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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Edith Mukudi Omwami

Issues of women’s education and empowerment of women have been incorporated in the framing of the role of women in international development from the 1970s, primarily as a…

Abstract

Issues of women’s education and empowerment of women have been incorporated in the framing of the role of women in international development from the 1970s, primarily as a response to the liberal feminist movement agenda of the time. This analysis examines the degree to which liberal feminism and liberal feminist theory is reflected in comparative education scholarship in the lead up to and beyond the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The analysis first explores the underpinnings of liberal feminism, which constitutes the ideal embedded in development education for girls and women. It follows up with a reflection on the literature in the field of comparative education that reference liberal feminism framework and feminist theory in exploring educational issues and ways in which the theory is located in the research. Illustration of examples that demonstrate the limits of liberal feminism as a theoretical framework and barriers to the use of liberal feminist theory as an ideological guide are captured in the findings. The search is limited to the six dominant scholarly outlets in the field of comparative education; namely Comparative Education Review (CER), Comparative Education (CE), Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education (Compare), Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Prospects), International Review of Education (IRE), and the International Journal of Educational Development (IJED). Only works that explicitly mention liberal feminism/liberal feminist perspectives are included in the analysis. This research contributes to the acknowledgement of the liberal feminist theory in development education and for the field of comparative education. It will also help with understanding the politics of ideology and representation in scholarship and development interventions.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2016

Stacy J. Williams

This study examines liberal second-wave feminists’ writings about cooking. Most scholarship of liberal feminism has focused on the attempts to integrate women into…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines liberal second-wave feminists’ writings about cooking. Most scholarship of liberal feminism has focused on the attempts to integrate women into previously male-dominated public spaces such as higher education, the professions, and political office. Less attention has been paid to how these feminists politicized feminized spaces such as the home. A longstanding tension between the housewife role and feminist identities has led many to theorize that feminists avoid or resent domestic tasks. However, I argue that some liberal feminists in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s suggested engaging with cooking in subversive ways that challenged patriarchal institutions and supported their political goals.

Methodology/approach

I analyze 148 articles about cooking in Ms. magazine between 1972 and 1985. I also analyze the copy and recipes within four community cookbooks published by liberal feminist organizations.

Findings

I find that liberal feminists suggested utilizing time- and labor-saving cooking methods, encouraged men to cook, and proposed that women make money from cooking. These three techniques challenged the traditional division of domestic labor, supported women’s involvement in the paid workplace, and increased women’s control of economic resources.

Originality/value

This study turns the opposition between feminism and feminized tasks on its head, showing that rather than avoiding cooking, some liberal feminists proposed ways of cooking that challenged patriarchal institutions. I show how subordinate populations can develop ways of subversively engaging with tasks that are typically seen as oppressive, using them in an attempt to advance their social position.

Details

Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-054-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Elaine Swan

The purpose of this paper is to look back since the first edition of what was then Women in Management Review as a way of looking forward to suggest a future potential.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look back since the first edition of what was then Women in Management Review as a way of looking forward to suggest a future potential.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on some historical work on issues central to the literature and practices associated with women/gender in management. It also draws on feminist theories to outline what the author calls “testings” – theoretical, conceptual and activist challenges – to some of that early thinking.

Findings

The paper emphasises the importance of differentiating women in order to understand the complexity of inequalities, and white middle class women's part in reproducing inequality. In addition, the different theoretical turns have emphasised the multiple and intersecting sources of discrimination – economic, cultural, psychosocial, social, linguistic and ideological.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into gender in management, histories and futures.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Birgitta Sköld and Malin Tillmar

The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of…

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1796

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results.

Design/methodology/approach

We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification.

Findings

The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied.

Practical implications

The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring.

Originality/value

This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Judy Chang

Women who use drugs are one of the most maligned, misunderstood and maltreated groups in contemporary culture and society. Despite this, little public outcry nor empathy…

Abstract

Women who use drugs are one of the most maligned, misunderstood and maltreated groups in contemporary culture and society. Despite this, little public outcry nor empathy is given. As a woman who uses drugs, the author examines what lies behind this neglect. A post-structuralist approach is taken in order to examine the categories of meaning assigned to bodies under the twin ruling structures of prohibition and patriarchy. This is done with the intent to better understand and challenge the process of (masculinist) knowledge-making and practices surrounding women who use drugs that treats us as mere objects of knowledge. Furthermore, this chapter draws from feminist auto-ethnography, as the author uses own personal experiences as a woman who uses drugs, a feminist and a drug user advocate as a lens through which to give form to this analysis. Ultimately, the author argue that it is time to let go of outdated, unjust and prejudicial images by challenging established norms and practices, test and apply new theories and negotiate different identities outside of those currently available to women who use drugs. In undertaking this piece, the author hopes that the critical reflections contained within this chapter can ‘cause some trouble’, by being politically useful for the growing movement surrounding women who use drugs.

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Rosalien Alexandra van ’t Foort-Diepeveen, Aikaterini Argyrou and Tineke Lambooy

This paper aims to analyze the barriers discussed in the extant literature as to why women are underrepresented in the corporate top and explains how these barriers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the barriers discussed in the extant literature as to why women are underrepresented in the corporate top and explains how these barriers interrelate. An understanding of the interrelatedness of the barriers can help develop suitable and effective measures to improve women’s representation.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic review method was applied. The search resulted in 51 relevant academic articles from multiple disciplines which were used for the analysis.

Findings

Barriers identified include gender stereotypes, bias in recruitment and promotion, devaluation of women, masculine and long-hours organizational culture, work-family issues and the lack of professional support. The interrelatedness of these barriers is analyzed by means of a conceptual framework.

Research limitations/implications

The adopted method requires the use of search engines and search terms and consequently relevant articles may have been overlooked. The study is geographically demarcated to Europe and, hence is only applicable to developing suitable and effective measures in a European context. More research is needed into which measures are appropriate and effective to overcome the barriers identified.

Practical implications

The insights can be used by companies to foster gender equality and by companies and governments to develop appropriate and effective measures to overcome these barriers.

Originality/value

This review contributes to the literature by uncovering the interrelatedness of the barriers. Understanding the interrelatedness is crucial for developing appropriate measures to overcome the barriers and ultimately to achieve gender equality at the corporate top.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Abstract

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Abstract

Details

Sport, Gender and Mega-Events
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-937-6

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Susan Clark Muntean and Banu Ozkazanc-Pan

Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of womenʼs entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship…

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2850

Abstract

Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of womenʼs entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship field needs to recognize gendered assumptions in theorizing. Deploying a feminist framework, we suggest that understanding the “gender gap” in entrepreneurship requires focus on institutional and structural barriers women entrepreneurs face. Existing studies of women entrepreneurs often compare women with men without considering how gender and gender relations impact the very concepts and ideas of entrepreneurship. We propose, therefore, a conceptualization of entrepreneurship that illuminates gender bias and calls attention to the interrelated individual, institutional, and structural barriers in the entrepreneurial process that arrive out of societal and cultural gender norms. Through praxis or engaged practice, we redirect scholarship in the entrepreneurship field, while proposing ways that can promote gender equality in entrepreneurial activities. In all, our gender integrative conceptualization of entrepreneurship contributes to the entrepreneurship field by recognizing and addressing a more expansive realm of influential factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem that have previously been researched separately.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Ashraf R. El‐Ghannam

Many factors influence the participation of women in political life in Arab societies. Some of these factors contribute to women’s participation in political life, while…

Abstract

Many factors influence the participation of women in political life in Arab societies. Some of these factors contribute to women’s participation in political life, while others have a negative effect. In this study, the reasons for limited participation of women in Arab parliaments, ministers, and governmental councils are investigated. Its aim is to identify, explain, and determine the relationship between women’s participation in political life in Arab societies and social, educational, economical, cultural, and health factors. Secondary data from several sources are used. Social, educational, economical, cultural, and health factors are assumed to be independent variables. Women’s participation in political life is the dependent variable. The sample includes all Arab societies (22 countries). The results of correlation analysis indicate that family size, number of children in family, and fertility rate had a significant and negative association with women’s participation in political life, while percent of family in urban areas was significant and positively related to the same variable. The results of path analysis show that the percent of women in Arab parliaments and in governmental organizations had significant direct effects on women’s participation in political life, while life expectancy of women, GNP per capita, and families in rural areas had significant indirect effects. The most important recommendation, one that can be used as a plan for women’s future in Arab societies, is to improve the social condition of women and increase their participation in decisionmaking at the local and national levels and to create conditions that will enhance the position of women. This can be accomplished by following a comprehensive method aiming at deepening women’s consciousness of their political and legal rights.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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