a greater proficiency in dealing with customers and a greater awareness of the dangers of alcohol, then it would be of real benefit to the public. Is a Licence to Trade the way forward?

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article

Howard Day and Rupert Kelton

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and methodology applied to the rental valuation of wet led (i.e. pub or bar) retail leisure outlets. The paper does…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and methodology applied to the rental valuation of wet led (i.e. pub or bar) retail leisure outlets. The paper does not cover the valuation of other leisure property (e.g. restaurants, hotels).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opens with a brief outline of the factors and legislative changes which have shaped the public house market over the past 15 years. This is followed by a explanation of the rental valuation methods in use in the pub and bar sector and examination of the impact of some current issues – in particular the impact of the full implementation of the Licensing Act 2003 along with other legislative and regulatory changes. Finally the paper comments on some of the issues relevant to freehold investment purchases of public houses and bars.

Findings

As a consequence of the nature of the industry, profits based valuations continue to dominate the market and this raises difficult questions of method and interpretation particularly, as the market is further complicated by legislative and regulatory changes introducing greater uncertainty. With regard to public house and bar freehold investment changes in the structure of the market have had a significant impact on perceptions of the investment quality of the leisure sector with consequences both for flows of capital and the structure of yields in the market place.

Practical implications

Valuers need to be aware that freehold investment values in this sector have potentially peaked and that investment decisions in the sector should be based upon sustainable rent.

Originality/value

The paper is of use to all valuers in this niche market and provides a practical understanding of the profits test method of valuation from which a sustainable rent may be derived.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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Article

Philip Hubbard

This paper aims to explore how municipal law, in its various guises, serves to police the boundaries of acceptable sexual conduct by considering how Sexual Entertainment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how municipal law, in its various guises, serves to police the boundaries of acceptable sexual conduct by considering how Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) in British cities are controlled through diverse techniques of licensing and planning control.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the emergence of permissive new licensing controls that provide local authorities considerable control over SEVs. Licensing decisions, judicial review cases and planning inspectorate adjudications since the inception of the new powers are examined to explore the logic of judgements preventing SEVs operating in specific localities.

Findings

Through analysis of case studies, it is shown that local authorities have almost total discretion to prevent SEVs operating in specific localities, particularly those undergoing, or anticipated to be undergoing, redevelopment and regeneration.

Originality/value

This paper offers unique insights on the “scope” of municipal law by highlighting how land uses associated with “sexual minority” interests are regulated in the interests of urban regeneration, redevelopment and restructuring.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Article

John Douglas Pratten and Christopher John Lovatt

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the need for the creation of a professional body whose membership would be essential for those wishing to hold a licence for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the need for the creation of a professional body whose membership would be essential for those wishing to hold a licence for the retailing of alcohol in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The Home Office and similar sources are employed to establish the problems of alcohol abuse. Trade information is utilised to consider the attitude of various stakeholders to this issue. Ethical texts examine expected responses from the sector. From these authoritative sources a solution has been proposed.

Findings

The results led to the proposal that the establishment of a compulsory professional body be considered.

Research limitations/implications

There is a lack of empirical research to investigate the proposal. This would be necessary to progress the idea.

Practical implications

The proposal for a professional body whose membership would be compulsory for a licence‐holder would be the subject of a major policy debate.

Originality/value

This embryonic proposal is original and would be of interest to all stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Fiona Measham

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent changes in young people's consumption of alcohol in Britain before then charting emerging academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent changes in young people's consumption of alcohol in Britain before then charting emerging academic perspectives and some of the recent regulatory and legislative changes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of a selective narrative review of young people's alcohol consumption in the last ten years through an analysis of key British and European secondary schools surveys, alongside select qualitative studies of relevance.

Findings

There has been increased heavy drinking per session by some young people in the UK from the early 1990s, with a perceived growing public tolerance of drunkenness by many more. In recent years there is evidence that this heavy sessional consumption by youth and young adults is starting to level off. However, there are also growing numbers of occasional drinkers and abstainers, suggesting a polarisation of drinking patterns amongst young people since 2000.

Originality/value

Early indications that alcohol consumption has levelled off by youth, as well as young adults, since the turn of the century suggests that some of the most highly publicised excesses of 1990s alcohol‐frenzied leisure may have run their course. Possible reasons for both the 1990s increase and the 2000s levelling‐off are explored, including shifts in reporting patterns and tastes, interventions to address underage drinking and binge drinking, alongside broader legislative, socio‐economic and cultural changes in the drinks industry, the night time economy and the regulation and policing of public space.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article

Virginia Berridge

Society and government policy currently demonstrate contradictory tendencies in relation to alcohol. Government policy promotes longer opening hours, but also more…

Abstract

Society and government policy currently demonstrate contradictory tendencies in relation to alcohol. Government policy promotes longer opening hours, but also more stringent control of public drinking through ASBOs and alcohol dispersal zones. Young people favour heavy drinking and the ‘night time economy’, while older generations oppose the extension of pub opening hours. The media debates rationing treatment for those with self‐inflicted disease, but portrays national mourning at George Best's death. In an attempt to learn from the efforts of the past, Virginia Berridge uncovers the strikingly familiar world of temperance and ponders whether we are perhaps at a ‘tipping point’ in culture in relation to alcohol?

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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