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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Fangfang Liu, Jingfan Wang, Lijuan Chen, Ruijun Li, Haojie Xia and Liandong Yu

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increasing demand for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures. Recently, the authors presented a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) probe for true three-dimensional coordinate measurement, in which a specific mechanical structure with several FBG sensors was developed to provide the probe with sensitivity to loading in all directions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system based on an improved matched filter design and the time division multiplexing technique that helps solve the problem of multiplex FBG-signals conflicts. In addition, the application of the dynamic mode of the probe system effectively solves the problem presented by the surface interaction forces.

Findings

Consequently, this FBG-based vibrating probe system has increased sensitivity to strain, while maintaining smaller contact force. The experiments for testing probe performance show that the prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Research limitations/implications

The force tests in the horizontal directions are difficult to conduct because both the probe and the dynamometer are only adaptable to vertical use.

Practical implications

Development of the FBG-based dynamic nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe will achieve a new and inexpensive method for higher-accuracy dimensional measurements of nano- and micro-structures, such as micro-electromechanical systems, micro-fluidic chips, inkjet and diesel engine injector nozzles that are in overall dimensions within the micrometer scale.

Originality/value

The study presents a three-dimensional sensing and demodulation system for the vibrating nano-coordinate-measuring machine probe based on FBG sensors. The prototype yielded a measurement resolution of 13 nm, a repeatability of 50 nm and a vertical measurement force of less than1.5 mN.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Yujia He

Rare earths are essential materials for many high-tech industries critical to both economic development and national defense. China, the world's dominant supplier of rare…

Abstract

Purpose

Rare earths are essential materials for many high-tech industries critical to both economic development and national defense. China, the world's dominant supplier of rare earths, has recently been imposing stricter controls over its production and export. The purpose of this paper is to examine the domestic roots of the changes in China's rare earth industry production and exports in its three-decade rise to the current global monopoly.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the historical institutionalism approach to analyze the trajectory of industry and trade development. The author analyzes data collected from government whitepapers and reputed scholarly and news sources.

Findings

This paper argues that the Chinese rare earth industry has gone through three periods of development, in which the state attempted to control the market and industry through reformulating rules and institutions to achieve state goals. Domestic state institutions, combined with macroeconomic environment and state governance strategy shaped the three-decade experience of rare earth industry and trade development in China.

Originality/value

This paper builds on existing findings about Chinese state regulations to provide a novel analytical framework to analyze the role of the state in industry and trade development in the rare earth industry. The focus on a single strategic industry seldom studied in the current literature also provides ample empirical value to further scholarly understanding about this industry.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Ali Alnaas and Afzalur Rashid

This paper aims to examine the influence of firm characteristics on harmonisation of companies listed on the Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia Stock Exchanges.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of firm characteristics on harmonisation of companies listed on the Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia Stock Exchanges.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a checklist based mainly on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Findings

The findings of the study are 6that the level of compliance with IFRS was higher in 2010 than in 2005. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the level of compliance with IFRS increases with company size, institutional ownership, industry and language of disclosure.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study suggest that both institutional- and firm-level forces influence the harmonisation process.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on accounting harmonisation in the context of North Africa.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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