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The focus of this chapter is the intersection of social media, publication, data sharing, and research ethics. By now there is an extensive literature on the use of social…
The focus of this chapter is the intersection of social media, publication, data sharing, and research ethics. By now there is an extensive literature on the use of social media in research. There is also excellent work on challenges of postpublication sharing of social media, primarily focused on legal restrictions, technical infrastructure, and documentation. This chapter attempts to build upon and extend this work by using cases to deepen the analysis of ethical issues arising from publishing and sharing social media data. Publishing will refer to the presentation of data extracts, aggregations, or summaries, while sharing refers to the practice of making the underlying data available postpublication for others to use. It will look at the ethical questions that arise both for researchers (or others) sharing data, and those who are using data that has been made available by others, emphasizing the inherently relational nature of data sharing. The ethical challenges researchers face when considering sharing user-generated content collected from social media platforms are the focus of the cases. The chapter begins by summarizing the general principles of research ethics, then identifies the specific ethical challenges from sharing social media data and positions these challenges in the context of these general principles. These challenges are then analyzed in more detail with cases from research projects that drew upon several different genres of social media. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for practical guidance and considers the future of ethical practice in sharing social media data.
This paper aims to explore how informal and socially situated learning and gendered practices impact the experiences of women learning to lead and the gendered dynamics…
This paper aims to explore how informal and socially situated learning and gendered practices impact the experiences of women learning to lead and the gendered dynamics inherent in women’s lived experiences of learning.
The authors adopt a becoming ontology and a social constructionist perspective. A qualitative approach guided by feminist principles facilitated the surfacing of rich and reflective accounts from women leaders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 women leader priests in Canada.
The authors highlight how gendered practices are concealed and revealed through informal learning processes and illustrate this through two themes, informal and socially situated learning as inductive and gendered, and the jolt of gender discrimination in informal learning.
While each account from the women church leaders is highly valued in its own right and the women’s stories have generated new insights, the overall data set is small and not generalizable. Future research should explore further the types of informal learning initiatives and systems, which acknowledge and best support women learning to lead in (gendered) organizations. It should also explore how informal learning informs leadership styles in this and other contexts.
The research demonstrates how informal learning experiences can serve as a site for invisible and unaccounted for gender bias and inform the becoming of women leaders. The research also advances the limited body of work that seeks to better understand the gender dynamics of women’s leadership in faith-based organizations.
Every few years we have analysed trends in prosecutions under the Food and Drugs Act, 1955 and the various regulations, chiefly for the purpose of ascertaining the principal causes for which proceedings are instituted and to detect changes, if any, from one survey to the next. The period covered in each survey has been three months, but not the same months of the year, and the material, the reports of proceedings received at the offices of the Journal from all parts of the country. In the present survey the method of classification has been the same as formerly, viz., to record prosecutions under similar headings to those under which cases are reported in the Journal with those where foreign material in the food constituted the offence separately identified. As it has appeared obvious for some time now that prosecutions for mouldy food were increasing, these too have been separately recorded.
Associations between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other conditions have been reported, but the links between FAS and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear…
Associations between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other conditions have been reported, but the links between FAS and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear. This study explored the relationship between FAS and ASD in individuals attending a specialist diagnostic clinic. Consecutive referrals over 24 months to a specialist neurodevelopmental clinic were evaluated using gold standard methods for FAS diagnosis and ASD. The first 18‐month cohort who met criteria for ASD were compared with controls attending the same clinic but who had not experienced prenatal alcohol exposure (nested data). Data for the whole group were also collected. Twenty‐one fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) individuals were assessed and 16 (72%) met ICD‐10 criteria for childhood autism. Further significant differences between the prenatally exposed and non‐exposed group with ASD were found in the nested study. The research shows an association between heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ASD. As this is a small sample in a specialist clinic, the study suggests that a larger, more population‐based study of those exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol is warranted.
A data fusion approach to the classification of eddy current and ultrasonic measurements is proposed in a context of defect detection/recognition methods for…
A data fusion approach to the classification of eddy current and ultrasonic measurements is proposed in a context of defect detection/recognition methods for non‐destructive testing/evaluation systems: the purpose is to demonstrate that a multi‐sensor approach that combines the advantages carried by each sensor is able to locate potential cracks on the inspected specimen. Different approaches have been compared: a pixel level data fusion approach, that distinguishes between the defect area and the no‐defect areas, by means of the information carried by the intensity of each pixel of the eddy current and ultrasonic data; a feature level data fusion approach that uses the features computed on the measured data; a symbol level data fusion approach that extracts symbols from the two sensors as complementary information and classifies the data by using these symbols. The experimental results, carried out on an aluminium plate, pointed out the ability of the symbol level proposed approach to classify the input images within a minimum overall error, by taking into account the probability of detection and the probability of false alarm for the defect.
Form and procedure for proof of analysis in prosecutions under food and drugs law has become so well established over the years that it is rare for it to be questioned. This was done, however, in a Scottish case, reported in this journal (B.F.J., Sept. 1965, 800, 124), in which, the Sheriff dismissed the case because inter alia, the certificate of analysis was not in the form required by the Act, i.e., the Food and Drugs (Scotland) Act, 1936. It appeared from the report of the case that the public analyst had not signed the certificate as such. The Sheriff is reported as saying “All one can say about this certificate is that it is a certificate signed by one named T. M. Clark, who is an analyst”.
At the Royal Society of Health annual conference, no less a person than the editor of the B.M.A.'s “Family Doctor” publications, speaking of the failure of the anti‐smoking campaign, said we “had to accept that health education did not work”; viewing the difficulties in food hygiene, there are many enthusiasts in public health who must be thinking the same thing. Dr Trevor Weston said people read and believed what the health educationists propounded, but this did not make them change their behaviour. In the early days of its conception, too much was undoubtedly expected from health education. It was one of those plans and schemes, part of the bright, new world which emerged in the heady period which followed the carnage of the Great War; perhaps one form of expressing relief that at long last it was all over. It was a time for rebuilding—housing, nutritional and living standards; as the politicians of the day were saying, you cannot build democracy—hadn't the world just been made “safe for democracy?”—on an empty belly and life in a hovel. People knew little or nothing about health or how to safeguard it; health education seemed right and proper at this time. There were few such conceptions in France which had suffered appalling losses; the poilu who had survived wanted only to return to his fields and womenfolk, satisfied that Marianne would take revenge and exact massive retribution from the Boche!
The purpose of this study is to investigate differences between individual and collective budgeting decisions with respect to budgetary slack creation and task…
The purpose of this study is to investigate differences between individual and collective budgeting decisions with respect to budgetary slack creation and task performance. While a great deal of research exists in the area of budgeting, to our knowledge, no prior studies have dealt with budget settings in a collective (e.g. small group or cross-functional team) environment. Accordingly, the current study examines differences in slack creation and task performance using a two (decision mode: individual vs. collective decision) by two (incentive contract: slack-inducing vs. truth inducing) between-subjects experimental design. A total of 295 students participated in the experiment (79 individuals and 72 three-person collective units). As expected, individuals and collective decision-makers created significantly more slack under a slack-inducing contract than a truth-inducing contract. Additionally, as anticipated, collective decision-makers created more slack than individuals under a slack-inducing contract. Unexpectedly, however, collective decision-makers created more slack than individuals using a truth-inducing contract. Task performance was significantly different between individuals and collective unit members, such that performance of former exceeded latter, as hypothesized. Finally, preliminary analysis indicated that choice shift occurred in the collective units, such that the units became more cautious in setting budget goals than individuals under both incentive contract conditions.