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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Bowen Zhang, Frank J. Mulhern, Yingying Wu, Margaret Xu, Wenqi Wang and Liang Gao

Recognizing the differences between generations Y and Z, this exploratory study uses generational cohort theory as a framework to examine the brand perception of…

Abstract

Purpose

Recognizing the differences between generations Y and Z, this exploratory study uses generational cohort theory as a framework to examine the brand perception of McDonald's, an international brand which has grown up with consumers for over 30 years in China. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Measures of brand perception was built based on Aaker's brand personality model. A total 1,103 valid questionnaires were collected through an online survey platform. Factor analysis is the primary method to analysis the data.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal a favourable brand perception of McDonald's among young Chinese consumers which is consistent with Aaker's brand personality model and support the use of generational cohort theory as a market segmentation tool for brand perception. The differences between the two generational cohorts are not shown to be significant.

Originality/value

The most important contribution of this study is the evaluation of the personality of a major brand in China for Gen Z, a topic with very little existing research. Also, this research suggests future in-depth research into generational cohort theory in a Chinese context by recognizing homogeneity and heterogeneity exist simultaneously between generational cohorts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Xiaoming Gong, Liang Gao, Yuan Chen and Zun Wu

This study aims to model collaborative product development (CPD) among a focal firm (FF) and a fairness-concerned external partner (EP). The model is used to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to model collaborative product development (CPD) among a focal firm (FF) and a fairness-concerned external partner (EP). The model is used to explore the impact of fairness concerns on revenue distributing contract and innovation efforts. The study also examines the role of follow-up sales in product development decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sequential game-theoretic model is developed to analyze product development decisions between the two parties, where participants exert innovation efforts to promote the product value and a revenue-sharing contract is used to distribute the revenue.

Findings

Fairness concern of EP has significant impacts on decisions. FF has incentives to change the contract in that fairness concerns might decrease his profit. Conditions and results change when the contract is endogenously decided. First, FF tends to develop the product independently. Second, FF may share a smaller revenue fraction with EP, as FF relies more on his own efforts during CPD. Third, FF cannot benefit from fairness concerns, as his profit is not higher than that in the benchmark. Finally, the existence of follow-up sales does not change FF’s decision about whether to collaborate with EP.

Originality/value

This study incorporates fairness preference into CPD decisions. Besides, a new concept of fairness called “effort-related fairness” is proposed.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Radwan Hussien Alkebsee, Gao-Liang Tian, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Abubakkar Siddique and Adeeb A. Alhebry

This study aims to investigate whether the presence of female directors on audit committees affects audit fees in Chinese listed companies. This study also investigates…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the presence of female directors on audit committees affects audit fees in Chinese listed companies. This study also investigates whether the audit committee’s gender diversity moderates the relationship between the firm’s inherent situational factors (e.g. audit complexity and firm risk) and audit fees. Finally, this study investigates whether the effect of the audit committee’s gender diversity on audit fees varies with within-country institutional contingencies (e.g. state-owned enterprises [SOEs] vs non-SOEs and firms that are located in more developed regions vs firms that are located in less developed regions)

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the data of all A-share listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges for the period from 2009 to 2015. The authors use ordinary least squares regression as a baseline methodology, along with firm fixed effect, Deference in Deference method, two-stage least squares regression, two-stage Heckman model and generalized method of moments models to control for the possible issue of endogeneity.

Findings

The study’s findings suggest that the presence of female directors on the audit committee improves internal monitoring and communication, which reduce the perceived audit risk and the need for assurances from external auditors. The results also suggest that female directors demand high-quality audits and further assurance from external auditors when the firm is more complex and riskier. In addition, the results suggest that within-country, institutional factors play significant role in shaping the governance role of gender-diverse audit committee.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the agency theory by providing evidence that the interaction between agency theory and corporate governance “board composition” generates an effective monitoring mechanism and contributing to the institutional theory by finding that role of female directors on audit committee varies from context to another. In addition, this study contributes to literature review of gender diversity in the boardroom by finding the economic benefit of having female directors on audit committee. Finally, this study has implications for policy-makers in promoting regulations to legalize women presence on the board, to external auditors in assessing control risk during planning the audit, to those who responsible for appointing audit committee members.

Originality/value

The authors extend earlier studies by providing novel evidence on the relationship between gender-diverse audit committees and audit fees in terms of both the supply- and demand-side perspectives; that female directors moderate the relationship between firm inherent situational factors (e.g. audit complexity and firm risk) and audit fees; and that the effect of audit committees’ gender diversity on audit fees varies with sub-national institutional contingencies.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Xiwen Cai, Haobo Qiu, Liang Gao, Xiaoke Li and Xinyu Shao

This paper aims to propose hybrid global optimization based on multiple metamodels for improving the efficiency of global optimization.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose hybrid global optimization based on multiple metamodels for improving the efficiency of global optimization.

Design/methodology/approach

The method has fully utilized the information provided by different metamodels in the optimization process. It not only imparts the expected improvement criterion of kriging into other metamodels but also intelligently selects appropriate metamodeling techniques to guide the search direction, thus making the search process very efficient. Besides, the corresponding local search strategies are also put forward to further improve the optimizing efficiency.

Findings

To validate the method, it is tested by several numerical benchmark problems and applied in two engineering design optimization problems. Moreover, an overall comparison between the proposed method and several other typical global optimization methods has been made. Results show that the global optimization efficiency of the proposed method is higher than that of the other methods for most situations.

Originality/value

The proposed method sufficiently utilizes multiple metamodels in the optimizing process. Thus, good optimizing results are obtained, showing great applicability in engineering design optimization problems which involve costly simulations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Xianchuan Shi, Liang Gao, Lei Qian, Mingya Cheng and Kyle Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to develop a coiling robot in the production of coated elevator compensation chains to replace the manual coiling operations and improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a coiling robot in the production of coated elevator compensation chains to replace the manual coiling operations and improve the quality of compensation chains.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces both mechanical and servo control system designs of the coiling robot. The structure of two friction wheels stabilizes the conveying speed of compensation chain, so the chain speed matches with the car speed. A centering mechanism pushes the chain to its original position. Seven servo motors are integrated into the system, and they are controlled by a servo control system based on programmable logic controller, positioning controller, analog output block and touch screen.

Findings

The results of the project show that the coiling robot can both greatly reduce the number of workers and the intensity of the work and improve the quality of the chain. The chain lid by the robot is not only neat, but also uniform in its inner stress.

Research limitations/implications

When the output speed of the compensation chain from the rear friction wheel does not match the coiling speed, the coiling operation has to be halted. Then, the operator adjusts the chain speed and restarts the coiling operation.

Practical implications

The coiling robot is proven working. It has been adopted by a leading company manufacturing compensation chains.

Originality/value

This is the first coiling robot which is practically used in a production line of compensation chains. Its design, mechanism and control systems are of great reference values to people.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Hua Feng, Ahsan Habib and Gao liang Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing the special institutional background of China, this study constructs tax aggressiveness and stock price synchronicity measures for a large sample of Chinese stocks spanning the period 2003–2015. The authors employ OLS regression as the baseline methodology, and a fixed effect model, the Fama–Macbeth method and GMM as sensitivity checks. Matched samples and difference-in-difference analyses are used to control for endogeneity.

Findings

The authors find a significant and positive association between aggressive tax planning and stock price synchronicity. Because material information about risky tax transactions tends to be hidden in various tax accruals accounts, aggressive tax strategies make financial statements less transparent, thereby, increasing information asymmetry and decreasing stock price informativeness. The authors also find that the firms engaging in aggressive tax planning exhibit relatively high corporate opacity. In addition, the authors find that improvements in the tax enforcement regime, ownership status and high-quality auditors all constrain the adverse effects of tax aggressiveness.

Practical implications

This study has important practical implications for China’s regulators, who are striving to reduce the tax burden of enterprises. It also helps investors to consider investment decisions more appropriately from a taxation perspective.

Originality/value

First, this paper contributes to the stock price efficiency literature by identifying the effect of a hitherto unexamined factor, namely, firm-level aggressive tax planning, on the efficiency of stock prices. Second, this study provides further empirical evidence to support the agency view of tax aggressiveness, and the informational interpretation of stock price synchronicity. Third, this study helps us better understand the effects of firm-level tax policy on firm-specific information capitalization in an environment where overall country-level investor protection is relatively weak.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Jun Zheng, Zilong Li, Liang Gao and Guosheng Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to efficiently use as few sample points as possible to get a sufficiently explored design space and an accurate optimum for adaptive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to efficiently use as few sample points as possible to get a sufficiently explored design space and an accurate optimum for adaptive metamodel-based design optimization (AMBDO).

Design/methodology/approach

A parameterized lower confidence bounding (PLCB) scheme is proposed in which a cooling strategy is introduced to guarantee the balance between exploitation and exploration by varying weights of the predicting error and optimum of a metamodel. The proposed scheme is investigated by a set of test functions and a structural optimization problem, in which PLCB with four kinds of cooling control functions are studied. Moreover, other infill criteria (such as expected improvement and its extension versions) are taken into comparison.

Findings

Results show that the proposed PLCB (especially PLCB with the first cooling control function) based AMBDO method can find the optimum with fewer evaluations and maintain good accuracy, which means the proposed PLCB contributes to the excellent efficiency and accuracy in finding global optimal solutions.

Originality/value

The parameterized version of the lower confidence bound metric is proposed for AMBDO, typically used in the context of adaptive sampling in efficient global optimization.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2003

Fengru Li and Nader H. Shooshtari

Applying brand names to international markets remains a challenge to multinational corporations. Consumers’ sociolinguistic backgrounds shape their responses to brand…

Abstract

Applying brand names to international markets remains a challenge to multinational corporations. Consumers’ sociolinguistic backgrounds shape their responses to brand names. This paper uses a sociolinguistic approach as a conceptual framework in understanding brand naming and translating in the Chinese market. The approach promotes that sociolinguistics a) recognizes linguistic competence, b) advances symbolic values imbedded in linguistic forms, and c) renders attached social valence to cultural scrutiny. Three brand‐naming cases in China are presented for discussion, which may benefit multinational corporations on brand decisions involving Chinese consumers.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Daniel Espinosa Sáez, Paola Andrea Ortiz-Rendón and José Luis Munuera Alemán

This paper aims to examine the relationship between control mechanisms and marketing performance based on a sample of marketing managers. To that end, this paper focuses…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between control mechanisms and marketing performance based on a sample of marketing managers. To that end, this paper focuses on the relationship between the types of controls used in marketing and the market and business results.

Methodology

This study collected the data through a survey among marketing professionals with experience and decision-making capacity involving marketing budgets and plans, in practical terms a sample of 97 marketing managers and analyzed the data via a structural equation model using Smart PLS 3.

Findings

The findings confirm that marketing control mechanisms have a significant impact on business results, demonstrating the relationship of formal controls with market results and the relationship between informal controls with financial results. Likewise, the authors were able to prove that there is a relationship between formal and informal control.

Practical implications

The implementation of the control mechanisms should be based on the development of a detailed evaluation system of the activities carried out by the marketing employees and an analysis of their capabilities and abilities. In addition, managers should integrate formal control decisions into their marketing strategy to improve organizational results.

Originality

The results of this study help explain the relationship between marketing control mechanisms and organizational results and allow to understand what the level of influence is that marketing control mechanisms have on market and financial results.

Objetivo

Examinar la relación entre los mecanismos de control y los resultados a partir de una muestra de directores de marketing. Con ese fin, el documento se centra en la relación entre los tipos de controles utilizados en marketing y los resultados de mercado y financieros.

Metodología

Los datos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta entre profesionales del marketing con experiencia y capacidad de toma de decisiones sobre presupuestos y planes de marketing. Contando con una muestra de 97 gerentes de marketing. Los datos se analizaron mediante un modelo de ecuación estructural (SEM) utilizando Smart PLS 3.

Hallazgos

Se confirma el impacto significativo de los mecanismos de control de marketing sobre los resultados organizacionales, demostrando la relación del control formal con los resultados de mercado, y la relación entre el control informal con los resultados financieros. Asimismo, se pudo comprobar que existe una relación entre el control formal e informal.

Originalidad

Los resultados ayudan a explicar la relación entre los mecanismos de control de marketing y los resultados organizacionales, y permiten comprender cuál es el nivel de influencia que tienen los mecanismos de control de marketing sobre los resultados de mercado y los financieros.

Implicaciones prácticas

La implementación de los mecanismos de control debe basarse en el desarrollo de un sistema de evaluación detallado de las actividades realizadas por los empleados de marketing y un análisis de sus capacidades y habilidades. Además, los gerentes deben integrar las decisiones de control formal en su estrategia de marketing para mejorar los resultados organizacionales.

Palabras clave

Control formal, Control informal, Resultados de mercado, Resultados financieros, Departamento de marketing, Calidad del producto, Cobertura de mercado, Precio relativo, Valor de la marca, Lealtad, Marketing digital

Tipo de artículo – Trabajo de investigacion

目的

基于对营销经理的抽样调查, 研究控制机制与营销业绩之间的关系。为此, 本文着重研究了市场营销中使用的控制类型与市场和经营结果之间的关系。

设计/方法/途径

我们通过对具有涉及营销预算和计划的经验和决策能力的营销专业人员的调查来收集数据, 实际上是对97名营销经理的抽样调查, 并通过使用Smart PLS 3的结构方程模型(SEM)来分析数据。

研究结果

研究结果证实, 营销控制机制对商业结果有重大影响, 证明了正式控制与市场结果的关系, 以及非正式控制与财务结果的关系。同样, 我们也能够证明正式控制和非正式控制之间存在着关系。

原创性/价值

本研究的结果有助于解释营销控制机制与组织结果之间的关系, 使我们能够了解营销控制机制对市场和财务结果的影响程度如何。

实践意义

控制机制的实施应该建立在对营销员工所进行的活动制定详细的评估体系, 以及对他们的能力和水平进行分析的基础上。此外, 管理者应将正式的控制决策纳入其营销战略, 以提高组织结果。

关键词

正式控制;非正式控制;市场结果;财务结果;营销部门;产品质量;市场覆盖率;相对价格;品牌价值;忠诚度;数字营销

纸张类型 – 研究论文

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2022

Yanqin Wang, Lulu Wang, Xiao Yan Liu, Hongru Yang, Yuan Zhang and Xiaosong Zhu

The effects of the thermo-mechanical treatment on the properties and microstructure of the Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy were investigated.

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Abstract

Purpose

The effects of the thermo-mechanical treatment on the properties and microstructure of the Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A short-duration preprecipitation process is designed prior to predeformation aging. The novel predeformation aging (solution treatment + holding at 185 °C for 15 min+ rolling deformation + aging at 185 °C, also named T8) was performed on a heat-resistant Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy.

Findings

The purpose of this study indicate that a short-duration heat treatment before predeformation is beneficial to the precipitation of O during the aging process. The precursors of O during this process might pin the dislocation and cause the grains to orient along some specific direction, which might be advantageous to the precipitation of O while disadvantageous to that of θ′. This novel thermal-mechanical process could result in an increase in the quantity and decrease in the size of the precipitation of O, which leads to a remarkable strength effect. The potential increases while the current density decreases with an increase in the deformation amount, which implies a smaller intergranular corrosion rate. The fine deformed structure leads to an opposite behavior in the exfoliation corrosion test compared with that for intergranular corrosion.

Originality/value

The intergranular corrosion resistance of the Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy is enhanced, whereas the exfoliation corrosion resistance is reduced by novel predeformation aging.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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